Great depression gov't response


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Great depression gov't response

  1. 1. THE GREAT DEPRESSION and the GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSE Photos by photographer Dorothea Lange
  2. 2. HAWLEY-SMOOT TARIFF <ul><li>The U.S. was not the only country gripped by the Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Much of Europe suffered throughout the 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>In 1930, Congress passed the toughest tariff in U.S. history called the </li></ul><ul><li>Hawley- Smoot Tariff </li></ul><ul><li>It was meant to protect U.S. industry yet had the opposite effect </li></ul><ul><li>Other countries enacted their own tariffs and soon world trade fell 40% </li></ul>
  3. 3. HOOVER’S PHILOSOPHY <ul><li>Hoover was not quick to react to the depression </li></ul><ul><li>He believed in “rugged individualism” – the idea that people succeed through their own efforts </li></ul><ul><li>People should take care of themselves, not depend on governmental hand-outs </li></ul><ul><li>He said people should “pull themselves up by their bootstraps” </li></ul>Hoover believed it was the individuals job to take care of themselves, not the governments
  4. 4. HOOVER’S SUCCESSFUL DAM PROJECT <ul><li>Hoover successfully organized and authorized the construction of the Boulder Dam (Now called the Hoover Dam) </li></ul><ul><li>The $700 million project was the world’s tallest dam (726 feet) and the second largest (1,244 feet long) </li></ul><ul><li>The dam currently provides electricity, flood control and water for 7 western states </li></ul>
  5. 5. Any dam questions?
  6. 6. HOOVER TAKES ACTION: TOO LITTLE TOO LATE <ul><li>Hoover gradually softened his position on government intervention in the economy </li></ul><ul><li>He created the Federal Farm Board to help farmers </li></ul><ul><li>He also created the National Credit Organization that helped smaller banks </li></ul><ul><li>His Federal Home Loan Bank Act and Reconstruction Finance Corp were two measures enacted to protect people’s homes and businesses </li></ul>Hoover’s flurry of activity came too late to save the economy or his job
  7. 7. BONUS ARMY <ul><li>A 1932 incident further damaged Hoover’s image </li></ul><ul><li>That spring about 15,000 World War I vets arrived in Washington to support a proposed bill </li></ul><ul><li>The Patman Bill would have authorized Congress to pay a bonus to WWI vets immediately </li></ul><ul><li>The bonus was scheduled to be paid in 1945 --- The Army vets wanted it NOW </li></ul>
  8. 8. BONUS ARMY TURNED DOWN <ul><li>Hoover called the Bonus marchers, “Communists and criminals” </li></ul><ul><li>On June 17, 1932 the Senate voted down the Patman Bill </li></ul>Thousands of Bonus Army soldiers protest – Spring 1932
  9. 9. BONUS MARCHERS CLASH WITH SOLDIERS <ul><li>Hoover told the Bonus marchers to go home– most did </li></ul><ul><li>2,000 refused to leave </li></ul><ul><li>Hoover sent a force of 1,000 soldiers under the command of General Douglas MacArthur and his aide Dwight Eisenhower </li></ul>
  10. 10. AMERICANS SHOCKED AT TREATMENT OF WWI VETS <ul><li>MacArthur’s 12 th infantry gassed more than 1,000 marchers, including an 11-month old baby, who died </li></ul><ul><li>Two vets were shot and scores injured </li></ul><ul><li>Americans were outraged and once again, Hoover’s image suffered </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hoover had little chance to be re-elected in 1932
  12. 12. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) Elected President, 1932 on promise of getting the economy back on its feet. In 1933, after only a few weeks in office, he proposes a plan called The New Deal.
  13. 13. “ The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” In his first inaugural address, FDR soothed U.S. citizens with these words. FDR’s New Deal plan offered new federal programs to improve the economy and help those in need. He also begins a series of radio talks called the “Fireside Chats.” He spoke on the air about conditions in the nation and what the gov’t. was doing about them. These informal talks help make people feel more hopeful.
  14. 14. Major New Deal Acts and Agencies <ul><li>Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA): </li></ul><ul><li>- Provided funds for local and state relief organizations. </li></ul>From May 1933 until it closed in December, 1935, FERA gave states and localities $3.1 billion. FERA provided work for over 20 million people and developed facilities on public lands across the country
  15. 15. <ul><li>National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA): </li></ul><ul><li>Created work codes and industry safety regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): </li></ul><ul><li>Gave 2.5 million young men work in environmental </li></ul><ul><li>improvement projects. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Social Security Act: - Gave benefits to the elderly and orphaned and to people injured in industrial accidents. Social Security is currently estimated to keep roughly 40% of all Americans age 65 or older out of poverty Most women and minorities were initially excluded from the benefits of unemployment insurance and old age pensions. Employment definitions reflected typical white male categories and patterns. Nearly two-thirds of all African Americans in the labor force, 70 to 80% in some areas in the South, and just over half of all women employed were not covered by Social Security. ] Amendments over the years have changed that.
  17. 17. <ul><li>Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): </li></ul><ul><li>Gave farmers money to make up for the government’s </li></ul><ul><li>request to bring fewer crops to market. </li></ul><ul><li>Works Progress Administration (WPA): </li></ul><ul><li>Provided government funds for constructing buildings </li></ul><ul><li>and to hire writers and artists. </li></ul>Almost every community in the United States had a park, bridge or school constructed by the agency. <ul><li>Tennessee Valley Authority ( TVA ): </li></ul><ul><li>Provided funds to develop the Tennessee River Valley. </li></ul>Serves 9 million people in seven states.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Farm Security Administration (FSA): </li></ul><ul><li>Lent money to sharecroppers and tenant farmers </li></ul><ul><li>to help them buy their own land. Later becomes FHA. </li></ul>The FSA is famous for its small but highly influential photography program, 1935–44, that portrayed the challenges of rural poverty.
  19. 19. <ul><li>National Labor Relations Board (NLRB): </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed workers the right to join labor unions and </li></ul><ul><li>call strikes. </li></ul>