Han Dynasty


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presentation about han dynasty, its social structure, art and advancements.

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Han Dynasty

  1. 1. <ul><li>Preview </li></ul><ul><li>Main Idea / Reading Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Han Society </li></ul><ul><li>Trade and Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>The Silk Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Han Achievements </li></ul>Chinese Society and Culture
  2. 2. <ul><li>Reading Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Read pages 200 – 207 and answer these questions </li></ul><ul><li>What features characterized Chinese society in the Han period? </li></ul><ul><li>How did trade and the spread of Buddhism affect Han society? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some achievements in art, science, and technology during the Han period? </li></ul>Main Idea The Han dynasty was a time of social change, the growth of trade, and great achievements in the arts and sciences. Chinese Society and Culture
  3. 3. China’s Han period was a time of great prosperity, growth and achievement, defining imperial Chinese civilization for years. Han Society <ul><li>Confucianism shaped Chinese society </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius taught that family was central to well-being of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Officials promoted strong family ties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fathers head of family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filial piety stressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obedience, devotion to parents, grandparents </li></ul></ul>Family Life <ul><li>Children served parents as they aged, honored dead at household shrines </li></ul><ul><li>Han officials believed dutiful children made respectful subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Some men even received government jobs because of respect shown parents </li></ul>Dutiful Children
  4. 4. <ul><li>Women in China </li></ul><ul><li>Had fewer privileges, less status than men </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely received education, owned property </li></ul><ul><li>Sons valued more than daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Power and Status </li></ul><ul><li>Older women achieved power because of Confucian respect for elders </li></ul><ul><li>Ban Zhao , female scholar, writer; helped write history of Han dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Called for mutual respect between husbands, wives, education for women </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Sons carried on family line </li></ul><ul><li>Remained part of parents’ household after marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Daughters married and joined husband’s household </li></ul>Family Life
  5. 5. <ul><li>Other Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Third class composed of artisans, made useful items, luxury goods </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants occupied fourth class, trade not valued by Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves at bottom of society </li></ul><ul><li>Military not an official class, but part of government and offered way to rise in status </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Han society highly structured, clearly defined social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor at top, ruled with mandate from heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Upper class of palace court, nobles, government officials, scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Second, largest class consisted of peasants, who grew empire’s food </li></ul>
  6. 6. Han Society <ul><li>90 percent of nearly 60 million in China at time were peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in small villages in simple houses, labored long hours in fields, worked on government projects in winter </li></ul><ul><li>High taxes, bad weather could force them into debt </li></ul><ul><li>Many had to sell lands, become laborers for wealthy </li></ul>Peasant Class <ul><li>Social class determined status, but not wealth or power </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants usually wealthier than peasants, but were lower in status </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy in Han China lived well </li></ul><ul><li>Spacious homes, large estates </li></ul><ul><li>Hired numerous laborers </li></ul>Rich and Poor
  7. 7. Summarize What was life like for Chinese peasants during the Han dynasty? Answer(s): worked hard in fields, farmed, raised animals, often sold land to feed families, forced to work on building projects, easily forced into debt, worked for wealthy landowners
  8. 8. <ul><li>Trade grew in Han period </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture basis of economy </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of trade increased prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Led to contact between China, other civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Production of silk </li></ul><ul><li>Most prized Chinese product </li></ul><ul><li>Secret method for making silk </li></ul><ul><li>Revealing secret punishable by death </li></ul><ul><li>Han products </li></ul><ul><li>Ironworkers made iron armor, swords </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans made pottery, jade and bronze objects, lacquerware </li></ul><ul><li>Major industry </li></ul><ul><li>Raised silkworms, unwound threads of cocoons </li></ul><ul><li>Dyed threads, wove into fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric beautiful, soft, strong </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing costly, in high demand </li></ul>Trade and Buddhism
  9. 9. <ul><li>As they conquered areas of Central Asia, the Han learned people farther west wanted Chinese goods </li></ul><ul><li>Zhang Qian returned from Central Asia mission, 126 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Told of region’s riches, demand for Chinese goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events led to increased trade with west </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood-sweating horses seen by Qian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Han thought they were blessed by heaven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To obtain them, Emperor Wudi conquered more land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade with Central Asia increased even more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasites caused boils that bled </li></ul></ul>Growth of Trade
  10. 10. Merchants traveling between China, Central Asia used overland routes. The most famous were called the Silk Roads . This network of routes eventually stretched from China over 4,000 miles to Mediterranean Sea, and linked China to India, the Middle East, and the Roman Empire. The Silk Roads <ul><li>Travelers on Silk Roads crossed rugged, barren terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Faced attacks by bandits </li></ul><ul><li>For protection, traveled in huge camel caravans </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped at stations along way </li></ul>Travel <ul><li>Most merchants traveled only part of way </li></ul><ul><li>Traded goods with merchants from distant lands </li></ul><ul><li>Most goods traded were luxury items </li></ul><ul><li>Small, valuable, highly profitable </li></ul>Trade
  11. 12. <ul><li>Traders carried ideas as well as goods over the Silk Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism spread to China from India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reached China in first century AD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Han government became less stable, violence increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism’s message of rebirth offered hope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buddhism gained popularity by AD 200 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of cultural diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of ideas from one culture to another </li></ul></ul>Trade and Buddhism
  12. 13. Draw Conclusions How did trade over the Silk Roads affect China’s culture? Answer(s): profitable trade in luxury items, connections to Central Asia, introduction of Buddhism
  13. 14. <ul><li>Classical Age </li></ul><ul><li>During Han period, arts flourished, sciences and technology improved life </li></ul><ul><li>Han China boasted magnificent palaces, multistoried towers </li></ul><ul><li>None survived, but ceramic models from tombs show architecture of period </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans and Artists </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans produced ceramic, bronze figurines, jade carvings, silk cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Artists painted portraits and nature scenes on walls, scrolls, room screens </li></ul><ul><li>During Later Han, Buddhist art flourished, including temple wall paintings </li></ul>Han Achievements Ceramic Models: http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?showtopic=26672
  14. 15. <ul><li>Han writers produced important works of history </li></ul><ul><li>Sima Qian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote Records of the Grand Historian or Shiji </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This early history became model for Chinese historical writing </li></ul></ul>Han Achievements
  15. 16. <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>One of most important Han inventions - paper </li></ul><ul><li>Made by grinding plant fibers into paste, paste dried in sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Created “books” by connecting several sheets of paper into long scroll </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Created seismograph to measure earthquake tremors </li></ul><ul><li>Made advances in acupuncture , use of needles to cure disease, relieve pain </li></ul><ul><li>Invented compass, sundial, water mill, ship’s rudder </li></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions included iron plow, wheelbarrow </li></ul><ul><li>With iron plow, farmer could till more land </li></ul><ul><li>With wheelbarrow, farmer could haul more </li></ul>Han Achievements
  16. 17. Summarize What were some technological advances of the Han dynasty? Answer(s): paper, iron plow, wheelbarrow, acupuncture, compass, sundial, water mill, rudder