Slavery Conflict 1848 1860

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  • 1. Slavery Conflict 1848-1860 By Brandon AP US History Hour 3
  • 2. Views in 1848
    • In the election of 1848 Zachary Taylor who had never held civil office was nominated by the Whig party.
    • He was not committed on the slavery issue yet owned slaves on a sugar plantation in Louisiana.
    • As a result a coalition of antislavery men from Whig, Democrat, and Liberty Parties was formed called the Free-Soil Party.
    • Wilmot Proviso battled for the exclusion of slaves in the territories and was endorsed by all free state legislatures but one.
  • 3. The Free Soil Party
    • Created by Northern antislavery men who distrusted Taylor and Lewis Cass (the creator of the idea of Popular Sovereignty).
    • “ Free soil, free speech, free labor.
    • and free men” were the beliefs
    • on which they built their party.
    • Foreshadowed the emergence of
    • the Republican Party six years
    • later.
    • Believed free soil was the only way
    • for America to flourish.
    Zachary Taylor
  • 4. The Underground Railroad
    • Virtual freedom train that consisted of a chain of antislavery homes where slaves could run away from slave states to the free soils of
    • Canada.
    • Southerners demanded more strict
    • fugitive-slave laws.
    • The South lost an estimated
    • 1,000 slaves a year and a total
    • of 4 million slaves through the
    • underground.
    Harriet Tubman
  • 5. Routes of the Underground
  • 6. Sectional Balance
    • The South had the presidency, the majority in the Cabinet, the majority in the Supreme Court, and equal number of states in the senate.
    • But by 1850 there were an equal number of slave and free states with fifteen of each.
    • The addition of California, New Mexico, and Utah to the number of free states tipped the balance in the Senate.
    • Southerners were angered at the North’s abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia.
  • 7. Compromise of 1850
    • The South announced their intention to withdraw Tennessee from the Union.
    • Henry Clay urged the North and the South to make concessions and for the North to partially yield by enacting a more agreeable fugitive-slave law.
    • Webster’s famous Seventh of March speech helped turn North toward Compromise and strengthened Union sentiment.
    • With the death of President Taylor a series of compromises were accepted by both sides.
  • 8. Results
    • North got a better deal.
    • California as a free state permanently tipped the Senate toward the North.
    • The South needed to gain more slave states to restore the balance, but territory was limited.
    • New Fugitive Slave Law received much opposition from the North as slaves could no longer testify in court or receive a fair jury trial.
    • The Underground Railroad rescued slaves from their pursuers.
  • 9. Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • The territory know as Nebraska was divided into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska.
    • Their status regarding slavery was to be decided by popular sovereignty.
    • With the influence of surrounding states Kansas chose to become a slave state and Nebraska a free state.
    • This act contradicted the Missouri Compromise that forbade slavery in the Nebraska Territory.
  • 10. Results
    • Pushed toward Civil War
    • Antislavery northerners were angered by what they called an act of bad faith.
    • All future compromises with the South would be more difficult and would cause conflict.
    • Crushed the previously enforced Fugitive Slave Law.
    • Democrat party was shattered while the new Republican party grew as did the protest against slavery.
    • North and South began fighting over Kansas.