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Holy orders


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Holy orders

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Holy Orders
  2. 2. WHAT DOES HOLY ORDERS CELEBRATE? The Ministry of Jesus: Jesus as Priest – The early Christian communities viewed Jesus as the one and only high priest – The image of Jesus as the one true high priest offering himself in sacrifice on the cross was linked to Christians’ celebration of the eucharistic meal
  3. 3. WHAT DOES HOLY ORDERS CELEBRATE? The Ministry of Jesus: Jesus as Priest – Celebrating the Eucharist was the central expression of faith for Christians
  4. 4. WHAT DOES HOLY ORDERS CELEBRATE? The Ministry of Jesus: Jesus as Prophet – someone who unceasingly reminds people about God and God’s ways – God’s word was revealed not only in Jesus’ spoken words but in the flesh-and-blood reality of his life – Ordained ministers serve as living reminders of Christ’s prophetic message
  5. 5. WHAT DOES HOLY ORDERS CELEBRATE? The Ministry of Jesus as Leader – , Jesus’ disciples had a strong sense that he was the Messiah, the Anointed One sent by God to usher in God’s Reign – But Jesus did not meet the expectations they had of a messiah-king – Jesus kind of leadership confounded them
  6. 6. WHAT DOES HOLY ORDERS CELEBRATE? The Ministry of Jesus as Leader – Jesus did not terrorize or manipulate people in any way to get them to follow him but instead he treated them with compassion and respect, forgave their sins, healed their wounds, and gave them nourishment for both body and soul
  7. 7. WHAT DOES HOLY ORDERS CELEBRATE?The Ministry of Jesus: Jesus as Leader Cont – Jesus turned the disciples’ expectations of him as a leader upside-down – Jesus teaches his followers that loving service to one another is to be the hallmark of Christian life and leadership
  8. 8. The Church: A Priestly People New Testament tells us that every person who has been baptized into the Body of Christ is called to share in the ministry of Jesus as a member of a holy and royal priesthood Every Christian can minister in a priestly role, a prophetic role, and a servant-leader role
  9. 9. Ordained Ministers:Representing Christ Apostolic succession – a continuous link between the authority given the Apostles by Christ and the authority of validly ordained bishops through the ages Priests and bishops represent Christ and act in the name of Christ Catholic teaching ordain only men and that the ordination of women is not possible – Jesus chose men, not women, to be his Apostles
  10. 10. The Functions of the Ordained Bishops – United with the pope as a sign of the oneness of the universal church – Have the fullness of the Holy Orders and are entrusted with these key tasks:  Leading worship and sacraments  Teaching  Pastoral governance Priests – Priests are coworkers with the bishop, they share the responsibility for worship, teaching, and governing Deacons – Directly connected with a bishop, they serve by helping to carry out tasks
  11. 11. Celibacy: The Gift of Self to God Catholic priests and bishops are celibate – They do not marry and they pledge not to have intimate sexual relationships A married man may be ordained to a permanent deacon but a deacon who is single may not marry The choice of celibacy is a way of giving oneself entirely to the service of God and God’s people
  12. 12. The Laying On of Hands The laying on of hands is one of the main symbolic action in the sacrament of Holy Orders – Seen it in the sacraments of Confirmation, Reconciliation, and Anointing of the Sick It symbolizes and brings about the candidate’s empowerment by the Spirit Collegiality – bishops, priests, and deacons are part of an order, with shared, interrelated responsibilities, and they are to collaborate with one another as brothers
  13. 13. The First Century:Shared Leadership The Catholic church traces ordained ministry back to the Apostles The current structure of ordained ministry took time to evolve in the early church From the beginning, leadership in the Christian churches was a shared ministry Early on, it became common to elect either a person or a group to take the leadership role both in coordinating the various service activities of local communities and in presiding at the Eucharist
  14. 14. The Second to the Sixth Centuries:Changes in Roles and Power Church leadership roles became more specialized The orders of bishops and presbyters (later called “priests”) gained more prominence The power and authority of priests increased Bishops delegated more and more responsibility to priests in order to keep up with the growing number of church communities Priests and bishops acted as judges and counselors in the Roman government
  15. 15. The Sixth Century to the Reformation:The Class of the clergy The influence of monastic life had a great deal to do with the distinction between bishops and priests Some early Christians felt drawn to living apart from society in an isolated communities called monasteries – Through their solitude, they tried to experience Christ in a more intimate way Priesthood began to mirror characteristics of monastic life – Priests dressed differently from other people and followed many of the spiritual practices and prayers of monasticism
  16. 16. Reforms with the Council of Trent Luther and other reformers protested that many priests were not well trained and were careless in their duties and that bishops often abused their religious authority to gain political influence Responding indirectly to these criticisms, the Catholic church’s Council of Trent set out to establish a more better educated clergy than the existed one during the Middle Ages
  17. 17. Since Vatican Council II The Second Vatican Council sought to get back to some of the root traditions of the early church – Changes in emphasis in the church’s understanding of ordained ministry – Service was stressed more than power and authority – Mutual decision making was now called for Bishops, priests, and deacons were encouraged to work along with laypeople in helping to provide for the spiritual need of the community Emphasis in the ordained ministry – Catholics distributing Communion – Reading the Scriptures – Serving as ordained deacons Emphasis in the lay ministry – Many of the functions that’s used to be done by priests are now being done by laypeople  Does the changes obscure the distinct and essential role of ordained ministers?  No, because by the sacrament of Holy Orders, they are empowered to teach, to preside at the sacraments, and to govern in the name of