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  1. 1. Reproduction<br />
  2. 2. Asexual Reproduction<br />Without fusion of gametes<br />Types:<br />Fission – splitting into two<br />Budding – new org grows off of another org<br />Fragmentation – new org develops from piece of other org (accompanied by regeneration)<br />Parthenogenesis – org develops from unfertilized egg (all offspring female)<br />
  3. 3. Hermaphrodites<br />Produce both egg and sperm<br />1⁰ly orgs that are sessile, burrow or are parasites<br />May self fertilize, most cross fertilize<br />Some sp have sequential hermaphrodism – ind reverses sex during its lifetime<br />
  4. 4. Fertilization<br />Union of egg and sperm<br />May be:<br />External: eggs released into wet envir then male fertilizes<br />Internal: sperm is deposited in or near female reproductive tract<br />Adaptation of terrestrial animals<br />Pheromones – chem signals released by org that influence other membs of same sp<br />
  5. 5. (Urinary<br />bladder)<br />Seminal vesicle<br />(Rectum)<br />(Pubic bone)<br />(Urinarybladder)<br />Seminal<br />vesicle<br />(behind<br /> bladder)<br />Erectile<br />tissue of<br />penis<br />Vas deferens<br />Ejaculatory duct<br />Prostate gland<br />Prostate gland<br />Urethra<br />Bulbourethral gland<br />Glans penis<br />Bulbourethral gland<br />Urethra<br />Vas deferens<br />Epididymis<br />Testis<br />Erectile tissue<br />of penis<br />Prepuce<br />Scrotum<br />Scrotum<br />Vas deferens<br />Epididymis<br /> Glans penis<br />Testis<br />Figure 46.10<br />Male Reproductive System<br />Seminiferous tubules<br />Leydig cells<br />Baculum<br />
  6. 6. Uterus<br />(Urinary bladder)<br />Oviduct<br />Oviduct<br />Ovaries<br />(Pubic bone)<br />Ovary<br />(Rectum)<br />Follicles<br />Endometrium<br />Uterine wall<br />Uterus<br />Cervix<br />Cervix<br />Corpus luteum<br />Vagina<br />Urethra<br />Shaft<br />Bartholin’s gland<br />Glans<br />Clitoris<br />Vagina<br />Prepuce<br />Labia minora<br />Vaginal opening<br />Labia majora<br />Figure 46.9<br />Female Reproductive System <br />
  7. 7. Female Reproductive System<br />Ovaries<br />Follicle<br />Ovulation<br />Corpus luteum<br />Oviduct<br />Uterus<br />Endometrium<br />Cervix<br />Vagina<br />Vulva<br />Labia majora/labia minora<br />clitoris<br />
  8. 8. Ovary<br />Primary germ cell in embryo<br />Differentiation<br />Oogonium<br />in ovary<br />Oogonium<br />2n<br />Mitotic<br />division<br />Primary<br />oocyte<br />within<br />follicle<br />Primary oocyte,<br />arrested in prophase<br />of meiosis I<br />(present at birth)<br />2n<br />Growing<br />follicle<br />Completion of meiosis I<br />and onset of meiosis II<br />n<br />First<br />polar<br />body<br />Secondary oocyte,<br />arrested at meta-<br />phase of meiosis II<br />n<br />Ovulation<br />Mature follicle<br />Entry of<br />sperm triggers<br />completion of<br />meiosis II<br />n<br />n<br />Ruptured<br />follicle<br />Ovum<br />Ovulated<br />secondary oocyte<br />Corpus luteum<br />Degenerating<br />corpus luteum<br />Figure 46.11<br />Spermatogenesis<br />Continuous & prolific<br />Occurs in seminiferous tubules<br />100-650 million sperm cells/ ejaculation<br />Oogenesis<br />Unequal cytokinesis<br />Polar bodies degenerate<br />Not throughout lifetime<br />Lone resting periods<br />Gametogenesis<br />
  9. 9. Menstrual & Estrus Cycles<br />Menstrual<br />Estrus<br />Humans & primates<br />If fert doesn’t occur: endometrium is shed (menstration)<br />Copulate through cycle<br />Cycle is 20-40 days (ideally 28)<br />Other mammals<br />If fert doesn’t occur: endometrium is reabsorbed (no bleeding)<br />More pronounced behavior changes<br />Seasons and climate have more of an effect on estrus<br />Copulate only around ovualtion (=estrus aka heat)<br />Estrus:<br />rat = 5 days<br />Bears & dogs 1 cycle/year<br /><ul><li>Ovulation occurs after endometrium thickens to allow implantation</li></li></ul><li>Control by hypothalamus<br />Inhibited by combination of <br />estrogen and progesterone<br />Hypothalamus<br />Stimulated by high levels<br />of estrogen<br />GnRH<br />(a)<br />Anterior pituitary<br />Inhibited by low levels of<br />estrogen<br />LH<br />FSH<br />1<br />Pituitary gonadotropins<br />in blood<br />2<br />(b)<br />6<br />LH<br />FSH<br />FSH and LH stimulate<br />follicle to grow<br />LH surge triggers<br />ovulation<br />Ovarian cycle<br />3<br />(c)<br />7<br />8<br />Corpus<br />luteum<br />Degenerating <br />corpus luteum<br />Growing follicle<br />Mature<br />follicle<br />Luteal phase<br />Ovulation<br />Follicular phase<br />Progesterone and<br />estrogen secreted<br />by corpus luteum<br />Estrogen secreted<br />by growing follicle in<br />increasing amounts<br />Peak causes <br />LH surge<br />4<br />Ovarian hormones<br />in blood<br />(d)<br />5<br />Progesterone<br />Estrogen<br />10<br />Progesterone and estro-<br />gen promote thickening<br />of endometrium<br />Estrogen level<br />very low<br />9<br />Uterine (menstrual) cycle<br />(e)<br />Endometrium<br />Secretory phase<br />Menstrual flow phase<br />Proliferative phase<br />Figure 46.13a–e<br />25<br />28<br />5<br />14<br />15<br />0<br />20<br />10<br />Days<br />Ovarian & Uterine Cycle<br />
  10. 10. Menopause<br />Cessation of ovulation & menstration<br />Occurs after about 450 cycles (46-54)<br />
  11. 11. Conception, Development & Birth<br />Conception = fertilization<br />1 week blastocyst implants into endometrium<br />Embryo secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (some is secreted in urine)<br />
  12. 12. First Trimester<br />Trophoblast placenta<br />Organogenesis<br />Heart beating – 4 wks<br />All major structures of adult – 8 wks<br />Heart beat by stethescope – end of first trimester<br />Embryo  fetus @ 8 wks<br />5cm long<br />Changes in mom too<br />
  13. 13. Second Trimester<br />Fetus grows to 30 cm<br />Fetus is active<br />Mom is showing<br />
  14. 14. Third Trimester<br />Fetus grows to 3-4kg & 50 cm long<br />Fetal activity decreases due to space restraints<br />Mom’s organs are compressed and displaced<br />Freq urination, constipation, back aches<br />
  15. 15. Labor & Birth<br />Placenta<br />Umbilical<br />cord<br />Uterus<br />Cervix<br />Dilation of the cervix<br />1<br />Expulsion: delivery of the infant<br />2<br />Uterus<br />Placenta<br />(detaching)<br />Umbilical<br />cord<br />Delivery of the placenta<br />Figure 46.19<br />3<br />Oxytocin<br />Stages of Labor<br />Lactation<br />
  16. 16. Modern Reproductive Technology<br />Fetal testing<br />Congenetial disorders<br />Aminocentesis<br />Chorionic villi sampling<br />Ultrasound<br />Ethics? To terminate pregnancy<br />Infertility<br />Hormone therapy<br />IUI (Intrauterine Insemination)<br />IVF (In vitro fertilization)<br />ZIFT (zygote intrafallopiantransfer)<br />GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer)<br />$1,000s/attempt<br />
  17. 17. Female<br />Male<br />Event<br />Event<br />Method<br />Method<br />Production of<br />viable sperm<br />Production of<br />viable oocytes<br />Vasectomy<br />Combination<br />birth control <br />pill (or injection,<br />patch, or<br />vaginal ring)<br />Ovulation<br />Sperm transport<br />down male<br />duct system<br />Abstinence<br />Abstinence<br />Condom<br />Coitus<br />interruptus<br />(very high<br />failure rate)<br />Sperm<br />deposited<br />in vagina<br />Capture of the<br />oocyte by the<br />oviduct<br />Tubal ligation<br />Spermicides;<br />diaphragm;<br />cervical cap;<br />progestin alone<br />(minipill, implant,<br />or injection)<br />Transport<br />of oocyte in<br />oviduct<br />Sperm <br />movement<br />through <br />female<br />reproductive<br />tract<br />Meeting of sperm and oocyte<br />in oviduct<br />Morning-after <br />pill (MAP)<br />Union of sperm and egg<br />Progestin alone<br />Implantation of blastocyst <br />in properly prepared <br />endometrium<br />Figure 46.20<br />Birth<br />