Tech and marzano


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  • Students typically need about 24 practice sessions with a skill in order to achieve 80-percent competency. Because it is easy for errors to slip in when students are practicing, teachers should give feedback as quickly as possible
  • Tech and marzano

    1. 1. Using Technology with Classroom Instruction That Works<br />January 2011<br />
    2. 2. What is “Classroom Instruction That Works”?<br />Classroom Instruction That Works - Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement<br />Written by: Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock<br />Published 2001<br />
    3. 3. Meta-analysis: combines the results from a number of studies to determine the average effect of a given technique.<br />When conducting a meta-analysis, a researcher translates the results of a given study into a unit of measurement referred to as an effect size.<br />
    4. 4. One of the primary goals of the McREL study was to identify instructional strategies that have a high probability of enhancing study achievement for all students in all subject areas at all grade levels.<br />
    5. 5.
    6. 6.
    7. 7. How does the use of technology play a role in the use of these strategies?<br />
    8. 8. A supporting book was published:<br />Using Technology with Classroom Instruction that Works<br />Written by: Howard Pitler, Elizabeth R. Hubbell, Matt Kuhn, Kim Malenoski<br />Published 2007<br />
    9. 9. Name That Strategy:<br />
    10. 10. Identifying Similarities and Differences<br />
    11. 11. Identifying Similarities and Differences<br />Generalizations:<br />Presenting students with explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances their understanding of and ability to use knowledge<br />Asking students to independently identify similarities and differences enhances their understanding of and ability to use knowledge<br />Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge<br />Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways and is a highly robust activity<br />
    12. 12. Identifying Similarities and Differences<br />Recommendations:<br />Teach students to use comparing, classifying, metaphors, and analogies when they identify similarities and differences<br />Give students a model of the steps for engaging in the process<br />Use a familiar context to teach students these steps<br />Have students use graphic organizers as a visual tool to represent the similarities and differences<br />Guide students as they engage in this process. Gradually give less structure and less guidance<br />
    13. 13. Name That Strategy:<br />
    14. 14. Summarizing and Note Taking<br />
    15. 15. Summarizing and Note Taking<br />Generalizations:<br />To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information<br />Verbatim note taking is perhaps the least effective way to take notes<br />Notes should be considered a work in progress<br />Notes should be used as study guides for tests<br />
    16. 16. Summarizing and Note Taking<br />Recommendations for Summarizing:<br />Teach students the rule-based summarizing strategy<br />Teach students a variety of note-taking formats<br />Give students teacher-prepared notes<br />
    17. 17. Name That Strategy:<br />
    18. 18. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition<br />
    19. 19. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition<br />Generalizations:<br />Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort<br />Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance<br />Abstract symbolic recognition (e.g., praise) is more effective than tangible rewards (e.g., candy, money)<br />
    20. 20. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition<br />Recommendations:<br />Explicitly teach students about the importance of effort<br />Have students keep track of their effort and achievement<br />Personalize recognition<br />Use the Pause, Prompt, and Praise strategy<br />Use concrete symbols of recognition<br />
    21. 21. Name that Strategy:<br />
    22. 22. Homework and Practice<br />
    23. 23. Homework and Practice<br />Generalizations:<br />The amount of homework assigned to students should be different from elementary to high school<br />Parental involvement in doing homework should be kept to a minimum<br />The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated<br />If homework is assigned, it should be commented upon<br />Mastering a skill or process requires a fair amount of focused practice<br />
    24. 24. Homework and Practice<br />Recommendations:<br />Establish and communicate a homework policy<br />Design homework assignments that clearly articulate purpose and outcome<br />Vary approaches to providing feedback<br />
    25. 25. Name That Strategy:<br />
    26. 26. Nonlinguistic Representations<br />
    27. 27. Nonlinguistic Representation<br />Generalizations:<br />A variety of activities produce nonlinguistic representation<br />The purpose of nonlinguistic representation is to elaborate on knowledge<br />
    28. 28. Nonlinguistic Representation<br />Recommendations:<br />Use graphic organizers to represent knowledge<br />Have students create physical models of the knowledge<br />Have students generate mental pictures of the knowledge they are learning<br />Use pictures or pictographs to represent knowledge<br />Have students engage in kinesthetic activities representing the knowledge<br />
    29. 29. Name That Strategy:<br />
    30. 30. Cooperative Learning<br />
    31. 31. Cooperative Learning <br />Generalizations:<br />Organizing groups based on ability levels should be done sparingly<br />Cooperative learning groups should be rather small in size<br />Cooperative learning should be used consistently and systematically but should not be overused<br />
    32. 32. Cooperative Learning<br />Recommendations:<br />Use a variety of criteria to group students<br />Use informal, formal, and base groups<br />Keep the groups to a manageable size<br />Combine cooperative learning with other classroom structures<br />
    33. 33. Name That Strategy:<br />
    34. 34. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback<br />
    35. 35. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback<br />Generalizations:<br />Setting instructional goals narrows what students focus on, but not too specific<br />Feedback should be “corrective” in nature and timely<br />Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback<br />
    36. 36. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback<br />Recommendations for Setting Objectives:<br />Set learning objectives that are specific but flexible<br />Communicate the learning objectives or goals to students and parents<br />Focus feedback on specific types of knowledge<br />Use student-led feedback<br />
    37. 37. Name That Strategy:<br />
    38. 38. Generating and Testing Hypotheses<br />
    39. 39. Generating and Testing Hypothesis<br />Generalizations:<br />The generating and testing of hypothesis can be approached as an inductive or deductive manner<br />Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses and their conclusions<br />
    40. 40. Generating and Testing Hypotheses<br />Recommendations:<br />Make sure students can explain their hypotheses and conclusions<br />Use a variety of structured tasks to guide students through generating and testing hypotheses<br />
    41. 41. Name that Strategy:<br />
    42. 42. Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers <br />
    43. 43. Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers<br />Generalizations:<br />Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers should focus on what is important rather than what is unusual<br />“Higher-level” questions and advance organizers produce deeper learning than “lower-level” questions and advance organizers<br />Different types of advance organizers produce different results<br />
    44. 44. Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers<br />Recommendations:<br />Teach students skimming as a form of advance organizer<br />Ask questions that elicit inferences<br />Ask analytic questions<br />