Latest Developments and Current Capabilities in Nanotechnology Brian Wang July 16, 2010
 
Overview of the Talk <ul><li>2D and 3D Nanoscale patterning and manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul><ul...
Aerosol Jet Printing and Printable Electronics
Nanoimprint <ul><li>metallic-glass molds with 3D features as small as 13 nanometers. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretic size limi...
Fab in a Box
Fab in a Box
 
Nanotip Based Patterning <ul><li>Current resolution of about 15 nm could go to 1nm </li></ul><ul><li>E-beam lithography sy...
Zyvex <ul><li>Tip-Based Nanofabrication (DARPA funded) to make atomically precise quantum dots </li></ul><ul><li>Tip never...
Zyvex APM •  ALE growth in nanoscale patterned areas •  Sub Angstrom closed loop nanopositioning systems •  CMOS MEMS nano...
Quantum Dots <ul><li>the smaller the size of the dot, the larger the band gap </li></ul><ul><li>bigger gap    more energy...
Quantum Dot Devices <ul><li>Quantum dot solar cells </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dot cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dot di...
Self Assembly <ul><li>Guided Self-assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Surface topography </li></ul><ul><li>Surface wetting </li></u...
HP now has 3 nm memristors <ul><li>provide controllable resistance </li></ul><ul><li>1 nanosecond switching times  </li></...
Memristors for Memory
Nano-enhanced Regular Tech <ul><li>Concrete and metal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research on the nanoscale that provides insigh...
Nanomed today
Nanoshells –Optical Legos <ul><li>Gold nanoshells can be used for cancer treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoshells are about ...
One Cubic Micron Devices, Sensors and Claytronics and chips in living cells <ul><li>Leading edge of today </li></ul><ul><l...
Carbon nanotubes <ul><li>500 ton/year factory : Cnano Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>400 ton/ year Showa Denka, 200 ton/ye...
Graphene <ul><li>electrons in graphene 100 times faster than electrons in silicon </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger than carbon n...
Nanocomp Technologies <ul><li>Bulk Carbon Nanotubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Better for radiation and electromagnetic shielding ...
Lunar Cement and Concrete <ul><li>2.4-metre mirror like Hubble's </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>600 kilograms (1300 pounds) of ...
Properties <ul><li>Strength of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Conductance  </li></ul><ul><li>Electron mobility </li></ul><ul>...
Q & A <ul><li>Open for Questions </li></ul>
Nanostructured Nickel Magnesium Oxide <ul><li>the engineers added metal nickel to magnesium oxide, a ceramic. The resultin...
Non epitaxial growth to interface incompatible material <ul><li>University of Maryland has created a new way to produce hi...
Designer Materials – inorganic nanocomposites <ul><li>nanocomposites with desired properties can be designed and fabricate...
Billions of self-assembled, light-sensing, DNA nanostructures <ul><li>foundation for molecular-scale logic system </li></u...
Reconfigurable Metamaterials Terahertz Lens <ul><li>ultimate metamaterial lens   change all of its properties </li></ul><...
 
Nanopantography <ul><li>Nanopantography uses microlenses placed on a substrate (the surface that is being written upon) to...
Thermoelectric <ul><li>Silicon nanowires. ZT 0.6-1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>quantum wells that get 4.5ZT </li></ul><ul><li>thal...
Roadmap
Block Co-polymers <ul><li>Block copolymers </li></ul><ul><li>UCSB claims self assembly block co-polymer features on silico...
Advanced Lithography and Beyond <ul><li>Mainstream: lithography, nanoparticles for medicine and more, carbon nanotubes and...
Beyond CMOS <ul><li>Emerging Research Device Technology Candidates are being evaluated.  A list of devices being considere...
Microscopy <ul><li>STM </li></ul><ul><li>SPM </li></ul><ul><li>AFM </li></ul><ul><li>Superlenses </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperle...
Diamond <ul><li>Switch higher frequencies  (10-120 Ghz) and voltages for power chips (MESFET, rf, 100 watt x-bands) </li><...
Computational Chemistry <ul><li>Computational chemistry  is a branch of chemistry that uses computers to assist in solving...
Nanoparticles <ul><li>Nanoparticles for diagnosis and delivery of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco mosaic virus is like ...
Advanced Lithography <ul><li>Double, triple & quadruple patterning (down to 11 nm) </li></ul><ul><li>E-beam </li></ul><ul>...
DNA Nanotechnology <ul><li>DNA origami </li></ul><ul><li>DNA movement and placement of nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes ...
3d DNA Nanotechnology <ul><li>DNA boxes </li></ul><ul><li>DNA tubes and other shapes </li></ul>
Defining Nanotechnology <ul><li>Nanotech has many definitions </li></ul><ul><li>It has to do with very small things </li><...
HP Believes Memristor Memory could be better than Flash by 2013
Graphene Mass Production <ul><li>Rice University - Stronger superacids can separate graphite into sheets of graphene and b...
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Singularit University presentation Nanotechnology nextbigfuture.com

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2010 Singularity university presentation: Latest Developments and Current Capabilities in Nanotechnology

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  • Printing carbon nanotubes for electronics and computing and solar cells Optomec, a leading rapid manufacturing company Instead of lithography, vacuum processing, and metallization procedures low-cost, high-throughput fabrication of large-area ,fast ,flexible electronic circuits 10 microns wide, 5 Ghz, 200 meters/s Print solar cells, fuel cells, embedded sensors Thin film supercapacitors
  • Prototype fab in a box direct write nanowire circuit has been demonstrated with error correcting fab process http://cba.mit.edu/events/08.04.ASC/Joo_Jacobson.pdf
  • http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/04/ibm-uses-3d-nanotip-based-patterning.html http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/04/ibm-3d-nanotip-patterning-system-follow.html
  • http://www.nnin.org/doc/snmr10/Zyvex-Cornell-2010.pdf
  • http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/05/jim-von-ehr-founder-and-owner-of-zyvex.html
  • Single molecule quantum dots Bulk production of quantum dots
  • http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/04/memristor-test-chips-on-standard-300-mm.html http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/04/memristor-extends-moores-law-by-decades.html memristor memory will be a competitor to flash memory in three years that would have a capacity of 20 gigabytes a square centimeter. memristor memory will be faster and use less memory than phase-change memory Hybrid reconfigurable logic circuits were fabricated by integrating memristor-based crossbars onto a foundry-built CMOS (platform using nanoimprint lithography, FPGA like process) Synapses and Axons seem to be memristors, so brain emulation could be accelerated HP Believes Memristor Memory could be better than Flash by 2013
  • Nanoparticles is a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Liposomes is a spherical vesicle composed of a bilayer membrane. In biology, this specifically refers to a membrane composed of a phospholipid and cholesterol bilayer Antibody conjugates A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor antigen to a carrier protein, thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier on the attached antigen. This technique for the creation of an effective immunogen is most often applied to bacterial polysaccharides for the prevention of invasive bacterial disease.
  • Low power laser light heats the gold nanoshells to kill the tumor and not the good tissue (have to get the nanoshells to the tumor)
  • http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/05/phoenix-ultra-low-power-processor-for.html http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/05/1mm-diameter-claytronic-robot.html http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/03/computer-chips-inside-living-cells-and.html
  • http://nextbigfuture.com/2009/02/hydrophobic-sand-details-waterproof.html
  • Kevlar reinforced with carbon nanotubes High Strength – spun conductive yarns exhibit breaking strengths up to 3 GPa Six times stronger than aluminum Three times stronger than carbon steel Electrical Conductivity – better than copper Thermal Conductivity - Capability to transfer more heat than copper or silver by weight Extremely Lightweight – Less than half the weight of aluminum Over three years enough to retrofit EMI shielding in all commercial jets. 787 would save 2000 lbs using the Nanocomp CNT product 200 lbs of weight could be saved in typical satellite. Currently it costs $5,000-100,000 per pound to launch a satellite into geosynchronous orbit. $1-20 million in launch cost savings for each launch.
  • http://nextbigfuture.com/2009/10/nanostructured-nickel-magnesium-oxide.html
  • http://nextbigfuture.com/2010/03/designer-nanomaterials-on-demand-from.html
  • UCSB claims to have developed a novel,  self-assembly process  for creating features on silicon that are between 5- and 20-nm Several entities, including IBM Corp. and Intel Corp., are exploring a new technology called co-polymer lithography  in an effort to extend  Moore&apos;s Law . http://www.eetindia.co.in/ART_8800546209_1800007_NT_9dde7629.HTM http://www.slideshare.net/ucsb.ira/craig-hawker-of-ucsb-commercial-applications-of-polymer-as-nanomaterials http://www.mrl.ucsb.edu/hawker/publications.html Dendronized macromonomers for 3D data storage A series of dendritic macromonomers have been synthesized and utilized as the photoactive component in holographic storage systems leading to high performance, low shrinkage materials. http://www.mrl.ucsb.edu/hawker/research.html
  • 16-19 million wafers per year. 10^11 transistors per wafer. 2 X 10^18 transisters per year. Synapses are Memristors and memristors are nanoscale
  • The diamond heat spreading layer directly under the junction can allow for more than a 100% increase in power levels compared to silicon substrates alone, and a 50-80% increase when compared to SiC, at a fixed junction temperature. At fixed power, they can reduce junction temperature by more than 50 degrees compared to GaN on silicon or SiC. http://www.betasights.net/wordpress/?p=693 Diamond transistors 50 nm http://www.electronicsweekly.com/Articles/2009/04/16/45900/glasgow-uni-develops-diamond-transistor-with-50nm-gate.htm http://www.theinquirer.net/inquirer/news/1044396/diamond-transistor-clocks Nippon Telegraph &amp; Telephone (NT&amp;T) to create a transistor that will clock 120GHz. According to nikkei.net , Element Six Limited and NT&amp;T use chemical vapour deposition to place a coating of diamond on a polycrystalline diamond substrate. prototype stage Jan 2008, but the wire said that it will be commercialised within three years (2010-2011) http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=140257 Element Six (E6) announces that in collaboration with the University of Ulm in Germany it has produced preliminary microwave devices (MESFET transistors) using synthetic single crystal diamond made by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Diamond, with its extreme physical properties, is now entering the world of high frequency electronics, making real the possibility of replacing high-power vacuum tube devices with solid-state diamond components. The intrinsic theoretical performance of diamond, coupled with this latest device, suggest that diamond could capture the entire rf device market for frequencies between 10 and 100 GHz, with devices capable of producing over 100 Watts at X-band frequencies.
  • http://nanoparticledrugdelivery.blogspot.com
  • http://books.google.com/books?id=cCGU7Lwn-noC&amp;pg=PA71&amp;lpg=PA71&amp;dq=two+photon+polymerization+wafers+per+hour&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=I438-lxV3K&amp;sig=VLJTtnqagt13ZzR8CqhmxeddQCs&amp;hl=en&amp;ei=VUZOSuuyHYWOtAPeqsXpBQ&amp;sa=X&amp;oi=book_result&amp;ct=result&amp;resnum=1 Nanofabrication by Zheng Cui 2008 EUV power source of 115 watts, resist sensitivity of 3 mJ cm ^-2 needed for 100 wafers per hour Line edge roughness critical for all sub-100nm lithography Outgassing of resist another issue Now Deep UV (DUV, 20 million per machine), EUV (Extreme UV) 50 million per machine Fabrication by scanning probes (field induced deposition, dip pen lithography) subtractive fabrication (electrochemical etching, field induced decompisition, thermomechanical indentation, mechanical scratching) High throughput SPL Photon-based lithography Charged particle beams lithography Nanofabrication using scanning probes Nanoscale replication Nanoscale pattern transfer Indirect nanofabrication Nanofabrication by self-assembly Nanoimprint (reverse nanoimprint) Nanoscale pattern transfer (additive/subtractive transfer) Indirect nanofabrication
  • Nanotech is the study of the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Broadly defined nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller, and involves developing materials or devices within that size. 0.1 nanometers (angstrom, width of one hydrogen atom) 1.4 angstroms-7 angstroms separating carbon atoms in a lattice One trillion cubic angstroms in a cube with 100 nanometer sides. Scale like softballs in a baseball stadium. One billion times bigger. 100 meters is 100 nanometers. 1 meter is one nanometer. 10 centimeters is 0.1 nanometers. 22nm node is 22 meter wide canals. Wavelengths
  • http://pubs.acs.org/stoken/presspac/presspac/full/10.1021/nl904115h .Unlike other methods involving chemical reactions that alter graphene, the superacid solution does not degrade the material&apos;s properties
  • Singularit University presentation Nanotechnology nextbigfuture.com

    1. 1. Latest Developments and Current Capabilities in Nanotechnology Brian Wang July 16, 2010
    2. 3. Overview of the Talk <ul><li>2D and 3D Nanoscale patterning and manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul><ul><li>Self Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Memristors </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors and electronics in living cells </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotubes & graphene </li></ul>
    3. 4. Aerosol Jet Printing and Printable Electronics
    4. 5. Nanoimprint <ul><li>metallic-glass molds with 3D features as small as 13 nanometers. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretic size limit is the size of a single atom </li></ul><ul><li>carbon nanotubes templates in development </li></ul>
    5. 6. Fab in a Box
    6. 7. Fab in a Box
    7. 9. Nanotip Based Patterning <ul><li>Current resolution of about 15 nm could go to 1nm </li></ul><ul><li>E-beam lithography systems cost up to $5 million </li></ul><ul><li>IBM’s Desktop nanotip system will cost $100,000. </li></ul><ul><li>extremely small silicon tip cantilevered like AFM </li></ul><ul><li>thermal energy at the tip break weak bonds within the material </li></ul>
    8. 10. Zyvex <ul><li>Tip-Based Nanofabrication (DARPA funded) to make atomically precise quantum dots </li></ul><ul><li>Tip never physically contacts anything </li></ul><ul><li>Protection atoms leave into the gas phase </li></ul><ul><li>Building blocks arrive via gas phase </li></ul><ul><li>Is a scalable process </li></ul><ul><li>Extensible to many other material systems </li></ul><ul><li>Invariant STM tip technology </li></ul>
    9. 11. Zyvex APM • ALE growth in nanoscale patterned areas • Sub Angstrom closed loop nanopositioning systems • CMOS MEMS nanopositioners • Nano-Electronics/Photonics applications that exploit atomic precision • Nano-Bio applications that exploit atomic precision
    10. 12. Quantum Dots <ul><li>the smaller the size of the dot, the larger the band gap </li></ul><ul><li>bigger gap  more energy is needed to excite the dot  more energy is released when returns to its resting state </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots for Quantum Film – better cameras (InVisage) </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots for better LED Lighting and LCD displays </li></ul><ul><li>QD laser 25 Gbps communication – Fujitsu </li></ul><ul><li>QD better infrared sensors </li></ul><ul><li>(2X now, then20-40 times better) </li></ul>
    11. 13. Quantum Dot Devices <ul><li>Quantum dot solar cells </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dot cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum dot displays improve efficiency of LCDs by 40% </li></ul><ul><li>QuantumFilm image sensors are the world’s first commercial quantum dot-based image sensors, replacing silicon. </li></ul><ul><li>InVisage delivers 4x higher performance, 2x higher dynamic range </li></ul>
    12. 14. Self Assembly <ul><li>Guided Self-assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Surface topography </li></ul><ul><li>Surface wetting </li></ul><ul><li>Electrostatic force </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic force </li></ul>sawtooth ridges formed by cutting and heating a sapphire crystal serves to guide the self-assembly of nanoscale elements
    13. 15. HP now has 3 nm memristors <ul><li>provide controllable resistance </li></ul><ul><li>1 nanosecond switching times </li></ul><ul><li>memcapacitors and meminductors too </li></ul>
    14. 16. Memristors for Memory
    15. 17. Nano-enhanced Regular Tech <ul><li>Concrete and metal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research on the nanoscale that provides insight into improved control of the properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanograins for metal, almost no-creep concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic sand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert sand made hydrophobic by additive SP-HFS 1609 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The large rolls sandwich the sand between layers of polyethylene and can be produced in lengths of up to 50 metres. “The coating is done in 30 or 45 seconds,” said Hareb. “We have the capacity of manufacturing 3,000 tonnes per day.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engineering properties : composites, polymers, doping </li></ul><ul><li>Nanomembrane : Desalination and water purification </li></ul>* Larger holes (4-5nm) in zeolite for more efficient oil refining. Crack larger molecules * Cars, planes, buildings, subs
    16. 18. Nanomed today
    17. 19. Nanoshells –Optical Legos <ul><li>Gold nanoshells can be used for cancer treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoshells are about 20 times smaller than red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Different sizes interact with different wavelengths of light </li></ul>
    18. 20. One Cubic Micron Devices, Sensors and Claytronics and chips in living cells <ul><li>Leading edge of today </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenix Processor consumes on average 29.6pW in standby mode and 2.8pJ/cycle in active mode. Runs on cubic mm of battery </li></ul><ul><li>2000 instructions to be run once every 10 minutes for sensors </li></ul><ul><li>3 micron X 3 micron by 0.5 micron chips were placed into living cells </li></ul>
    19. 21. Carbon nanotubes <ul><li>500 ton/year factory : Cnano Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>400 ton/ year Showa Denka, 200 ton/year Bayer </li></ul><ul><li>Context (carbon fiber, kevlar, copper, steel, cement) </li></ul><ul><li>CNT-reinforced aluminum is only around one third that of steel, but is as hard as steel (Bayer Materials work) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could become cheaper than alloy method for making strong aluminum </li></ul></ul>
    20. 22. Graphene <ul><li>electrons in graphene 100 times faster than electrons in silicon </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger than carbon nanotubes </li></ul><ul><li>Graphene Ultracapacitors with double energy density of current ultracapacitors </li></ul><ul><li>Still in lab, not in mass production </li></ul><ul><li>Polymers with 0.1% graphene platelets were 40% stronger </li></ul>
    21. 23. Nanocomp Technologies <ul><li>Bulk Carbon Nanotubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Better for radiation and electromagnetic shielding </li></ul><ul><li>EM shielding at one third the weight of copper </li></ul><ul><li>Superior electrical properties already exist for antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Can tune multiple properties in their carbon nanotube sheets. </li></ul><ul><li>University Dayton  500 feet of 12-inch-wide fabric per day at a pilot plant (Fuzzy Fiber) </li></ul><ul><li>Next 60 inch wide sheets </li></ul>
    22. 24. Lunar Cement and Concrete <ul><li>2.4-metre mirror like Hubble's </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>600 kilograms (1300 pounds) of Moon dust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60 kg (130 pounds) of epoxy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 kg (13 pounds) of carbon nanotubes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less than a gram of aluminium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built a 30-centimetre disc in 2008 </li></ul></ul>
    23. 25. Properties <ul><li>Strength of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Conductance </li></ul><ul><li>Electron mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal properties </li></ul><ul><li>Do more or better with less material (stronger, electrical properties) </li></ul><ul><li>Do something completely new </li></ul>
    24. 26. Q & A <ul><li>Open for Questions </li></ul>
    25. 27. Nanostructured Nickel Magnesium Oxide <ul><li>the engineers added metal nickel to magnesium oxide, a ceramic. The resulting material contained clusters of nickel atoms no bigger than 10 square nanometers, a 90 percent size reduction compared to today’s techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Enables terabyte computer storage </li></ul><ul><li>By introducing metallic properties into ceramics, engineers could develop a new generation of ceramic engines able to withstand twice the temperatures of normal engines and achieve fuel economy of 80 miles per gallon. </li></ul>
    26. 28. Non epitaxial growth to interface incompatible material <ul><li>University of Maryland has created a new way to produce high quality semiconductor materials critical for advanced microelectronics and nanotechnology. </li></ul><ul><li>No clean room is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Previously incompatible material can be interfaced </li></ul><ul><li>no lattice matching needed </li></ul><ul><li>no thickness constraints </li></ul><ul><li>simpler and cheaper than epitaxy process </li></ul>
    27. 29. Designer Materials – inorganic nanocomposites <ul><li>nanocomposites with desired properties can be designed and fabricated by first assembling nanocrystals and nanorods coated with short organic molecules, called ligands. </li></ul><ul><li>These ligands are then replaced with clusters of metal chalcogenides, such as copper sulfide. As a result, the clusters link to the nanocrystal or nanorod building blocks and help create a stable nanocomposite. The team has applied this scheme to more than 20 different combinations of materials, including close-packed nanocrystal spheres for thermoelectric materials and vertically aligned nanorods for solar cells </li></ul>
    28. 30. Billions of self-assembled, light-sensing, DNA nanostructures <ul><li>foundation for molecular-scale logic system </li></ul><ul><li>Can absorb and react to light </li></ul><ul><li>Can trigger release of another wavelength </li></ul>
    29. 31. Reconfigurable Metamaterials Terahertz Lens <ul><li>ultimate metamaterial lens  change all of its properties </li></ul><ul><li>spacing and the rotation of the split-ring resonators </li></ul><ul><li>Split ring resonators – gold ring with small cut </li></ul><ul><li>Heating or cooling changes how lens bends light </li></ul><ul><li>Can flip direction light bends </li></ul>
    30. 33. Nanopantography <ul><li>Nanopantography uses microlenses placed on a substrate (the surface that is being written upon) to divide a single ion beam into billions of smaller beams, each of which writes a feature on the substrate for nanotech device production </li></ul><ul><li>simultaneous impingement of an Ar + beam and a Cl 2 effusive beam on an array of 950-nm-diam lenses can be used to etch 10-nm-diam features into a Si substrate, a reduction of 95x. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations indicate that the focused “beamlet” diameters scale directly with lens diameter, thus a minimum feature size of 1 nm should be possible with 90-nm-diam lenses that are at the limit of current photolithography. </li></ul><ul><li>We expect nanopantography to become a viable method for overcoming one of the main obstacles in practical nanoscale fabrication:  rapid, large-scale fabrication of virtually any shape and material nanostructure. Unlike all other focused ion or electron beam writing techniques, this self-aligned method is virtually unaffected by vibrations, thermal expansion, and other alignment problems that usually plague standard nanofabrication methods. This is because the ion focusing optics are built on the wafer. </li></ul>
    31. 34. Thermoelectric <ul><li>Silicon nanowires. ZT 0.6-1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>quantum wells that get 4.5ZT </li></ul><ul><li>thallium-doped lead telluride ZT 1.5  3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Recover waste heat of cars and trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Power passenger cooling and heating </li></ul>
    32. 35. Roadmap
    33. 36. Block Co-polymers <ul><li>Block copolymers </li></ul><ul><li>UCSB claims self assembly block co-polymer features on silicon (5-20nm). Making improvements (like cross linking for faster manufacturing) </li></ul>
    34. 37. Advanced Lithography and Beyond <ul><li>Mainstream: lithography, nanoparticles for medicine and more, carbon nanotubes and other nanotech and nanostructured materials, Scanning Probe Microscopy and other microscopy, aerojet printing, arrays of dip pens, MEMS/NEMS, nano-enhanced regular tech, better sensors, detection devices and tests </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling: Computational Chemistry, Superlenses, Lab on a chip </li></ul><ul><li>Progressing: DNA nanotechnology, self assembly, graphene electronics, quantum dots, quantum computing, nanostructures for tissue engineering, nanomembranes/nanofiltration, nanophotonics, molecular electronics, spintronics, plasmonics </li></ul><ul><li>Basic capabilities and funded development: atomic layer expitaxy and deposition, mechanosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Other: RNA, DNA, proteins, avogadro scale computing, claytronics, synthetic life </li></ul>
    35. 38. Beyond CMOS <ul><li>Emerging Research Device Technology Candidates are being evaluated. A list of devices being considered to go beyond CMOS. - Nano-electro Mechanical Switches - Collective Spin Devices - Spin Torque Transfer Devices - Atomic Switch / Electrochemical Metallization - Carbon-based Nanoelectronics - Single Electron Transistors - CMOL / Field Programmable Nanowire Interconnect (FPNI) </li></ul>
    36. 39. Microscopy <ul><li>STM </li></ul><ul><li>SPM </li></ul><ul><li>AFM </li></ul><ul><li>Superlenses </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperlens </li></ul>
    37. 40. Diamond <ul><li>Switch higher frequencies (10-120 Ghz) and voltages for power chips (MESFET, rf, 100 watt x-bands) </li></ul><ul><li>High power devices applications include satellite communications, telecoms base stations and compact, high resolution phased-array radars </li></ul><ul><li>2 tons of power electronics per railcar can be 50 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>Great thermal conductivity, reaching 2,000 Wm-1°C-1 for mono-crystal, which is the highest of any solid material (4-5X higher than silicon carbide and copper) </li></ul><ul><li>diamond is vastly better substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Single crystal diamond across wafers much bigger than an inch and a half </li></ul><ul><li>polycrystalline diamond films (5 nm grains of carbon, 20-30 atoms across) </li></ul><ul><li>nanocrystalline diamond onto 300-mm (12-inch) wafers in lab </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially 50-100mm polycrystalline diamond wafers, 150mm soon </li></ul><ul><li>ADT’s ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) is naturally insulating but can be made highly conductive by doping it with nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Doping (change and control properties) and scaling problems solved </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon MEMS operate at megahertz </li></ul><ul><li>Diamond MEMS can be gigahertz </li></ul>
    38. 41. Computational Chemistry <ul><li>Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computers to assist in solving chemical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Computing power and methods have advanced to where it is now possible to use molecular simulations to predict important engineering properties of real materials with a high degree of accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Anton Supercomputer, Nvidia Tesla </li></ul><ul><li>NanoEngineer-1 is an open-source (GPL) 3D multi-scale modeling and simulation program for nano-composites with special support for structural DNA nanotechnology. </li></ul>
    39. 42. Nanoparticles <ul><li>Nanoparticles for diagnosis and delivery of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco mosaic virus is like a 18-nanometer wide straw, which can hold gene silencing RNA </li></ul><ul><li>2007 total market for nanotechnology-enabled drug delivery will rise to $26 billion by 2012 from its current size of $3.39 billion, representing a compound annual growth rate of 37%. </li></ul>
    40. 43. Advanced Lithography <ul><li>Double, triple & quadruple patterning (down to 11 nm) </li></ul><ul><li>E-beam </li></ul><ul><li>IBM 3D Nanotip based patterning </li></ul><ul><li>EUV (with quadruple patterning down to 5 nm) </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoimprint (13nm now  1-2 nm with CNT) </li></ul><ul><li>Self assembly (down to 2 nm) </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmonic lithography </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution augmentation through photo-induced deactivation (RAPID) lithography 40 nm now (10nm) </li></ul><ul><li>Ion beams </li></ul><ul><li>Through silicon via (other 3D techniques) </li></ul><ul><li>Different materials </li></ul><ul><li>Long List, Different Ways Forward, things will work down to 1-2 nm eventually and at reasonable cost and volume (Intel plans for 8nm in 2017) </li></ul>
    41. 44. DNA Nanotechnology <ul><li>DNA origami </li></ul><ul><li>DNA movement and placement of nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes </li></ul><ul><li>New bases and chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>DNA separation of carbon nanotubes </li></ul><ul><li>DNA factory (50 steps now) </li></ul><ul><li>All computer circuits made in DNA </li></ul>
    42. 45. 3d DNA Nanotechnology <ul><li>DNA boxes </li></ul><ul><li>DNA tubes and other shapes </li></ul>
    43. 46. Defining Nanotechnology <ul><li>Nanotech has many definitions </li></ul><ul><li>It has to do with very small things </li></ul>
    44. 47. HP Believes Memristor Memory could be better than Flash by 2013
    45. 48. Graphene Mass Production <ul><li>Rice University - Stronger superacids can separate graphite into sheets of graphene and bring them into solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphene Synthesis on Cubic SiC/Si Wafers could make volume graphene electronics </li></ul>

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