ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

2
ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

3
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
• Consists of two semi-independent parts
– Lymphatic vessels
– Lymphoid tissues and organs

• Lymphat...
LYMPHATIC CHARACTERISTICS
• Lymph – excess tissue fluid carried by
lymphatic vessels
• Properties of lymphatic vessels
– O...
LYMPHATIC VESSELS
• Lymph Capillaries
– Walls overlap to form flap-like minivalves
– Fluid leaks into lymph capillaries
– ...
LYMPHATIC VESSELS

ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

7
LYMPHATIC VESSELS
Lymphatic collecting vessels
•Collects lymph from lymph
capillaries
•Carries lymph to and away
from lymp...
LYMPH
• Materials returned to the blood
– Water
– Blood cells
– Proteins

• Harmful materials that enter lymph vessels
– B...
LYMPH NODES
• Filter lymph before it is returned to the blood
• Defense cells within lymph nodes
– Macrophages – engulf an...
LYMPH NODES

ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

11
LYMPH NODE STRUCTURE
• Most are kidney-shaped, less than 1 inch long
• Cortex
– Outer part
– Contains follicles – collecti...
LYMPH NODE STRUCTURE

ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

13
OTHER LYMPHOID ORGANS
• Several other organs contribute to lymphatic
function
– Spleen
– Thymus
– Tonsils
– Peyer’s patche...
THE SPLEEN
•
•
•
•
•

Located on the left side of the abdomen
Filters blood
Destroys worn out blood cells
Forms blood cell...
ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

16
ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

17
ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

18
THE THYMUS
• Located low in the throat, overlying the heart
• Functions at peak levels only during childhood
• Produces ho...
ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

20
ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

21
ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

22
TONSILS
• Small masses of lymphoid tissue around the
pharynx
• Trap and remove bacteria and other foreign
materials
• Tons...
ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

24
MUCOSA-ASSOCIATED LYMPHATIC TISSUE (MALT)
• Includes:
– Peyer’s patches
– Tonsils
– Other small accumulations of lymphoid ...
PEYER’S PATCHES
• Found in the wall of the small intestine
• Resemble tonsils in structure
• Capture and destroy bacteria ...
ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

27
BODY DEFENSES
• The body is constantly in contact with
bacteria, fungi, and viruses
• The body has two defense systems for...
BODY DEFENSES

ANATOMY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

29
NONSPECIFIC BODY DEFENSES
• Body surface coverings
– Intact skin
– Mucous membranes

• Specialized human cells
• Chemicals...
SURFACE MEMBRANE BARRIERS – FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE

• The skin
– Physical barrier to foreign materials
– pH of the skin is ...
DEFENSIVE CELLS
• Phagocytes
(neutrophils and macrophages)
– Engulfs foreign material into a vacuole
– Enzymes from lysoso...
DEFENSIVE CELLS
• Natural killer cells
– Can lyse and kill cancer cells
– Can destroy virus- infected cells

ANATOMY

h_no...
INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE - SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE
• Triggered when body tissues are injured
• Produces four cardinal signs
– ...
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE LYMPHATIC
SYSTEM AND BODY DEFENSES
• Except for thymus and spleen, the lymphoid
organs are po...
Unit 11 Lymphatic System
Unit 11 Lymphatic System
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Unit 11 Lymphatic System

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Unit 11 Lymphatic System

  1. 1. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 2
  2. 2. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 3
  3. 3. THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM • Consists of two semi-independent parts – Lymphatic vessels – Lymphoid tissues and organs • Lymphatic system functions – Transport fluids back to the blood – Play essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 4
  4. 4. LYMPHATIC CHARACTERISTICS • Lymph – excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels • Properties of lymphatic vessels – One way system toward the heart – No pump – Lymph moves toward the heart • Milking action of skeletal muscle • Rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle in vessel walls ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 5
  5. 5. LYMPHATIC VESSELS • Lymph Capillaries – Walls overlap to form flap-like minivalves – Fluid leaks into lymph capillaries – Capillaries are anchored to connective tissue by filaments – Higher pressure on the inside closes minivalves • Lymphatic collecting vessels – Collects lymph from lymph capillaries – Carries lymph to and away from lymph nodes ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 6
  6. 6. LYMPHATIC VESSELS ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 7
  7. 7. LYMPHATIC VESSELS Lymphatic collecting vessels •Collects lymph from lymph capillaries •Carries lymph to and away from lymph nodes •Returns fluid to circulatory veins near the heart •Right lymphatic duct •Thoracic duct ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 8
  8. 8. LYMPH • Materials returned to the blood – Water – Blood cells – Proteins • Harmful materials that enter lymph vessels – Bacteria – Viruses – Cancer cells – Cell debris ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 9
  9. 9. LYMPH NODES • Filter lymph before it is returned to the blood • Defense cells within lymph nodes – Macrophages – engulf and destroy foreign substances – Lymphocytes – provide immune response to antigens ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 10
  10. 10. LYMPH NODES ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 11
  11. 11. LYMPH NODE STRUCTURE • Most are kidney-shaped, less than 1 inch long • Cortex – Outer part – Contains follicles – collections of lymphocytes • Medulla – Inner part – Contains phagocytic macrophages ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 12
  12. 12. LYMPH NODE STRUCTURE ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  13. 13. OTHER LYMPHOID ORGANS • Several other organs contribute to lymphatic function – Spleen – Thymus – Tonsils – Peyer’s patches ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 14
  14. 14. THE SPLEEN • • • • • Located on the left side of the abdomen Filters blood Destroys worn out blood cells Forms blood cells in the fetus Acts as a blood reservoir ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 15
  15. 15. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 16
  16. 16. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 17
  17. 17. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 18
  18. 18. THE THYMUS • Located low in the throat, overlying the heart • Functions at peak levels only during childhood • Produces hormones (like thymosin) to program lymphocytes ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 19
  19. 19. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 20
  20. 20. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 21
  21. 21. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 22
  22. 22. TONSILS • Small masses of lymphoid tissue around the pharynx • Trap and remove bacteria and other foreign materials • Tonsillitis is caused by congestion with bacteria ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 23
  23. 23. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 24
  24. 24. MUCOSA-ASSOCIATED LYMPHATIC TISSUE (MALT) • Includes: – Peyer’s patches – Tonsils – Other small accumulations of lymphoid tissue • Acts as a sentinal to protect respiratory and digestive tracts ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 25
  25. 25. PEYER’S PATCHES • Found in the wall of the small intestine • Resemble tonsils in structure • Capture and destroy bacteria in the intestine ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 26
  26. 26. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 27
  27. 27. BODY DEFENSES • The body is constantly in contact with bacteria, fungi, and viruses • The body has two defense systems for foreign materials 1. Nonspecific defense system • Mechanisms protect against a variety of invaders • Responds immediately to protect body from foreign materials 2. Specific defense system • Specific defense is required for each type of invader • Also known as the immune system ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 28
  28. 28. BODY DEFENSES ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 29
  29. 29. NONSPECIFIC BODY DEFENSES • Body surface coverings – Intact skin – Mucous membranes • Specialized human cells • Chemicals produced by the body ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 30
  30. 30. SURFACE MEMBRANE BARRIERS – FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE • The skin – Physical barrier to foreign materials – pH of the skin is acidic to inhibit bacterial growth • Sebum is toxic to bacteria • Vaginal secretions are very acidic • Stomach mucosa – Secretes hydrochloric acid – Has protein-digesting enzymes • Saliva and lacrimal fluid contain lysozyme • Mucus traps microogranisms in digestive and respiratory pathways ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
  31. 31. DEFENSIVE CELLS • Phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages) – Engulfs foreign material into a vacuole – Enzymes from lysosomes digest the material ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 32
  32. 32. DEFENSIVE CELLS • Natural killer cells – Can lyse and kill cancer cells – Can destroy virus- infected cells ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 33
  33. 33. INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE - SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE • Triggered when body tissues are injured • Produces four cardinal signs – Redness – Heat – Swelling – Pain • Results in a chain of events leading to protection and healing • ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 34
  34. 34. DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND BODY DEFENSES • Except for thymus and spleen, the lymphoid organs are poorly developed before birth • A newborn has no functioning lymphocytes at birth; only passive immunity from the mother • If lymphatics are removed or lost, severe edema results, but vessels grow back in time ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 35
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