Types of Cultural Studies
Roll No :- 08 M.A. Sem :- 2 Year :- 2015-16
Paper :- 08 Cultural Studies
Submitted to :
Department of English
• ‘ Culture is derives from Latin word ‘ cultura ’.
• to ‘ honour ’ and ‘ protect ’.
• Culture is a symbolic communication.
• Culture is the systems of knowledge shared by
a relatively large group of people.
• “ Culture is the learned behaviour of society
or a subgroup.”
What is Culture ?
Types of Cultural Studies
• Cultural studies is referred to as “cultural
materialism in Britain.
• Mathew Arnold redefine the givens of British
• Edward Tylor argued that “Culture or civilization
taken in its widest ethnographic sense is a
complex whole which‘ includes knowledge ,belief,
art, morals, Law custom and any other
capabilities and habits acquired by man as a
member of society.”
British cultural materialism
• Cultural Materialism began in
1950s with the work of F.R.Leavis
and heavily influenced by
• Raymond Williams talks about
attributes of working class and
• “ There are no masses ; there are
only ways of seeing people as
New Historicism is a school of literary theory, first
developed in 1980. The term ‘New historicism’
was created by the American critic Stephen
New Historicism is a literary theory based on the
idea that literature should be studied and
interpreted within the context of both the history
of the author and the history of the critic.
• “ New historicism is
that it is a method
based on the parallel
reading of literary and
usually of the same
historical period ”.
• “ Text is historical and
history is textual.”
• As a philosophy, multiculturalism began as
part of the Pragmatism movement at the end
of the 19th century in Europe and the United
States. American multiculturalism was come
into existence in 1964 with the passing Civil
• “Every American should
understand Mexico from the
point of view of the observer of
the conquest and of the history
before the conquest……”
• The term “postmodernism” first entered the
philosophical lexicon in 1979, with the
publication of The Postmodern Condition by
Post modernism and popular culture
• Popular culture is the entirely of ideas,
perspective, attitudes, images and other
Phenomena that are within the main stream
of a given culture, especially western culture
of the early to mid-20th century and the
emerging global mainstream of the late 20th
and early 21th century.
• There are four main types of popular culture
studies analyses like:
• Post colonial theory is an
academic discipline featuring
intellectual discourse that
analyze, explain, and respond to
the cultural legacies
of colonialism and of imperialism.
Post colonial studies
• These Cultural Studies exists with particular
ideas which shows particular cultural world.
Sometimes popular culture can so overtake
and repackage a literary work that it is
impossible to read the original text without
reference to the many layers of popular
culture that have developed around it.