Accepted Paper at CBIT-ECE conference


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Accepted Paper at CBIT-ECE conference

  1. 1. National Congress on Communications and Computer Aided Electronic Systems (CCAES 2012)Real Life Applications Of Nanotechnology In Electronics and Mechanical Engineering Dr.N.V.Srinivasulu , Dr. P.Giridhar Reddy, Dr. P.Narahari Sastry Associate professors, chaitanya Baharathi Institute of Technology,Gandipet, Hyderabad-500075.AP.India. Email: vaastusrinivas@gmail.comAbstract - Nanotechnology is like a toolkit for the will result in a manufacturing revolution, probablyelectronics and mechanical industries. It gives us tools that causing severe disruption. It also has seriousallow us to make nanomaterials with special properties economic, social, environmental, and militarymodified by ultra-fine particle size, crystallinity, structure or implications. A nanometer is one billionth of a meter,surfaces. These will become commercially important when roughly the width of three or four atoms. The averagethey give a cost and performance advantage over existingproducts or allow us to create new products. human hair is about 25,000 nanometers wide.Nanotechnology is receiving a lot of attention fromcompanies, universities and governments. This paper will II. Nanotechnology application areas:outline areas in Nanotechnology with specific impact on  Semiconductorssemiconductors, passive components, display materials, Some of the most revolutionary applications inpackaging and interconnection. The collection of synthesis nanotechnology are in the semiconductor areas. As thetechniques collectively known as Nanotechnology presents semiconductor roadmaps look out towards 2015 and belowmany opportunities to reshape the electronics industry from 20 nm features, the need for different structures is becomingtop to bottom. Nanotechnology can offer us: • Uniform apparent...once we move to ultraviolet and then Xrayparticles : metal, oxide, ceramics, composite ; Unusual lithography, there is nowhere to go (in a practical sense) tooptical, thermal and electronic properties: phosphors, heat image ultra small features. Imagine doping a Carbon orpipes, Nano-structured materials:tubes, balls, hooks, Siliconsurfaces. Some of the most revolutionary applications in nanotube, coating it with differently doped materials,nanotechnology are in the semiconductor areas. As the assembling it (preferably self-assembling it) in an array.semiconductor roadmaps look out towards 2015 and below Imagine creating quantum dots that can store a single20 nm features, the need for different structures is becoming electron charge. Imagine trapping atoms inside a nanotubeapparent...once we move to ultraviolet and then Xray and using the electron spin to create a quantum computinglithography, there is nowhere to go (in a practical sense) to device. There is a large number of potential routes to newimage ultra small features. Imagine doping a Carbon or computing, storage and optical devices. The devices we areSilicon nanotube, coating it with differently doped making now are quite clumsy compared with establishedmaterials, assembling it (preferably self-assembling it) in an semiconductor technology. But they will surely improve!array. Imagine creating quantum dots that can store a single One example of a semiconductor technology that iselectron charge. Imagine trapping atoms inside a nanotube generating great interest is the atomic cluster depositionand using the electron spin to create a quantum computing technology pioneered by Nano Cluster Devices (NCD) ofdevice. Christchurch, New Zealand. The technology revolves around and ability to fabricate nanoscale wirelike structures I. Introduction by the assembly of conducting nanoparticles.Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional The attractions of this approach are:systems at the molecular scale. This covers both • Electrically conducting nanowires can be formed using only simple and straightforward techniques,current work and concepts that are more advanced. In i.e. cluster deposition and relatively low resolutionits original sense, nanotechnology refers to the lithography;projected ability to construct items from the bottom • The resulting nanowires are automatically connected toup, using techniques and tools being developed today electrical contacts;to make complete, high performance products. • Electrical current can be passed along the nanowires fromNanotechnology is the engineering of tiny machines the moment of their formation;— the projected ability to build things from the bottom • No manipulation of the clusters is required to form theup inside personal nanofactories (PNs), using nanowire because the wire is “self assembled” using one oftechniques and tools being developed today to make two techniques described below;complete, highly advanced products. Ultimately, • The width of the nanowire can be controlled by the size of the cluster that is chosen.nanotechnology will enable control of matter at the One of the merits of the technique is that it is extremelynanometer scale, using mechanochemistry. Shortly simple: nanoscale particles, formed by inert gas aggregation,after this envisioned molecular machinery is created, it are deposited from a molecular beam onto prefabricated
  2. 2. Real Life Applications Of Nanotechnology In Electronics and Mechanical Engineeringlithographically defined nanocontacts. The cluster in volumetric efficiency. Advanced nano Copper and Nickeldeposition is random but is managed via a novel templated powders available in 2005 offer thesurface strategy or within percolation theory. In the following advantages :templating approach surface structures guide the particles to • Controllable particle size; • Virtually monosize particlethe „correct‟ positions so as to form a wire. In the size distribution.percolation approach, a deep understanding of the theory, Nanoelectronics increase the capabilities of electronicsand sophisticated computer simulations, have been used to devices by reducing their weight and also powerdesign device geometries that ensure a single wire-like path consumption. Some of the nanoelectronics areas underis formed between the contacts near the percolation development are as followsthreshold. In either case, an electrically conducting 1. Improving display screens on electronics devices. Thisnanowire, which is automatically connected to electrical involves reducing power consumption while decreasing thecontacts, is therefore formed with no need to manipulate weight and thickness of the screens.particles individually or use complex fabrication techniques. 2. Increasing the density of memory chips. Researchers areThe width of the wire can be controlled by the size of the developing a type of memory chip with a projected densitydeposited particles. Applications include: of one terabyte of memory per square inch or greater.• Chemical sensors, including Hydrogen and glucose 3.Reducing the size of transistors used in integrated circuits.sensors; It may be possible to "put the power of all of todays present• Read heads for hard disk drives; computers in the palm of your hand".• Transistors, interconnects and integrated circuits(semiconducting and conducting wires); III. Nanoelectronics: Applications under• Photosensors; • Deposition control systems, a spin off Developmenttechnology for high precision control of particle deposition  Building transistors from carbon nanotubes toin the sub-monolayer regime. Products are under enable minimum transistor dimensions of a fewdevelopment with several companies . nanometers and developing techniques to  Packaging IC and MEMS devices: manufacture integrated circuits built with nanotubePackaging of advanced devices is going to continue to be transistors.problematic since temperature is the enemy of ultra fine  Using electrodes made from nanowires that wouldfeatures which can be easily destroyed by thermal diffusion enable flat panel displays to be flexible as well asor differential expansion. In the shorter term, improved thinner than current flat panel displays.fillers for mold compounds (which are already ~90% filler)  Using MEMS techniques to control an array ofand underfills can lead to better thermal and electrical probes whose tips have a radius of a fewperformance combined with easier flow properties. The use nanometers. These probes are used to write andof high thermal conductivity Carbon nanotubes and read data onto a polymer film, with the aim ofdiamondlike films with thermal conductivity over twice that producing memory chips with a density of oneof Copper will provide worthwhile solutions as will CTE terabyte per square inch or greater.matched fillers with conductive and dielectric properties.  Transistors built in single atom thick graphene film  Board / substrate to enable very high speed transistors.In the last three years the board business has changed from acommodity business to a specialty business with materials  Combining gold nanoparticles with organicoptimised for thermal, high frequency and environmental molecules to create a transistor known as areasons. Boards still NOMFET (Nanoparticle Organic Memory Field-need improvement in areas such as CTE and flatness and the Effect Transistor).embedding of passive components needs a low cost self-  Using carbon nanotubes to direct electrons toassembly type process in order to lower the costs to make it illuminate pixels, resulting in a lightweight,truly competitive. millimeter thick "nanoemmissive" display panel.Improved ceramic substrates are possible but in fact many  Using quantum dots to replace the fluorescent dotsceramic operations already use the principles of used in current displays. Displays using quantumNanotechnology in developing precursor particles with high dots should be simpler to make than currentreactivity and uniformity. There are options to improve displays as well as use less power.conductor and embedded passive technology and to  Making integrated circuits with features that can bestrengthen the substrates as average substrate size is measured in nanometers (nm), such as the processincreasing due to the greater use of modules. that allows the production of integrated circuits  Passive components with 22 nm wide transistor gates.There are many uses of interconnection materials within  Using nanosized magnetic rings to makepassive components. Monosize materials Magnetoresistive Random Access Memoryhold promise in Tantalum capacitors and ceramic capacitors, (MRAM) which research has indicated may allowwhere improved termination materials memory density of 400 GB per square inch.and electrode materials promise a further reduction in size  Developing molecular-sized transistors which mayand cost. In particular, reducing the electrode thickness in allow us to shrink the width of transistor gates tobase metal ceramic capacitors promises a significant approximately one nm which will significantlyimprovement increase transistor density in integrated circuits.  Using self-aligning nanostructures to manufacture
  3. 3. National Congress on Communications and Computer Aided Electronic Systems (CCAES 2012) nanoscale integrated circuits.  Using nanowires to build transistors without p-n junctions.  Using magnetic quantum dots in spintronic semiconductor devices. Spintronic devices are expected to be significantly higher density and lower power consumption because they measure the spin of electronics to determine a 1 or 0, rather than measuring groups of electronics as done in current semiconductor devices.  Using nanowires made of an alloy of iron and nickel to create dense memory devices. By applying a current magnetized sections along the length of the wire. As the magnetized sections move along the wire, the data is read by a stationary sensor. This method is called race track memory.IV. ConclusionOver the next five years there will be significantintroduction of nanomaterials and novel productionprocesses based on Nanotechnology which will address keyissues of importance to the electronics industry. Longer termthe use of Nanotechnology will allow us to meet customerrequirements by extending existing technologies orreplacing them with new ones.References1.Biotechnology & Nanotechnology Regulation UnderEnvironmental, Health, and Safety Laws by David Naiduand B. David Naidu (Hardcover - Jul 2009)2.Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience andNanotechnology - Six Volume Set (Print Version) by JamesA. Schwarz, Sergey Edward Lyshevski, Karol Putyera andCristian3. Nanotechnology and the Environment: Applications andImplications by Barbara Karn, Tina Masciangioli, Wei-xianZhang and Vicki Colvin4.Nanotechnology in Undergraduate Education by KimberlyA. O. Pacheco, Richard W. Schwenz and Wayne E. Jones