Causes of WWII
• In Europe:
– Treaty of Versailles
– The Great Depression
– Hitler’s actions in the 1930’s
– Mussolini’s actions in the 1930’s
– Failure of the League of Nations
– Policy of Appeasement
– Hitler’s invasion of Poland
– Rise of nationalism
• In Asia
– The Great Depression
– Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931
– Japanese invasion of China in 1937
• For the United States
– Quit trading supplies(oil) with Japan in the
summer of 1941
– Tough policies towards Japan in Fall 1941
– Pearl Harbor attack
Effects of WWII on US
• stimulated economy
– 17 million new jobs created
– average wages increased 30%
– middle class greatly expanded
• federal power during the war increased
– shifted from state laws to federal laws- important
during civil rights era and Vietnam war
• women involved in the workforce
• more rights for African Americans- integrated
• German Nazi party was completely destroyed
and Germany was broken up into 4 zones
• Japanese cities were destroyed from bombing
and Japan was placed under military rule
• Most deaths ever in a war
• United Nations starts
• Major Powers of the world were discovered
• Cold War-US vs USSR
North African Campaign
• Took place in North Africa from June, 1940 to
• Took place in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts also in
Morocco, Algeria and ended in Tunisia
• The campaign was fought between the
Allies(GB, France, US) and Axis
Powers(Germany(Afrika Corps), Italy, Vichy French)
• The area was in conflict due to colonial interests
dating back to the late 1800’s
• The United States began direct military assistance in
North Africa in May, 1942
• What did the victory in Africa open the door
for the Allied Powers to do next?
• Why not invade France next?
• “Soft underbelly of Europe” Winston Churchill
• Operation Husky(Invasion of Sicily-July/August
1943) and Operation Avalanche(Invasion of
Italy) were next
• Operation Husky is what let to Mussolini
losing his power in Italy in July 1943
• June 6, 1944
• The D in D-Day stands for “day” since the final
invasion date was unknown and weather
• 156,000 Allied troops from the United States, the
United Kingdom, Canada, Free France and
• The Allied code names for the beaches along the
50-mile stretch of Normandy coast targeted for
landing were Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and
• Omaha was the costliest beach in terms of Allied
• 5,000 ships and landing craft
• Major Generals:
– United States – Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley
– The United Kingdom – Bernard Law Montgomery
– Germany – Erwin Rommel
– United States – 6,603 (1,465 killed)
– United Kingdom – 2,700
– Canada – 1,074 (359 fatal)
– Germany – Estimated between 4,000 – 9,000
• By June 11, with the beachheads firmly
• More than 326,000 troops had crossed with
more than 100,000 tons of military equipment
• Paris was liberated on August 25
• Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945.
• But not before……..
The coldest, snowiest weather “in memory” in the Ardennes
Forest on the German/Belgium border.
Over a million men, 500,000 Germans, 600,000 Americans
(more than fought at Gettysburg) and 55,000 British.
100,000 German casualties, killed, wounded or captured.
81,000 American casualties, including 23,554 captured and
1,400 British casualties 200 killed.
800 tanks lost on each side, 1,000 German aircraft.
The Malmedy Massacre, where 86 American soldiers were
murdered, was the worst atrocity committed against American
troops during the course of the war in Europe.
In it's entirety, the “Battle of the Bulge,” was the worst battles-
in terms of losses - to the American Forces in WWII.
War Finance Committee and War Bonds
• Over the course of the
war 85 million Americans
purchased bonds totaling
• Helped pay for the war
• It was an investment for
• As low as $18.75 per
• ten years later gov’t paid
Women in WWII
• Rosie the Riveter
workers in WWII
“Tokyo Rose” Iva Toguri
• forced to broadcast
propaganda to the Allied
troops for Japan.
• In these radio programs,
she taunted the troops and
played music from home.
• She was a US citizen in
• Convicted of treason
OPA and Rationing
• The Office of Price Administration was established in 1941 under Leon Henderson to
administer price controls that began in the summer of 1941.
• 8000 rationing boards were created with 200,000 volunteers to assist the 60,000
employees of the agency.
• Food rationing included restrictions on sugar and meat; clothing rationing restricted silk
• Gasoline rationing began in May 1942 on the East coast, limiting use to five gallons per
• By the end of 1942, half of the nation's automobiles were issued an A sticker, allowing 4
gallons per week.
• The other half of automobiles had either a B sticker (supplementary allowance for war
workers) or a C sticker (vital occupation such as doctor).
• Truckers had a T sticker for unlimited amounts.
• A black market developed in stolen or counterfeit stickers that were used in 5-30% of
• By 1945, there were 32,500 motorists arrested for using such false stickers, 1300
convictions, 4000 gas stations closed.
• The following is a set of instructions that came with every book:
Your first ration book has been issued to you, originally containing 28 war ration stamps. Other books may be issued
at later dates. The following instructions apply to your first book and will apply to any later books, unless otherwise
ordered by the Office of Price administration. In order to obtain a later book, the first book must be turned in. You
should preserve War Rations Books with the greatest possible care.
1) From the time the Office of Price Administration may issue orders rationing certain products. After the dates
indicated by such orders, these products can be purchased only through the use of War rations Books containing
valid War Ration Stamps.
2) The orders of the Office of Price Administration will designate the stamps to be used for the purchase of a
particular rationed product, the period during which each of these stamps may be used, and the amounts which may
be bought with each stamp.
3) Stamps become valid for use only when and as directed by the Orders of the Office of Price Administration.
4) Unless otherwise announced, the Ration Week is from Saturday midnight to the following Saturday midnight.
5) War Ration stamps may be used in any retail store in the United States.
6) War Ration Stamps may be used only by or for the person named and described in the War Ration Book.
7) Every person must see that this War Ration Book is kept in a safe place and properly used. Parents are responsible
for the safekeeping and use of their children's War Ration Book.
• 8) When you buy any rationed product, the proper stamp must be detached in the presence of the storekeeper, his
employee, or the person making the delivery on his behalf. If a stamp is torn out of the War Ration Book in any other
way than above indicated, it becomes void. If a stamp is partly torn or mutilated and more than one half of it
remains in the book, it is valid. Otherwise it becomes void.
9) If your War Ration Book is lost, destroyed, stolen or mutilated, you should report that fact to the local Ration
10) If you enter a hospital, or other institution, and expect to be there for more than 10 days, you must turn your War
Ration Book over to the person in charge. It will be returned to you upon your request when you leave.
11) When a person dies, his War Ration Book must be returned to the local Ration Board, in accordance with the
12) If you have any complaints, questions, or difficulties regarding your War Ration Book, consult your local Ration
The first stamps in War Ration Book One will be used for the purchase of sugar. When this book was issued, the
registrar asked you, or the person who applied for your book, how much sugar you owned on that date. If you had
any sugar, you were allowed to keep it, but stamps representing this quantity were torn from your group (except for
a small amount which you were allowed to keep without loosing any stamps). If your War Ration Book one was
issued to you on application by a member of your family, the number of stamps torn from the books of the family
was based on the amount of sugar owned by the family, and was divided as equally as possible among all the books.
• The genocide of approximately six million European Jews
during World War II
• A program of systematic state-sponsored extermination by
Nazi Germany throughout Nazi-occupied territory
• Approximately two-thirds of the population of nine million
Jews who had lived in Europe before the Holocaust died
• Some say that the definition of the Holocaust should also
include the Nazis' killing of millions of people in other groups
from Germany and other occupied territory
• By this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims
would be between 11 million and 17 million people
Who was inferior according to Hitler?
1. Jews(6 million dead)
2. Gypsies(500,000 to 1.5 million)
3. mentally/physically handicapped people(75,000 to 250,000)
4. Soviet Slavs/POW’s/Troops-(16.5 million)The Russian Academy of
Science in 1995 reported civilian victims in the USSR, including Jews, at
German hands totaled 13.7 million dead including 7.4 million victims of
Nazi genocide, 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for
forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied
territory. German captors killed an estimated 2.8 million Soviet POWs
through starvation, exposure, and execution
5. Poles(2.5 million dead)
6. Homosexuals(5-15 thousand dead)
7. communists/socialists(many but number not confirmed)
8. dark skinned people(death and forced sterilization)
9. mixed races-"The mulatto children came about through rape or the
white mother was a whore," Adolf Hitler
10. Jehovah’s Witnesses(2,500-5,000)
What is the Aryan Race?
• misused by the Nazis to mean a so-called
master race that originated around Germany
• perfect Aryan was blonde, blue-eyed, tall and
• The original term refers to a people speaking a
Lebensborn-Fount of Life
• The program aimed to promote the growth of
"superior" Aryan populations by providing excellent
health care and living conditions to women and by
restricting access to those deemed “fit”
• Houses were set up throughout Germany and many
• Many Lebensborn children were born to unwed
mothers which helped lead to many rumors of rape.
• Contrary to widespread rumors, women were not
forced to have relations with Aryan Germans
Hitler’s Jewish Question
• Nazis "temporarily" suspend civil liberties for all
citizens in 1933-Never restored.
• The Nazis set up the first concentration camp at
Dachau in 1933. The first inmates are 200
• Jews are prohibited from working as civil servants,
doctors in the National Health Service, and teachers
in public high schools. All but few Jewish students
are banned from public high schools and colleges.
Nuremburg Laws 1935
1. Took away German citizenship from Jews thus making Jews
second class citizens by removing their basic civil rights.
2. established membership in the Jewish race as being anyone
who either considered themselves Jewish or had three or
four Jewish grandparents. People with one or two Jewish
grandparents were considered to be mixed race.
- eventually anyone with at least one Jewish
grandparent was at risk in Nazi Germany
3. Jews could only marry Jews
4. No sexual relations between non-Jewish Germans and Jews
“Night of the Broken Glass”
• On the nights of November 9 and 10, 1938, gangs of
Nazi youth roamed through Jewish neighborhoods
breaking windows of Jewish businesses and homes,
burning synagogues and looting.
• In all, 101 synagogues were destroyed and almost
7,500 Jewish businesses were destroyed. 26,000
Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps.
• Jews were physically attacked and beaten and 91
died in the attack.
• All Jewish children are expelled from public
schools in Germany and Austria.
• Nazis take control of Jewish-owned
• Hitler orders the
systematic murder of
the mentally and
physically disabled in
Germany and Austria
• Jews are required to
wear armbands or
• Nazis begin deporting
German Jews to Poland
• Jews are forced into
• Nazis begin the first
mass murder of Jews in
• Jews throughout Eastern Europe are forced
• In two days, German units shoot 33,771
Ukrainian Jews at BabiYar- the largest single
massacre of the Holocaust
• The death camp at Chelmno in Poland begins
• Nazi officials announce "Final Solution"- their plan to
kill all European Jews
• Five death camps begin operation in Poland:
Majdanek, Sobibor, Treblinka, Belzec, and Auschwitz-
• Ghettos of Eastern Europe are being emptied as
thousands of Jews are shipped to death camps.
• The United States, Great Britian, and the Soviet
Union acknowledge that Germans are exterminating
the Jews of Europe.
• Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto resist as the Nazis
begin new rounds of deportations. These Jews
hold out for nearly a month before the Nazis
put down the uprising.
• Hitler takes over Hungary and begins
deporting 12,000 Hungarian Jews each day to
Auschwitz where they are murdered
• Hitler is defeated and World War II ends in
• The Holocaust is over and the death camps
• Many survivors are placed in displaced
persons camps until they find a country willing
to accept them.
• The United Nations establishes a Jewish
homeland in British- controlled Palestine,
which becomes the State of Israel in 1948.