Draft card (front and back) found at: http://www.rootdig.com/draft/worldwartwo.html
Picture of a 1940 Ford roadster at the 2007 Detroit Autorama . Found at: http://www.alamy.com/stock_photography/7/1/Mark+Scheuern/A7CJBN.html Picture of silk stockings from: http://www.joeri.net/retro/fashion/ladiesshoes.htm OPA: http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/188.html#188.1
War bond image from: http://www.teacheroz.com/WWIIHomefront.htm
n four indelible images, Norman Rockwell painted a portrait of a country united. Rockwell wanted to express the freedoms in the simple everyday manner for which he was known. To achieve this goal he turned to his Arlington, Vermont, neighbors for inspiration. The artist recalled how Arlington resident Jim Edgerton had stood up during a town meeting to voice a decidedly unpopular opinion. Instead of objecting to his remarks, however, the townspeople honored the man's right to have his say. Rockwell felt this act of respect perfectly illustrated the idea of Freedom of Speech . His finished painting features strong contrasts; a central figure, dressed in working clothes, stands determined amidst a group of quizzical figures clad in business attire. http://www.nrm.org/exhibits/current/four-freedoms.html
Rockwell's next entry in the series, Freedom to Worship , was his attempt to illustrate the right of individuals to worship as they choose without governmental persecution for their beliefs. The painting's muted palette softens the contrasting skin tones in the multi-ethnic figures appearing on the canvas. Above the profiled faces, Rockwell further stressed the painting's theme with the simple text, "Each According to the Dictates of His Own Conscience." http://www.nrm.org/exhibits/current/four-freedoms.html
Third in the series, Freedom from Want , is one of Rockwell's best-known illustrations. The often-copied composition, depicting a Thanksgiving family gathering, includes a friendly face at the painting's bottom right that appears to welcome the viewer to join those seated at the dinner table. Light shining from the window offers viewers a warm welcome. As beloved as the painting has become, however, Rockwell had concerns at the time that the image depicted overabundance, rather than freedom from want. http://www.nrm.org/exhibits/current/four-freedoms.html
Rockwell had similar doubts concerning Freedom from Fear , the final entry of The Four Freedoms . The painting depicts a mother and father tucking their children into bed at night. While the father holds a newspaper with headlines announcing wartime bombings, the light shining in the corners of the room works to dispel the foreboding aura of this somber scene. As he did with his previous work, Rockwell also fretted about this painting, concerned that it came across too smugly in its notion of American children sleeping safely while destruction and uncertainty were a reality overseas. http://www.nrm.org/exhibits/current/four-freedoms.html
Franklin Roosevelt, US President, addresses Congress to declare war on Japan after Pearl Harbor bombing, House Speaker Sam Rayburn sits at left, B&W photo (AP) Full war declaration can be found at: http://www.quotes2u.com/histdocs/declarationwar.htm
Content from American Nation , Holt Publishing, 2005 and The National Archives: The Way We Worked at http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/twww/
Picture at left is of a “ man working on hull of U.S. Submarine at Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn. ” By Charles Fenno Jacobs, August 1943, National Archives, General Records of the U.S. Navy, 1789–1947 (80-G-468517). Found at: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/twww/ Picture at right is of “ a Bell System switchboard where overseas calls are handled. Not all of the services shown here are available under wartime conditions. ” By an unknown photographer, unknown location, December 22, 1943. Found at: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/twww/
Picture: “ Tulip Town Market, Grove Center. ” By James Earl Westcott, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, July 4, 1945. World War II created numerous “ boomtowns ” associated with the expanding shipbuilding, armaments, and aircraft industries. There were also “ secret cities ” built for workers involved in the development of the atomic bomb. These grocery clerks worked in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, site of several uranium-235 extraction facilities. National Archives, General Records of the Department of Energy (433-ORN-PRO-802-6). Found at: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/twww/
World War II:Transitions on the Home FrontA brief economic and political overview
Transition to War• While America declared neutrality until after the Japanesebombed Pearl Harbor, steps were taken by President FranklinD. Roosevelt to get the American economy and people readyfor a potential war.• Congress passed the Selective Training and Service Act (firstpeacetime draft) in 1940• Draft Cards:
Transition to War1. American had a policy of Isolationismbefore Pearl Harbor. What is Isolationism?2. Why did American change theIsolationism policy?3. What was the Draft?
Transition to War: Economic• The government established in Aug. 1941 the Officeof Price Administration (OPA) to set maximumprices and in December 1941, rationing took effect.– Rationed items included: gasoline, tires, coffee, sugar,meat, butter, canned goods, silk stockings
Economics1. What was Rationing?1. Why was there Rationing?1. Name some Rationed items
Economic: Victory GardensThe government encouraged people to grow their own food to help the wareffort and to supplement the rationed food supply.
Raising Money• Name 2 ways the government raised moneyfor the war.
Transition to War: Political• In his State of the Union Address on Jan. 6, 1941,President Franklin D. Roosevelt outlined the natural rightsof mankind, which were obviously being abolished underthe Axis Powers. These natural rights were distilled intofour freedoms that he believed all people were entitled to.(This is 11 months before Pearl Harbor is bombed by the Japanese.)• Four Freedoms– Freedom of Speech– Freedom of Worship– Freedom from Want– Freedom from Fear• Norman Rockwell interpreted these four freedoms inpictures to help support the war effort.
Beginning of War• When these freedoms are infringed upon by theJapanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7,1941, Americans are mentally prepared to go to war.Explosion of theUSS Arizonasforwardmagazines. Thisoccurred at 0806.National Archives#80G32637Almost the sameinstant caught byanotherphotographer withcolor film.National Archives#80GK13513
Pearl HarborA fireball engulfs the USS Shaw moments after an attack by Japanese warplanes on PearlHarbor, Hawaii, in December 1941.
Pearl Harbor bombing. California hit. Battered byaerial bombs and torpedoes, the USS Californiasettles slowly into the mud and muck of PearlHarbor. Clouds of black, oily smoke pouring upfrom the California and her stricken sister shipsconceal all but the hull of the capsized USSOklahoma at the extreme right., 1942.Pearl Harbor: Destruction of the Pacific Fleet
Pearl Harbor: The Aftermath• CasualtiesUS Army: 218 KIA, 364 WIA.US Navy: 2,008 KIA, 710WIA.US Marine Corps: 109 KIA, 69WIA.Civilians: 68 KIA, 35 WIA.TOTAL:2,403 KIA, 1,178 WIAKIA: Killed In ActionWIA: Wounded in Action• For more informationon specific battleships,documented photos,Japanese pictures ofthe bombing, etc. goto:http://www.de220.com/Pearl%20Harbor
War Declared• On Dec. 8, 1941, FDR went before Congress and asked fora declaration of war against Japan. He started his speechby saying, “Yesterday, December 7, 1941-a date whichwill live in infamy- the United States of America wassuddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forcesof the Empire of Japan.”
War’s Upon Us• With the declaration of war, American production has got to getmoving!• In 1942 the War Production Board (WPB) is created to increasemilitary production.– Converted existing factories to wartime production– Built new factories– Recycled raw materials into different industries• In 1943 the Office of War Mobilization (OWM) is created tocoordinate government agencies involved in the war effort.– Determined amount of raw materials that could be divertedto civilians.• Ex. Nylon used for parachutes, not pantyhose. Fashionstyles changed, as fabric couldn’t be sacrificed to makepleats or cuffs.• Women are recruited to fill the positions men are leaving asthey go to war. The most iconic image is of Rosie the Riveter.
Women and Overall War Production• From 1940 to 1944, 6 million new women joined theworkforce, most in clerical and service jobs.• Women were paid less than men for the same work.• African American women and women over 40 yrs old had aharder time finding employers.• Unemployment dropped from 14.6% in 1940 to 1.2% in 1944.• Average weekly wages rose 65 percent, and manufacturingworkers saw their real income jump 27 percent.• Earnings nearly doubled between 1939 and 1945.• In 1940, government arsenals employed 22,000 workers andby 1943, they employed 486,000.• From 1940 to 1945 America built 300,000 aircraft; 88,000landing craft; 215 submarines, 147 aircraft carriers, 952 otherwarships, 5,200 merchant ships, 88,410 tanks, 6.5 millionrifles, and 40 billion bullets.
WWII:Transitions on the Home Front• Due to pre-war/early wareconomic and politicalpreparations by the USgovernment, Americanswere better able to dealwith the onset of war.• These preparationsallowed civilians to moreeffectively contribute tothe war effort, which inturn helped soldiers. Wewill look at the militaryimpact next.