Macromolecules<br />
Macromolecules = big<br />4 classes <br />Carbohydrates<br />Proteins<br />Nucleic Acids<br />Lipids <br />Polymers<br />
Polymer<br />Monomer<br />One part<br />Repeating subunits of polymer<br />Many parts<br />Long mol <br />Made of similar ...
A. Carbohydrates<br />Sugars & sugar polymers<br />~CxH2xOx<br />
1. Monosaccharides<br />Single sugars<br />Major nutrient for cells<br />EX: glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose * deoxyr...
2. Disaccharides<br />2 sugars<br />Joined by glycosidic linkage <br />Cov bond formed btwn 2 monosaccharides by dehyd rxn...
CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H...
3. Polysaccharides<br />Few 100 to 1000s of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage<br />2 Functions: <br />Storage<b...
Cellulose microfibrils <br />in a plant cell wall<br />Microfibril<br />Cell walls<br /><br />0.5 m<br />Plant cells<br ...
1. Fats<br />Compsd of glycerol & FAs (FA is 16-18 C long HC)<br />Saturated – as many Hs as possible; solid; animal<br />...
2. Phospholipds<br />Main cmpnt of cell memb<br />Form bilayer<br />Ambivalent behavior<br />WATER<br />Hydrophilic<br />h...
3. Steroids<br />C skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings<br />EX: Cholesterol<br />Common component of animal cell memb<br ...
C. Proteins<br />50% dry mass of cells<br />Enzyme = protein that ∆s rate of chem rxn w/o being consumed by rxn<br />Catal...
+H3N<br />Amino end<br />Amino acid<br />subunits<br />helix<br />Protein Conformation & Function(Sanger)4 levels:<br />...
Changes in Proteins<br />Sickle Cell<br />∆ in 1 AA<br />valine subbed for normal glutamic acid<br />Denaturation<br />∆ i...
18<br />X-raydiffraction pattern<br />Photographic film<br />Diffracted X-rays<br />X-ray beam<br />X-raysource<br />Cryst...
Store & transmit genetic info<br />Gene = unit of inheritance<br />2 Types: DNA & RNA<br />Made of repeating subunits: nuc...
Macromolecules
Macromolecules
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Macromolecules

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Macromolecules

  1. 1. Macromolecules<br />
  2. 2. Macromolecules = big<br />4 classes <br />Carbohydrates<br />Proteins<br />Nucleic Acids<br />Lipids <br />Polymers<br />
  3. 3. Polymer<br />Monomer<br />One part<br />Repeating subunits of polymer<br />Many parts<br />Long mol <br />Made of similar or identical building blocks<br />Parts linked together by covalent bonds<br /><ul><li>Joined by condensation rxn (dehydration rxn – H20 is lost)</li></ul>- req’snrg<br /><ul><li>Disassemble by hydrolysis – opposite of dehyd rxn</li></li></ul><li>1<br />HO<br />H<br />3<br />2<br />HO<br />H<br />Unlinked monomer<br />Short polymer<br />Dehydration removes a watermolecule, forming a new bond<br />H2O<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />HO<br />H<br />Longer polymer<br />(a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer<br />Figure 5.2A<br />
  4. 4. A. Carbohydrates<br />Sugars & sugar polymers<br />~CxH2xOx<br />
  5. 5. 1. Monosaccharides<br />Single sugars<br />Major nutrient for cells<br />EX: glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose * deoxyribose<br />Triose sugars(C3H6O3)<br />Pentose sugars(C5H10O5)<br />Hexose sugars(C6H12O6)<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />C<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />HO C H<br />HO C H<br />Aldoses<br />H<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />HO C H<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />Glyceraldehyde<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H<br />Ribose<br />H<br />H<br />Glucose<br />Galactose<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />C O<br />C O<br />C O<br />HO C H<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />Ketoses<br />H<br />Dihydroxyacetone<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H C OH<br />H<br />Ribulose<br />H<br />Figure 5.3<br />Fructose<br />
  6. 6. 2. Disaccharides<br />2 sugars<br />Joined by glycosidic linkage <br />Cov bond formed btwn 2 monosaccharides by dehyd rxn<br />EX: <br />Glucose + glucose = maltose<br />Glucose + fructose = sucrose<br />Glucose + galactose = lactose<br />
  7. 7. CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />1–4glycosidiclinkage<br />HOH<br />HOH<br />HOH<br />HOH<br />4<br />1<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />OH<br />OH<br />O<br />H<br />OH<br />HO<br />HO<br />OH<br />O<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />H2O<br />Glucose<br />Maltose<br />Glucose<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />1–2glycosidiclinkage<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />HOH<br />HOH<br />H<br />2<br />1<br />H<br />OH<br />H<br />HO<br />H<br />HO<br />H<br />HO<br />H<br />O<br />O<br />HO<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />OH<br />H<br />H<br />OH<br />H<br />H<br />OH<br />OH<br />H2O<br />Glucose<br />Sucrose<br />Fructose<br />
  8. 8. 3. Polysaccharides<br />Few 100 to 1000s of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage<br />2 Functions: <br />Storage<br />Structural<br />Starch – <br />glucose polymer in plants<br />α configuration (helical)<br />Stored as granules in plastids<br />EX: amylose & amylopectin<br />Glycogen – <br />Glucose polymer in animals<br />Extensively branched<br />Stored in liver & muscles of humans<br />Cellulose <br />Glucose polymer in plants<br />β configuration (helical )<br />Major cmpnt of cw in plants<br />Most abundant org cmpd on E<br />Difficult to digest<br />Req’s symbiotic relationships<br />EX: bact & cows; termites & flagellates<br />Chitin<br />Used for cw of fungi<br />Used for exoskeleton of arthropods<br />
  9. 9. Cellulose microfibrils <br />in a plant cell wall<br />Microfibril<br />Cell walls<br /><br />0.5 m<br />Plant cells<br />1 m<br />OH<br />OH<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />0.5 m<br />OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />OH<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />OH<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />OH<br />CH2OH<br />OH<br />CH2OH<br />Amylose<br />Amylopectin<br />CH2OH<br />CH2OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />Glycogen<br />O<br />OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />OH<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />O<br />OH<br />CH2OH<br />OH<br />CH2OH<br /><ul><li>Glucose monomer</li></li></ul><li>B. Lipids<br />hydrophobic<br />
  10. 10. 1. Fats<br />Compsd of glycerol & FAs (FA is 16-18 C long HC)<br />Saturated – as many Hs as possible; solid; animal<br />Unsaturated – missing Hs; double bonds; liquid; plant<br />Trans – hydrogenated; added Hs *health probs<br />Function – nrg storage (lt wt – animals mobile)<br />
  11. 11. 2. Phospholipds<br />Main cmpnt of cell memb<br />Form bilayer<br />Ambivalent behavior<br />WATER<br />Hydrophilic<br />head <br />WATER<br />Hydrophobic<br />tail <br />
  12. 12. 3. Steroids<br />C skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings<br />EX: Cholesterol<br />Common component of animal cell memb<br />Precursor from which other steroids are made<br />Hormones are prod’d from cholesterol<br />H3C<br />CH3<br />CH3<br />CH3<br />CH3<br />HO<br />
  13. 13. C. Proteins<br />50% dry mass of cells<br />Enzyme = protein that ∆s rate of chem rxn w/o being consumed by rxn<br />Catalyst = enzyme that speeds up rxn<br />Polypeptides = polymer of AAs<br />20 AAs<br />Protein consists of 1 or + pptds folded & coiled into specific conformations<br />AA monomers are held together by peptide bonds<br />
  14. 14. +H3N<br />Amino end<br />Amino acid<br />subunits<br />helix<br />Protein Conformation & Function(Sanger)4 levels:<br /> Primary (1°)<br />Sequence of AAs<br />Linear<br />Secondary (2°)<br />H bonds of ppt backbone responsible for:<br />α-helix (H bonds btwn every 4thAA)<br />β-pleated sheet (H bonds btwn parts of a II pptd backbones)<br />Tertiary (3°)<br />Overall shape of pptd due to interxns of side chains<br />H bonds, ionic bonds & disulfide bridges<br />Quanternary(4°)<br />Way 2 or more pptds fold together<br />
  15. 15. Changes in Proteins<br />Sickle Cell<br />∆ in 1 AA<br />valine subbed for normal glutamic acid<br />Denaturation<br />∆ in protein shape  inactive<br />Can be caused by<br />pH<br />[salt]<br />Temp<br />Denaturation<br />Denatured protein<br />Normal protein<br />Renaturation<br />Figure 5.22<br />
  16. 16. 18<br />X-raydiffraction pattern<br />Photographic film<br />Diffracted X-rays<br />X-ray beam<br />X-raysource<br />Crystal<br />Nucleic acid<br />Protein<br />(b) 3D computer model<br />(a) X-ray diffraction pattern<br />X-ray crystallography<br />Is used to determine a protein’s three-dimensional structure<br />Figure 5.24<br />
  17. 17. Store & transmit genetic info<br />Gene = unit of inheritance<br />2 Types: DNA & RNA<br />Made of repeating subunits: nucleotides<br />Sugar<br />Phosphate<br />Base<br />Nucleoside<br />Nitrogenous<br />base<br />O<br />5’C<br />O<br />O<br />CH2<br />P<br />O<br />O<br />Phosphate<br />group<br />3’C<br />Pentose<br />sugar<br />Figure 5.26 <br />(b) Nucleotide<br />Nucleic Acids<br />

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