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  • comes from Greek word mysterion and Latin sacramentum the word " sacrament " refers to seven particular rites or rituals performed in and by the Church
  • "I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."
(the " Trinitarian Formula ," from Matt 28:19) Some Protestants baptize "in the name of Jesus"; see Acts 2 & 10) The candidate is immersed in water, or water is poured over the candidate's head.
  • Matt 28:19 - Jesus commissions the apostles: "Go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" John 3:22; 4:1-2 - Jesus' first disciples baptize other disciples Acts 2:38-41; 10:47-48 - new believers are baptized "in the name of Jesus" by Peter & others;( not just Jesus' own baptism: Mark 1:9-11 & par.)
  • Being spiritually nourished by Christ's body and blood Being united "in communion" with Christ and other believers. Performed by Bishops or Priests
  • Mark 14:22-25; Matt 26:26-30; Luke 22:14-23; 1 Cor 11:23-25 - Jesus' "Last Supper" with his disciples John 6: 48-58 - the end of the Bread of Life discourse: "eat my flesh; drink my blood" Luke 24:35; Acts 2:42 - Christians gather for the "Breaking of the Bread"
  • "This is my body... This is my blood..." (the " Words of Institution " from the Last Supper) The bread and wine are blessed/consecrated by the minister and received/shared by the communicants.
  • Purpose: Strengthened by Holy Spirit “ Confirmed” in fullness of Christian faith Ministers: Bishops; In some cases Priests
  • John 20:22 - "(Jesus) breathed on them (the disciples) and said, 'Receive the Holy Spirit'"; Acts 8:17; 19:6 - believers receive the Spirit, esp. through laying on of the apostle's hands Acts 10:44-48 - the coming of the Spirit is closely associated with the Baptism of new believers
  • "(Name), be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit.” Laying on of hands (the bishop lays his hands on the head of the confirmed).
  • Purpose: Begin forgiven of one's sins being reconciled to God the Church, and other people. Performed by Bishops or Priests
  • John 20:23 - "If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained"; Matt 16:19; 18:18 - more sayings on "binding and loosing"; James 5:16 - "confess your sins to one another"
  • "I forgive you of all of your sins, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (the " Words of Absolution ") The penitent confesses his sins, expresses contrition, and proposes amendment; the confessor suggests a penance and speaks the words of absolution.
  • Mark 6:7-13 - Jesus' disciples "anointed with oil many who were sick and healed them” James 5:14-16 - "call for the elders of the church and have them pray over (the sick), anointing them with oil in the names of the Lord."
  • "Through this holy anointing may the Lord in his love and mercy help you with the grace of the Holy Spirit. May the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up." The minister anointing the sick persons forehead and hands with blessed oil
  • Being united ("one flesh") in God's eyes; becoming a publicly and legally recognized couple. Performed by the couple themselves; clergy are the official witnesses
  • Gen 2:24 - "a man leaves his parents and clings to his wife and they become one flesh” Mark 10:2-12; Matt 19:1-9 - Jesus teaches against divorce; "What God has joined together, let no one separate” Eph 5:22-33; 1Cor 7:10-16 - Paul stresses the unity of husbands and wives not simply Jesus' presence at the wedding at Cana, John 2:1-11
  • "I, (name), take you, (name), to be my husband/wife. I promise to be true to you in good times and in bad, in sickness and in health. I will love you and honor you all the days of my life." The husband and wife make these promises to each other publicly. Rings are exchanged as a visible sign of this verbal commitment.
  • Becoming member of "ordained" clergy, the church's official leadership "orders” Ordination for: Bishops Priests Deacons Ministers: Bishops
  • Mark 3:13-19 - Jesus "calls" and "appoints" the 12 apostles Acts 6:6; 1 Tim 4:14; 5:22; 2 Tim 1:6 - "laying on of hands" as the "ordaining" or commissioning rite of local Christian leaders
  • A long "Prayer of Consecration" The bishop lays his hands on the ordinand's head; he also anoints his hands and performs several other symbolic gestures
  • Sacraments

    1. 1. ChristianSacraments SCTR 19 – Religions of the Book Prepared by Sean Hind
    2. 2. What is a Sacrament?• Definitions: • Latin: sacramentum; Greek: mysterion • Rites/rituals performed in/by the Church, to convey God’s “grace” to believers• Number of Sacraments? • Catholics & Orthodox Christians: seven • Most Protestants: only two (Bapt. & Euch.)• Aspects of each Sacrament: • Effects & Ministers • Biblical Basis • Central Words & Actions
    3. 3. Types of Sacraments• Sacraments of Initiation: • Baptism • Confirmation • Eucharist• Sacraments of Healing: • Penance/Reconciliation • Anointing of the Sick• Sacraments of Vocation: • Marriage/Matrimony • Holy Orders
    4. 4. Baptism• Effects: • Gk. baptizo = “dipped/immersed” in water. • Becoming a member of Christ’s Church. • Having ones sins forgiven.• Ministers: • Bishops • Priests • Deacons • Anyone! (in case of urgent need)
    5. 5. Central Words & Actions Baptism• Words: • "I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.”• Actions: • Full immersion in water, or pouring water over head • Sprinkling or dabbing? • Infants? or only Adults? • Other symbols: anointing; candles, white garment
    6. 6. Biblical Basis: Baptism• Jesus’ Commands: • Matt 28:19• Evangelists’ Theology: • John 3:22; 4:1-2• Early Church Practice: • Acts 2:38-41; 10:47-48 • Etc.
    7. 7. Eucharist• Effects: • Spiritually nourished by body & blood of Christ. • United "in communion" with Christ & community. •Gk. Eucharistia = “thanksgiving” prayer• Ministers: • Bishops • Priests
    8. 8. Biblical Basis: Eucharist• Jesus’ Last Supper: • Mark 14:22-25 • Matt 26; Luke 22; 1 Cor 11• Gospel Theology: • John 6:48-58• Early Xn Practice: • Luke 24:35 • Acts 2:42; etc.
    9. 9. Central Words & Actions Eucharist• Words: • Long prayer of “Thanksgiving” • Esp. the Words of Institution: “This is my body…” “This is my blood…”• Actions: • Bread and wine blessed by minister; received/shared by communicants.
    10. 10. Confirmation• Effects: • Strengthened by the Holy Spirit. • “Confirmed” in the fullness of Christian faith.• Ministers: • Bishops • Priests (in some cases)
    11. 11. Biblical Basis: Confirmation• Jesus: • John 20:22• Apostles: • Acts 8:17; 19:6 • Acts 10:44-48
    12. 12. Central Words & Actions Confirmation• Words: • "(Name), be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit.”• Actions: • Bishop lays his hands on the head of the confirmed
    13. 13. Penance/Reconciliation• Effects: • Forgiven of ones sins • Reconciled to God • Reconciled to others• Ministers: • Bishops • Priests
    14. 14. Biblical Basis Penance/Reconciliation• Jesus: Forgive! • John 20:23 • Matt 16:19; 18:18• James: Confess! • James 5:16
    15. 15. Central Words & Actions Penance/Reconciliation• Words: • "I forgive you of all of your sins, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit"• Actions: • confesses his sins • expresses contrition • proposes amendment
    16. 16. Anointing of the Sick• Effects: • Being strengthened in time of illness. • United in prayer with the community. • Physically/psychologically healed?• Ministers: • Bishops • Priests
    17. 17. Biblical Basis Anointing of the Sick• Disciples anoint the sick: • Mark 6:7-13• Call elders to pray/anoint: • James 5:14-16
    18. 18. Central Words & Actions Anointing of the Sick• Words: • "Through this holy anointing may the Lord in his love and mercy help you with the grace of the Holy Spirit. May the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up."• Actions: • Anointing sick person’s forehead &hands with blessed oil
    19. 19. Matrimony/Marriage• Effects: • United in eyes of God & church. • Legally recognized as a couple.• Ministers: • The couple themselves! • Clergy are merely witnesses!
    20. 20. Biblical Basis Matrimony/Marriage• God creates M & F: • Gen 2:24• Jesus vs. Divorce: • Mark 10:2-12; Matt 19:1-9• Paul on spousal unity: • Eph 5:22-33; 1Cor 7:10-16
    21. 21. Central Words & Actions Matrimony/Marriage• Words: • "I, (name), take you, (name), to be my husband/wife. I promise to be true to you…”• Actions: • Husband & wife publicly promise fidelity & love. • Optional: exchange of rings, lighting of candles, etc.
    22. 22. Holy Orders• Effects: • Becoming "ordained" clergy, in leadership “orders”: • Bishops • Priests • Deacons• Ministers: • only Bishops
    23. 23. Biblical Basis Holy Orders• Jesus chooses Apostles: • Mark 3:13-19; etc.• Laying on of Hands: • Acts 6:6 • 1 Tim 4:14; 5:22 • 2 Tim 1:6
    24. 24. Central Words & Actions Holy Orders• Words: • "Prayer of Consecration”• Actions: • Laying hands on ordinand’s head • Anointing hands with holy oil • Several other symbolic gestures
    25. 25. Summary• Seven Sacraments (Cath.): • Baptism • Eucharist • Confirmation • Penance/Reconciliation • Anointing of the Sick • Matrimony/Marriage • Holy Orders• Two Sacraments (Prot.): • Baptism • Eucharist