Ap Wh 3 Abbrid
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Ap Wh 3 Abbrid






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    Ap Wh 3 Abbrid Ap Wh 3 Abbrid Presentation Transcript

    • New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
      • 2200 BC – 250 BC
    • New Civilizations
      • Invasions were frequent for ancient river valley civilizations.
      • Although destructive to society they often brought an influx of new ideas.
    • The River Valley Civilizations
      • 1750 BC: Egypt was conquered by the Hyksos.
      • The Hyksos introduced the chariot and the horse to Egypt. This new technology would allow Egypt to become a great empire under Pharaoh Rameses II.
    • The River Valley Civilizations
      • 1500 BC: The Indus was conquered by the Aryans who would introduce their own changes of ideas.
      • 1300 BC: The Hittites would invade and conquer Mesopotamia and bring in the knowledge of smelting iron for weapons and tools.
    • New Civilizations
      • New civilizations arose after the first three river valley civilizations:
      • China
      • Nubia
      • Celtic Europe
      • Central America
    • New Civilizations
      • The geographic environment affected society and economics in China from 2000 BCE to 221 BCE.
      • Eastern China was heavily agricultural:
      • North ( Yellow River) grew millet and wheat
      • South (Yangtzi River) grew rice
    • New Civilizations
      • Agriculture required large numbers of people for irrigation projects.
      • Irrigation projects appear to have been a major cause of organizing civilizations.
    • New Civilizations
      • Whenever large numbers of people are involved in a project the following impacts occur:
      • leadership is required
      • cities form
      • laws are created
      • These are the things that organize society and labor and create civilizations.
    • New Civilizations
      • Political info:
      • Early China was ruled by dynasties.
      • Dynasty: power and authority are kept within a family.
      • There were two Chinese dynasties during this time period of 2000-221 BC:
      • The Shang Dynasty
      • The Zhou Dynasty (Chou)
    • New Civilizations
      • The first Chinese dynasty was the Shang Dynasty (2000 BC-1027 BC) which began in the Yellow River Valley and expanded to the Yangtze River.
      • There is a theory that there may have been a previous dynasty called the Xsia. It is not yet widely accepted as there are no written records for it.
      • The dynasty had a emperor who was considered the intermediary between the gods and the human world.
      • This secured his power.
    • New Civilizations
      • The Shang were the first to unite China into a cohesive kingdom.
      • The Chinese had little or no direct contact with western Eurasian and African societies at this time.
      • However, some contact was carried out by nomads who were intermediaries. Fragments of Shang pottery were found in Mohenjo-Daro.
    • New Civilizations
      • Chinese farmers had a symbiotic relationship with central Asian nomads.
      • Farmers provided food, textiles and metal goods to the nomads.
      • Nomads provided horses and traded goods from farther west.
    • New Civilizations
      • Economic Info:
      • Much trade and commerce with other regions. Some contact with Mesopotamia .
      • Religious Info:
      • Chinese were animistic and included male ancestors in their animism.
      • Ancestor worship would give influence with the gods.
      • Practiced divination using oracle bones, and sacrifice.
    • New Civilizations
      • Divination: the practice of foreseeing the future.
      • Technological Info:
      • Vast irrigation systems such as in Egypt or Mesopotamia were not necessary along the Huang He due to large amounts of rain.
      • Copper and bronze metallurgy. The Shang and Zhou were masters of bronze.
      • Civil engineering: bridges, roads, etc. The building of many large cities with strong, thick walls signify its power.
      • Horse and chariot
      • Writing: the Chinese characters of today. Chinese consists of 10,000 characters.
    • New Civilizations
      • The Zhou Dynasty (1027-221 BC)
      • Two Zhou periods:
      • Western Zhou (1027-800 BC) and
      • Eastern Zhou (800-221 BC).
      • Political Info:
      • Defeated the Shang Dynasty.
      • Many kings in this dynasty.
      • Developed the concept of the “ Mandate of Heaven .”
    • New Civilizations
      • Mandate: an instruction or command.
      • Mandate of Heaven: the right to rule was given by the gods as long as the king acts morally.
      • Purpose of the Mandate of Heaven:
      • Gave stability to the dynasty.
      • Gave authority to kings’ decisions
    • Western Zhou Dynasty Ritual Food Vessel, bronze-ware, 11th century BC - 10th century BC Eastern Zhou Dynasty of China, six bronze graduate bells, dated to the 6th century BC
    • New Civilizations
      • Technological info:
      • Copper and bronze metallurgy. The Zhou were masters of bronze and the dynasty controlled all the bronze production .
      • Civil engineering: bridges, roads, etc. The building of many large cities with strong, thick walls signify its power.
      • Horse and chariot
    • New Civilizations
      • Intellectual info:
      • Writing: the Chinese characters of today. Chinese consists of 10,000 characters.
      • Unlike the Egyptians and Mesopotamians , the ancient Chinese did not have an organized religion that played a major part in their society.
      • There was no personal deity who intervened in daily life. Instead the concept of tian , or an impersonal power existed that could revoke the Mandate of Heaven.
    • New Civilizations
      • Due to the Chinese veneration of ancestors, religion was local and family-based rather than organized with a priesthood.
      • Chinese institutions were more secular than other ancient societies.
      • The Chinese developed their culture in isolation and were unique in many aspects.
    • New Civilizations
      • Developed philosophies that were social, political, and religious:
      • Legalism; Confucianism; Daoism (Taoism).
      • These philosophies were social and political and sometimes metaphysical.
      • They essentially emerged during the Zhou Dynasty period when the political situation was under stress from within .
    • New Civilizations
      • It is not unusual for societies to develop new philosophies, attitudes, or approaches during times of strife and uncertainty.
      • Systems of moral and religious beliefs all seek to create stability in society.
      • The Mandate of Heaven charged the emperor ( the “ Son of Heaven ”) to be responsible for political and social balance or the mandate would be withdrawn.
      • The desire for stability in society is primary.
      • Question for thought: Which way will Iraqi society go?
    • New Civilizations
      • Legalism:
      • Human nature is selfish and wicked and needs strict laws and punishments.
      • Created many law codes in China at that time.
      • Created a strong bureaucracy in China at that time.
      • Bureaucracy: carries out the decisions of the leadership.
    • New Civilizations
      • Legalism helped create stronger government control in China.
      • Confucianism:
      • Based on teachings of Chinese philosopher and teacher Confucius (Kung futzi).
    • New Civilizations
      • Confucianism teachings:
      • Human beings are good by nature?
      • The universe exists as a hierarchy (rank):
        • heavens
        • earth
        • king
        • family
        • individual
    • New Civilizations
      • There are moral foundations in government and the family.
      • Concept of filial devotion : obedience of the child to the parent.
      • The family unit was basic to Chinese culture which also venerated ancestors.
    • New Civilizations
      • Harmony in society is achieved with proper family relationships and state relationships.
      • Each person will have his and her own role and rank in relation to the family and the state.
      • Hierarchy exists in society as well as the universe.
    • New Civilizations
      • Confucianism became the dominant political and social philosophy of China.
      • It would be referred to many times throughout Chinese history as a stabilizing approach to an unstable society.