Energy Systems andEnergy Systems and
Human FitnessHuman Fitness
Fitness and training principlesFitness and training princi...
THE HEATH – CARTERTHE HEATH – CARTER
ANTHROPOMETRIC SOMATOTYPEANTHROPOMETRIC SOMATOTYPE
 The technique of somatotyping is...
Ten anthropometric measurements areTen anthropometric measurements are
needed to calculate the anthropometricneeded to cal...
 Skinfolds. Raise a fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue firmlySkinfolds. Raise a fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue fi...
 Biepicondylar breadth of the humerus, right. The widthBiepicondylar breadth of the humerus, right. The width
between the...
SUITABILITY OF PHYSIQUESUITABILITY OF PHYSIQUE
TRIATHLETETRIATHLETE
 Triathletes are more muscular than runners but with ...
BODY TYPES SOMATOTYPEBODY TYPES SOMATOTYPE
EndomorphEndomorph
 Oval-shaped personOval-shaped person
with concentration of...
BODY TYPES SOMATOTYPEBODY TYPES SOMATOTYPE
MesomorphMesomorph
 Big-chested personBig-chested person
endowed with denseend...
BODY TYPES SOMATOTYPEBODY TYPES SOMATOTYPE
EctomorphEctomorph
 Extreme thinness, protrudingExtreme thinness, protruding
n...
EVOLUTIONEVOLUTION
 MANMAN evolved from quadrupedalevolved from quadrupedal
to bipedal through adaptationsto bipedal thro...
THROUGH EVOLUTION:THROUGH EVOLUTION:
Changes to an upright postureChanges to an upright posture
1.1. VertebraeVertebrae ad...
POSTUREPOSTURE
STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURESTATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURE
 STATICSTATIC posture is when a person is inposture i...
WHY GOOD POSTURE?WHY GOOD POSTURE?
 Allows internal organs to be supported well.Allows internal organs to be supported we...
STRUCTURESTRUCTURE is related tois related to FUNCTION:FUNCTION:
 Functional deviations due to softFunctional deviations ...
POOR POSTUREPOOR POSTURE
Definition:Definition: The faulty relationship ofThe faulty relationship of
the various segments ...
WHAT CAUSES POOR POSTURE?WHAT CAUSES POOR POSTURE?
 Poor standing, sitting, walkingPoor standing, sitting, walking
 Poor...
SYMPTOMSSYMPTOMS
Symptoms of poor posture can include:Symptoms of poor posture can include:
 Rounded shouldersRounded sho...
MUSCLES AND POSTUREMUSCLES AND POSTURE
MUSCLES ASSISTING GRAVITY MUSCLES RESISTING GRAVITY
Pectorals, Latissimus Dorsi Tra...
 Postural mechanismsPostural mechanisms
Poor posture interferes with a number of the body's posturalPoor posture interfer...
Muscle strength and lengthMuscle strength and length
Over time, poor posture that demands support from fast-Over time, poo...
Listen to your bodyListen to your body
Good posture feels effortless, which is whyGood posture feels effortless, which is ...
POSTURE AND SOMATOTYPEPOSTURE AND SOMATOTYPE
ECTOMORPHS:ECTOMORPHS: have morehave more
postural deformities thanpostural d...
CAUSES OF POSTURAL DEFECTSCAUSES OF POSTURAL DEFECTS
CAUSE RESULT
Injury Weakens the support normally provided to the
tota...
POSTURAL DEFECTSPOSTURAL DEFECTS
DEFECT EXPLANATION/CAUSE/CORRECTION
ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR POSITION
POKED HEAD Neck is slight...
LATERAL
SCOLIOSIS Lateral curvature of the spine
In severe cases also causes longitudinal rotation of the
vertebrae
Caused...
DESIRABLE POSTURES FOR HIGH LEVEL SPORT PERFORMANCEDESIRABLE POSTURES FOR HIGH LEVEL SPORT PERFORMANCE
SPORT DESIRABLE POS...
IMPROVE YOUR GENERALIMPROVE YOUR GENERAL
POSTUREPOSTURE
Suggestions include:Suggestions include:
 Remember the rule of 'c...
ENVIRONMENTAL SUGGESTIONSENVIRONMENTAL SUGGESTIONS
Suggestions include:Suggestions include:
 Avoid sitting in soft, squas...
THINGS TO REMEMBERTHINGS TO REMEMBER
 The complications of poor postureThe complications of poor posture
include back pai...
NEW YORK POSTURENEW YORK POSTURE
RATING TESTRATING TEST
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Sports performance 1.5 somatotypes

  1. 1. Energy Systems andEnergy Systems and Human FitnessHuman Fitness Fitness and training principlesFitness and training principles
  2. 2. THE HEATH – CARTERTHE HEATH – CARTER ANTHROPOMETRIC SOMATOTYPEANTHROPOMETRIC SOMATOTYPE  The technique of somatotyping is used to appraise bodyThe technique of somatotyping is used to appraise body shape and composition.shape and composition.  It is expressed in a three-number rating representingIt is expressed in a three-number rating representing endomorphy (relative fatness), mesomorphy (relativeendomorphy (relative fatness), mesomorphy (relative musculoskeletal robustness) and ectomorphy (relativemusculoskeletal robustness) and ectomorphy (relative linearity or slenderness) – always in the same order.linearity or slenderness) – always in the same order.  Each component is rated. Ratings of ½ to 2 ½ areEach component is rated. Ratings of ½ to 2 ½ are considered low, 3 to 5 are moderate, 5 ½ to 7 are highconsidered low, 3 to 5 are moderate, 5 ½ to 7 are high and 7 ½ and above are very high.and 7 ½ and above are very high.  For example: a 3-7-1 rating may be that of a weight lifterFor example: a 3-7-1 rating may be that of a weight lifter (high musculature which has tendencies to mesomorph(high musculature which has tendencies to mesomorph composition) and a swimmer as 2-5-3composition) and a swimmer as 2-5-3
  3. 3. Ten anthropometric measurements areTen anthropometric measurements are needed to calculate the anthropometricneeded to calculate the anthropometric somatotype.somatotype.  Stature (height). Taken against a height scale orStature (height). Taken against a height scale or stadiometer. Take height with the subjectstadiometer. Take height with the subject standing straight, against an upright wall orstanding straight, against an upright wall or stadiometer, touching the wall with heels,stadiometer, touching the wall with heels, buttocks and back. Orient the head in thebuttocks and back. Orient the head in the Frankfort plane (the upper border of the earFrankfort plane (the upper border of the ear opening and the lower border of the eye socketopening and the lower border of the eye socket on a horizontal line), and the heels together.on a horizontal line), and the heels together. Instruct the subject to stretch upward and to takeInstruct the subject to stretch upward and to take and hold a full breath. Lower the headboard untiland hold a full breath. Lower the headboard until it firmly touches the vertex.it firmly touches the vertex.  Body mass (weight). The subject, wearingBody mass (weight). The subject, wearing minimal clothing, stands in the center of the scaleminimal clothing, stands in the center of the scale platform. Record weight to the nearest tenth of aplatform. Record weight to the nearest tenth of a kilogram. A correction is made for clothing so thatkilogram. A correction is made for clothing so that nude weight is used in subsequent calculations.nude weight is used in subsequent calculations.
  4. 4.  Skinfolds. Raise a fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue firmlySkinfolds. Raise a fold of skin and subcutaneous tissue firmly between thumb and forefinger of the left hand and away from thebetween thumb and forefinger of the left hand and away from the underlying muscle at the marked site. Apply the edge of theunderlying muscle at the marked site. Apply the edge of the plates on the caliper branches 1 cm below the fingers of the leftplates on the caliper branches 1 cm below the fingers of the left hand and allow them to exert their full pressure before reading athand and allow them to exert their full pressure before reading at 2 sec the thickness of the fold. Take all skinfolds on the right side2 sec the thickness of the fold. Take all skinfolds on the right side of the body. The subject stands relaxed, except for the calfof the body. The subject stands relaxed, except for the calf skinfold, which is taken with the subject seated.skinfold, which is taken with the subject seated.  Triceps skinfold. With the subject's arm hanging loosely in theTriceps skinfold. With the subject's arm hanging loosely in the anatomical position, raise a fold at the back of the arm at a levelanatomical position, raise a fold at the back of the arm at a level halfway on a line connecting the acromion and the olecranonhalfway on a line connecting the acromion and the olecranon processes.processes.  Subscapular skinfold. Raise the subscapular skinfold on a lineSubscapular skinfold. Raise the subscapular skinfold on a line from the inferior angle of the scapula in a direction that isfrom the inferior angle of the scapula in a direction that is obliquely downwards and laterally at 45 degrees.obliquely downwards and laterally at 45 degrees.  Supraspinale skinfold. Raise the fold 5-7 cm (depending on theSupraspinale skinfold. Raise the fold 5-7 cm (depending on the size of the subject) above the anterior superior iliac spine on asize of the subject) above the anterior superior iliac spine on a line to the anterior axillary border and on a diagonal line goingline to the anterior axillary border and on a diagonal line going downwards and medially at 45 degrees. (This skinfold wasdownwards and medially at 45 degrees. (This skinfold was formerly called suprailiac, or anterior suprailiac. The name hasformerly called suprailiac, or anterior suprailiac. The name has been changed to distinguish it from other skinfolds calledbeen changed to distinguish it from other skinfolds called "suprailiac", but taken at different locations.)"suprailiac", but taken at different locations.)  Medial calf skinfold. Raise a vertical skinfold on the medial sideMedial calf skinfold. Raise a vertical skinfold on the medial side of the leg, at the level of the maximum girth of the calf.of the leg, at the level of the maximum girth of the calf.
  5. 5.  Biepicondylar breadth of the humerus, right. The widthBiepicondylar breadth of the humerus, right. The width between the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus,between the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus, with the shoulder and elbow flexed to 90 degrees. Apply thewith the shoulder and elbow flexed to 90 degrees. Apply the caliper at an angle approximately bisecting the angle of thecaliper at an angle approximately bisecting the angle of the elbow. Place firm pressure on the crossbars in order toelbow. Place firm pressure on the crossbars in order to compress the subcutaneous tissue.compress the subcutaneous tissue.  Biepicondylar breadth of the femur, right. Seat the subject withBiepicondylar breadth of the femur, right. Seat the subject with knee bent at a right angle. Measure the greatest distanceknee bent at a right angle. Measure the greatest distance between the lateral and medial epicondyles of the femur withbetween the lateral and medial epicondyles of the femur with firm pressure on the crossbars in order to compress thefirm pressure on the crossbars in order to compress the subcutaneous tissue.subcutaneous tissue.  Upper arm girth, elbow flexed and tensed, right. The subjectUpper arm girth, elbow flexed and tensed, right. The subject flexes the shoulder to 90 degrees and the elbow to 45flexes the shoulder to 90 degrees and the elbow to 45 degrees, clenches the hand, and maximally contracts thedegrees, clenches the hand, and maximally contracts the elbow flexors and extensors. Take the measurement at theelbow flexors and extensors. Take the measurement at the greatest girth of the arm.greatest girth of the arm.  Calf girth, right. The subject stands with feet slightly apart.Calf girth, right. The subject stands with feet slightly apart. Place the tape around the calf and measure the maximumPlace the tape around the calf and measure the maximum circumference.circumference. From these measurements you can calculate the anthropometricFrom these measurements you can calculate the anthropometric somatotype bysomatotype by  Entering the data onto a somatotype formEntering the data onto a somatotype form  Entering the data into equations derived from the rating formEntering the data into equations derived from the rating form
  6. 6. SUITABILITY OF PHYSIQUESUITABILITY OF PHYSIQUE TRIATHLETETRIATHLETE  Triathletes are more muscular than runners but with less leg development than cyclists andTriathletes are more muscular than runners but with less leg development than cyclists and less upper body development than swimmers. Low body weight improves the power-to-less upper body development than swimmers. Low body weight improves the power-to- weight ratio.weight ratio. HOCKEYHOCKEY  Short legs boost balance and stability, allowing players to pivot. They also can preventShort legs boost balance and stability, allowing players to pivot. They also can prevent back injuries. Speed and aerobic endurance are musts.back injuries. Speed and aerobic endurance are musts. SWIMMERSSWIMMERS  Long arms and legs act as levers, allowing swimmers to produce greater force in the water.Long arms and legs act as levers, allowing swimmers to produce greater force in the water. Like flippers, big hands and feet propel the swimmer faster.Like flippers, big hands and feet propel the swimmer faster. DISTANCE RUNNERDISTANCE RUNNER  Light frames and low body fat levels conserve energy because the runner carries lessLight frames and low body fat levels conserve energy because the runner carries less weight. Muscles will ideally be slow twitch (or fatigue resistant), aiding enduranceweight. Muscles will ideally be slow twitch (or fatigue resistant), aiding endurance DISCUSDISCUS  Above average height allows a high release position, which adds distance to throws. AAbove average height allows a high release position, which adds distance to throws. A strong, heavy body boosts the throwers momentum. Must be muscular in upper and lowerstrong, heavy body boosts the throwers momentum. Must be muscular in upper and lower body but can carry a little fat.body but can carry a little fat. SPRINTERSPRINTER  All over muscle and lower body fat levels give sprinters their explosive powers. MusclesAll over muscle and lower body fat levels give sprinters their explosive powers. Muscles must be fast twitch, meaning they contract quickly. Height does not matter, so long asmust be fast twitch, meaning they contract quickly. Height does not matter, so long as stride length is efficient.stride length is efficient. NETBALLERNETBALLER  For mid court players, powerful legs enable leaps to intercept high passes and sprint speedFor mid court players, powerful legs enable leaps to intercept high passes and sprint speed to chase the ball. End court players are usually in the top 10 percent, with long arms forto chase the ball. End court players are usually in the top 10 percent, with long arms for shooting and defending.shooting and defending. WEIGHT LIFTERWEIGHT LIFTER  Short legs lower the weight lifters centre of gravity (CoG), improving stability. Short armsShort legs lower the weight lifters centre of gravity (CoG), improving stability. Short arms reduce the arc through which the weight must be lifted. A stocky, thick set adds power, butreduce the arc through which the weight must be lifted. A stocky, thick set adds power, but also stabilises and protects the joints.also stabilises and protects the joints. GYMNASTGYMNAST  Long limbs in relation to the body boost the gymnasts power-to-ratio. Low body fat resultsLong limbs in relation to the body boost the gymnasts power-to-ratio. Low body fat results in better muscle definition. Broad shoulders and narrow hips promote maximum upperin better muscle definition. Broad shoulders and narrow hips promote maximum upper body strength. Small compact gymnasts use less energy in difficult training regimesbody strength. Small compact gymnasts use less energy in difficult training regimes
  7. 7. BODY TYPES SOMATOTYPEBODY TYPES SOMATOTYPE EndomorphEndomorph  Oval-shaped personOval-shaped person with concentration ofwith concentration of weight in the centre ofweight in the centre of the body, abdominalthe body, abdominal sag, flabby limbs andsag, flabby limbs and poorly toned muscles.poorly toned muscles.  Prone to being fatProne to being fat because of a good foodbecause of a good food absorption system butabsorption system but too efficient storagetoo efficient storage (fats) system(fats) system
  8. 8. BODY TYPES SOMATOTYPEBODY TYPES SOMATOTYPE MesomorphMesomorph  Big-chested personBig-chested person endowed with denseendowed with dense muscle and huge,muscle and huge, strong bones. Althoughstrong bones. Although the body mass is wellthe body mass is well proportioned, this bodyproportioned, this body type has a tendency totype has a tendency to accumulate adiposeaccumulate adipose tissue in later adulttissue in later adult years, particularly ifyears, particularly if inactive.inactive.  Prone to muscularity.Prone to muscularity.
  9. 9. BODY TYPES SOMATOTYPEBODY TYPES SOMATOTYPE EctomorphEctomorph  Extreme thinness, protrudingExtreme thinness, protruding neck, sunken chest, roundneck, sunken chest, round shoulders, undersizedshoulders, undersized musculature and a fragilemusculature and a fragile skeletal system.skeletal system.  Thin because of a poor foodThin because of a poor food assimilation (protein couplingassimilation (protein coupling causing overheating and loss ofcausing overheating and loss of energy due to this) system.energy due to this) system. Everyone has some part of eachEveryone has some part of each of the three types, but those highof the three types, but those high in endomorphic characteristicsin endomorphic characteristics must regulate caloric intake tomust regulate caloric intake to avoid overweight.avoid overweight.
  10. 10. EVOLUTIONEVOLUTION  MANMAN evolved from quadrupedalevolved from quadrupedal to bipedal through adaptationsto bipedal through adaptations of the musculoskeletal systemof the musculoskeletal system over millions of years.over millions of years.  FOUR LEGGED ANIMALSFOUR LEGGED ANIMALS have a skeletal system similar inhave a skeletal system similar in shape to a bridge. They haveshape to a bridge. They have an arched backbone to supportan arched backbone to support internal structures.internal structures.
  11. 11. THROUGH EVOLUTION:THROUGH EVOLUTION: Changes to an upright postureChanges to an upright posture 1.1. VertebraeVertebrae adapted to the vertical weight bearingadapted to the vertical weight bearing stress, thus the vertebral arch evolved to an “S”stress, thus the vertebral arch evolved to an “S” shape.shape. 2.2. There became moreThere became more burden on the pelvisburden on the pelvis, thus, thus the shape of the pelvis changed to be able tothe shape of the pelvis changed to be able to support the weight of the upper body.support the weight of the upper body. 3.3. TheThe footfoot changed shape to permit bending andchanged shape to permit bending and twisting movements of the spine. The feet weretwisting movements of the spine. The feet were required more for weight bearing and less forrequired more for weight bearing and less for grasping and so the toes shortened. The arch ofgrasping and so the toes shortened. The arch of the foot had to bear more stress under the bodythe foot had to bear more stress under the body weight.weight. 4.4. The individual vertebrae changed shape to permitThe individual vertebrae changed shape to permit bending and twisting movements of the spine.bending and twisting movements of the spine. This change in shape has actually weakened theThis change in shape has actually weakened the vertebral column, particularly in the lumbar regionvertebral column, particularly in the lumbar region where herniated discs are common due to stress.where herniated discs are common due to stress.
  12. 12. POSTUREPOSTURE STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURESTATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURE  STATICSTATIC posture is when a person is inposture is when a person is in equilibrium or motionless.equilibrium or motionless.  DYNAMICDYNAMIC posture is when an individual isposture is when an individual is in motion.in motion. GOOD POSTURE:GOOD POSTURE:  Definition:Definition: A state of muscular andA state of muscular and skeletal balance, which protects theskeletal balance, which protects the supporting structures of the body againstsupporting structures of the body against progressive deformity or injury.progressive deformity or injury.  Advantages:Advantages: Mechanically functional andMechanically functional and economical.economical.
  13. 13. WHY GOOD POSTURE?WHY GOOD POSTURE?  Allows internal organs to be supported well.Allows internal organs to be supported well.  Gives impression of enthusiasm, confidence and initiative.Gives impression of enthusiasm, confidence and initiative. CENTRE OF GRAVITYCENTRE OF GRAVITY  The center of gravity is the point through which gravity acts. ItThe center of gravity is the point through which gravity acts. It passes between the hips and forward of the sacrum.passes between the hips and forward of the sacrum. WE MAINTAIN BALANCE BY?WE MAINTAIN BALANCE BY?  Eyes – visual cuesEyes – visual cues  Middle Ear – equilibriumMiddle Ear – equilibrium  Receptors in our joints and musclesReceptors in our joints and muscles WHEN ARE WE MOST STABLE?WHEN ARE WE MOST STABLE?  We are most stable in the sitting position because we have a wideWe are most stable in the sitting position because we have a wide base of support and a lowered Centre of gravitybase of support and a lowered Centre of gravity  We are least stable whilst standing because we have a small baseWe are least stable whilst standing because we have a small base of support and a raised Centre of gravity.of support and a raised Centre of gravity. GRAVITYGRAVITY pulls on bones and joints. Therefore:pulls on bones and joints. Therefore:  With a well aligned body, the bones take pressure of resisting gravityWith a well aligned body, the bones take pressure of resisting gravity and muscles maintain correct alignment.and muscles maintain correct alignment.  With a poorly aligned body, the muscles and ligaments bear theWith a poorly aligned body, the muscles and ligaments bear the strain of the effects of gravity. The muscles are unbalanced andstrain of the effects of gravity. The muscles are unbalanced and strained which leads to postural deviations.strained which leads to postural deviations.
  14. 14. STRUCTURESTRUCTURE is related tois related to FUNCTION:FUNCTION:  Functional deviations due to softFunctional deviations due to soft tissue response to exercise cantissue response to exercise can become structural deviations, whichbecome structural deviations, which result in permanent changes in boneresult in permanent changes in bone shape. This requires surgery orshape. This requires surgery or some other medical intervention (e.g.some other medical intervention (e.g. leg braces) to correct.leg braces) to correct.
  15. 15. POOR POSTUREPOOR POSTURE Definition:Definition: The faulty relationship ofThe faulty relationship of the various segments of the body,the various segments of the body, producing increased stress on theproducing increased stress on the supporting structures.supporting structures. Poor posture makes it more difficult toPoor posture makes it more difficult to maintain efficient balance over themaintain efficient balance over the base of support and causes sagging,base of support and causes sagging, which will permanently stretchwhich will permanently stretch muscle groups.muscle groups.
  16. 16. WHAT CAUSES POOR POSTURE?WHAT CAUSES POOR POSTURE?  Poor standing, sitting, walkingPoor standing, sitting, walking  Poor nutrition (e.g. rickets causes bowPoor nutrition (e.g. rickets causes bow legs)legs)  Lack of exercise (muscle atrophy – waste)Lack of exercise (muscle atrophy – waste)  Fatigue/sicknessFatigue/sickness  Clothing – high heeled shoes causeClothing – high heeled shoes cause lordosislordosis  Poorly designed furniture – shape of chairsPoorly designed furniture – shape of chairs to promote good sitting postureto promote good sitting posture  Specific sports – gymnastics (lordosis);Specific sports – gymnastics (lordosis); breastroke (round shoulders)breastroke (round shoulders)  Emotional/Self esteem Factors – hunchEmotional/Self esteem Factors – hunch shouldersshoulders
  17. 17. SYMPTOMSSYMPTOMS Symptoms of poor posture can include:Symptoms of poor posture can include:  Rounded shouldersRounded shoulders  PotbellyPotbelly  Bent knees when standing or walkingBent knees when standing or walking  Head that either leans forward or backwardHead that either leans forward or backward  Back painBack pain  Body aches and painsBody aches and pains  Muscle fatigueMuscle fatigue  Headache.Headache.
  18. 18. MUSCLES AND POSTUREMUSCLES AND POSTURE MUSCLES ASSISTING GRAVITY MUSCLES RESISTING GRAVITY Pectorals, Latissimus Dorsi Trapezius Erector Spinae Abdominals Ilio Psoas Gluteals Hamstrings Quadraceps Gastrocnemius, Soleus Tibialis anterior YOU NEED TO STRETCH THESE TO MAINTAIN CORRECT POSTURE YOU NEED TO WORK THESE MUSCLES TO MAINTAIN CORRECT POSTURE
  19. 19.  Postural mechanismsPostural mechanisms Poor posture interferes with a number of the body's posturalPoor posture interferes with a number of the body's postural mechanisms, including:mechanisms, including:  Slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibresSlow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibres  Muscle strength and lengthMuscle strength and length  Nervous system feedback on the body's position in space.Nervous system feedback on the body's position in space. Slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibresSlow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibres Skeletal muscle is made up of two types of muscle fibre - slow-Skeletal muscle is made up of two types of muscle fibre - slow- twitch and fast-twitch. Generally, slow-twitch muscle fibres aretwitch and fast-twitch. Generally, slow-twitch muscle fibres are found in the deeper muscle layers. They help us to maintainfound in the deeper muscle layers. They help us to maintain posture without too much effort, and contribute to balance byposture without too much effort, and contribute to balance by 'sensing' our position and relaying this information to the brain.'sensing' our position and relaying this information to the brain. Fast-twitch muscle fibres are used for movement and activity.Fast-twitch muscle fibres are used for movement and activity. Slow-twitch fibres burn energy slowly and can keep working for aSlow-twitch fibres burn energy slowly and can keep working for a long time without tiring. However, fast-twitch fibres quickly run outlong time without tiring. However, fast-twitch fibres quickly run out of steam. Poor posture causes muscle fatigue because it calls onof steam. Poor posture causes muscle fatigue because it calls on the fast-twitch fibres instead of slow-twitch fibres to maintain thethe fast-twitch fibres instead of slow-twitch fibres to maintain the body's position.body's position.
  20. 20. Muscle strength and lengthMuscle strength and length Over time, poor posture that demands support from fast-Over time, poor posture that demands support from fast- twitch fibres causes the deeper supporting muscles totwitch fibres causes the deeper supporting muscles to waste away from lack of use. Weak, unused muscles tendwaste away from lack of use. Weak, unused muscles tend to tighten, and this shortening of muscle length canto tighten, and this shortening of muscle length can compact the bones of the spine (vertebrae) and worsencompact the bones of the spine (vertebrae) and worsen posture.posture. Nervous system feedback on the body's position inNervous system feedback on the body's position in spacespace The deeper layers of muscle are concerned with 'sensing'The deeper layers of muscle are concerned with 'sensing' our position in space and relaying this information to theour position in space and relaying this information to the brain. If this function is taken over by muscles that mainlybrain. If this function is taken over by muscles that mainly contain fast-twitch fibres, the brain gets an incompletecontain fast-twitch fibres, the brain gets an incomplete picture. The brain assumes that the body needs to bepicture. The brain assumes that the body needs to be propped up to counteract the effects of gravity, so itpropped up to counteract the effects of gravity, so it triggers further muscle contraction. This adds to thetriggers further muscle contraction. This adds to the general fatigue and pain felt by the person with poorgeneral fatigue and pain felt by the person with poor posture.posture.
  21. 21. Listen to your bodyListen to your body Good posture feels effortless, which is whyGood posture feels effortless, which is why traditional 'good posture' suggestions liketraditional 'good posture' suggestions like throwing your shoulders back and stickingthrowing your shoulders back and sticking out your chest may feel uncomfortable too.out your chest may feel uncomfortable too. Instead, listen to your body. Make minorInstead, listen to your body. Make minor adjustments while standing and sitting.adjustments while standing and sitting. Which position feels the easiest and mostWhich position feels the easiest and most graceful? In most cases, concentrating ongraceful? In most cases, concentrating on other tasks (such as work) can directother tasks (such as work) can direct attention away from any feelings ofattention away from any feelings of physical discomfort. Get into the habit ofphysical discomfort. Get into the habit of regularly tuning in to your body. If you feelregularly tuning in to your body. If you feel muscle tension or fatigue, move intomuscle tension or fatigue, move into another position.another position.
  22. 22. POSTURE AND SOMATOTYPEPOSTURE AND SOMATOTYPE ECTOMORPHS:ECTOMORPHS: have morehave more postural deformities thanpostural deformities than other groups and are relatedother groups and are related to the vertebral column e.g.to the vertebral column e.g. poked head, round shoulders,poked head, round shoulders, kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis.kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis. ENDOMORPHS:ENDOMORPHS: suffersuffer mainly from leg deformities,mainly from leg deformities, due to the added burden ofdue to the added burden of extra weight e.g. knockextra weight e.g. knock knees, flat feet, duck feetknees, flat feet, duck feet MESOMORPHS:MESOMORPHS: tend to betend to be free from postural defects.free from postural defects.
  23. 23. CAUSES OF POSTURAL DEFECTSCAUSES OF POSTURAL DEFECTS CAUSE RESULT Injury Weakens the support normally provided to the total framework. Disease Weakens bones and muscles and causes joints to lose their strength e.g. arthritis, osteoporosis. Habit Acquired by repeating the same body alignment e.g. leaning over a desk, slouching in a chair. When body segments are held out of alignment for extended period of time the surrounding muscles rest in a lengthened or shortened position. Skeletal Imbalance Mostly seen in the lower limbs e.g. in extreme cases would result in scoliosis. Other causes Mental attitude Wearing high heals
  24. 24. POSTURAL DEFECTSPOSTURAL DEFECTS DEFECT EXPLANATION/CAUSE/CORRECTION ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR POSITION POKED HEAD Neck is slightly flexed Head is partially tilted forward Associated with round shoulders (abducted scapula) Correction - stretch anterior neck muscles - strengthen posterior muscles ROUND SHOULDERS Due to a weakened trapezius and rhomboid muscles Correction - stretch anterior thoracic muscles of the upper body - strengthen adductor muscles of the scapula KYPHOSIS (round-back, Sheuermannis disease) Increases the curve in the thoracic region. Correction - stretch the upper anterior thoracic region - strengthen the muscles of the posterior thoracic region. LORDOSIS (hollow back) Caused by the pelvis tilting too far forward (anterior pelvic tilt – APT). Abdominal muscles become stretched and weakened. Correction - stretch erector spinae and hip flexors - strengthen thigh extensors and abdominals
  25. 25. LATERAL SCOLIOSIS Lateral curvature of the spine In severe cases also causes longitudinal rotation of the vertebrae Caused by uneven leg lengths, muscle imbalance and ligament lengthening Begins with an e-shaped curve = functional scoliosis Correction - for functional scoliosis: •Use orthotic device in shoe which increases leg length •Exercises to develop flexibility in the •thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine Bow Legs and Knock Knees Genetic Needs medical attention early in life Correction - general strengthening exercises for leg muscles Inverted feet “Pigeon Toes” Internal rotation at the hip joint leading to inward knee rotation leading to inverted feet. Correction - stretch medial rotators of the hip joint -strengthen lateral rotators of the hip joint Pronated (everted) Feet “Duck Feet” Protruding medial malleolus/pseudo flat feet Correction - exercises: toe flexion, foot plantar flexion, Supination
  26. 26. DESIRABLE POSTURES FOR HIGH LEVEL SPORT PERFORMANCEDESIRABLE POSTURES FOR HIGH LEVEL SPORT PERFORMANCE SPORT DESIRABLE POSTURE Racquet Sports • Inverted feet (pigeon toes) results in a speed advantage over a short distance because they have to take short steps. Swimming • People with inverted feet are suited to backstroke, freestyle and butterfly. • People with everted feet (duck feet) are suited to breastroke. Gymnastics • Female gymnasts with lordosis and APT are able to hyperextend their spine more easily. Sprinting • Athletes with APT and protruding buttocks are excellent sprinters. • Common in Africans and European females. • Athletes who also have “overhanging knee” where the patella is forward of the ankle joint have an advantage in sprinting. Cycling • Characteristics are thought to relate to heavy training rather than predisposed bone shape. • Cyclists have slightly rounded backs and “overhanging knee”. • “overhanging knee” is due to the heavy musculature in the thighs and buttocks. Contact Sports • Reasonable degree of spinal curvature • Inverted feet to promote quick stepping • APT, protruding buttocks and “overhanging knee” for players who need bursts of speed. Court Sports • APT, protruding buttocks, “overhanging knee”. • Reasonable spinal curvature • Inverted feet promotes fast steps and good balance.
  27. 27. IMPROVE YOUR GENERALIMPROVE YOUR GENERAL POSTUREPOSTURE Suggestions include:Suggestions include:  Remember the rule of 'curve reversal' - for example, ifRemember the rule of 'curve reversal' - for example, if you've been leaning over your desk, stretch back theyou've been leaning over your desk, stretch back the other way.other way.  Perform stretching exercises two or three times per weekPerform stretching exercises two or three times per week to boost muscle flexibility.to boost muscle flexibility.  Exercise regularly to improve muscle strength and tone.Exercise regularly to improve muscle strength and tone.  Stretch your neck muscles regularly by turning your headStretch your neck muscles regularly by turning your head from one side to another.from one side to another.  Your abdominal muscles support your lower back, soYour abdominal muscles support your lower back, so make sure they are in good condition. Do 'abdominalmake sure they are in good condition. Do 'abdominal crunches' (lie on your back and curl your ribcage andcrunches' (lie on your back and curl your ribcage and pelvis as close together as possible) rather than straight-pelvis as close together as possible) rather than straight- backed sit-ups (which exercise the muscles of the hipsbacked sit-ups (which exercise the muscles of the hips and thighs).and thighs).  Avoid standing on one foot for long periods of time.Avoid standing on one foot for long periods of time.  Cross your legs at the ankle, rather than the knee.Cross your legs at the ankle, rather than the knee.
  28. 28. ENVIRONMENTAL SUGGESTIONSENVIRONMENTAL SUGGESTIONS Suggestions include:Suggestions include:  Avoid sitting in soft, squashy chairs.Avoid sitting in soft, squashy chairs.  Use lumbar rolls to support your lower backUse lumbar rolls to support your lower back when sitting in regular chairs or driving thewhen sitting in regular chairs or driving the car.car.  Switch to ergonomic chairs in the office, orSwitch to ergonomic chairs in the office, or for any activity that requires you to sit forfor any activity that requires you to sit for long periods of time.long periods of time.  Make sure your mattress is supportiveMake sure your mattress is supportive enough to keep your spine straight whenenough to keep your spine straight when lying on your side.lying on your side.  Use a pillow that supports your neck.Use a pillow that supports your neck.  Keep your back straight and use your thighKeep your back straight and use your thigh muscles when lifting heavy weights.muscles when lifting heavy weights.
  29. 29. THINGS TO REMEMBERTHINGS TO REMEMBER  The complications of poor postureThe complications of poor posture include back pain, spinalinclude back pain, spinal dysfunction, joint degeneration,dysfunction, joint degeneration, rounded shoulders and a potbelly.rounded shoulders and a potbelly.  Suggestions to improve your postureSuggestions to improve your posture include regular exercise andinclude regular exercise and stretching, ergonomic furniture, andstretching, ergonomic furniture, and paying attention to the way yourpaying attention to the way your body feels.body feels.
  30. 30. NEW YORK POSTURENEW YORK POSTURE RATING TESTRATING TEST
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