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  • Define, discuss, and describe the three main functions of the digestive system. <br /> What are enzymes? <br /> What function do they serve in the digestive process? <br />
  • In which major systems of the digestive tract do digestion, absorption, and elimination occur? <br />
  • Quiz students to complete labels. <br /> What is mastication? <br /> What is deglutition? <br />
  • Have the students check their answers. <br /> What is mastication? <br /> What is deglutition? <br />
  • Quiz students to complete labels. <br /> Discuss the following terms: labial surface, buccal surface, facial surface, lingual surface, mesial surface, distal surface, occlusal surface, and incisal edge. <br />
  • Have the students check their answers. <br /> Discuss the following terms: labial surface, buccal surface, facial surface, lingual surface, mesial surface, distal surface, occlusal surface, and incisal edge. <br />
  • Quiz students to complete labels. <br /> What is a root canal? <br /> Why is it performed? <br />
  • Have the students check their answers. <br /> What is a root canal? <br /> Why is it performed? <br />
  • Quiz students to complete labels. <br /> How many salivary glands surround the oral cavity? <br /> How do salivary enzymes aid digestion? <br />
  • The pharynx is the common passageway for both air and food. <br /> What potential problems do you see with this arrangement? <br /> How does the body address this problem? <br />
  • The pharynx is the common passageway for both air and food. <br /> What potential problems do you see with this arrangement? <br /> How does the body address this problem? <br />
  • The esophagus is a 9- or 10-inch muscular tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach. <br /> What is a bolus? <br /> How does the esophagus move the bolus toward the stomach? <br /> What are the three parts of the stomach and what are their functions? <br />
  • The esophagus is a 9- or 10-inch muscular tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach. <br /> What is a bolus? <br /> How does the esophagus move the bolus toward the stomach? <br /> What are the three parts of the stomach and what are their functions? <br />
  • Quiz students to complete labels. <br /> What is the name of the pigment produced from the breakdown of hemoglobin during red blood cell destruction? <br />
  • Have the students check their answers. <br /> What is the name of the pigment produced from the breakdown of hemoglobin during red blood cell destruction? <br />
  • What is the function of the villi? <br />
  • Also known as the colon. <br /> The large intestine extends from the end of the ileum to the anus. <br /> The large intestine receives the fluid waste from digestion and stores it until it can be released from the body. <br /> What are the three sections of the colon and what are their functions? <br />
  • Also known as the colon. <br /> The large intestine extends from the end of the ileum to the anus. <br /> The large intestine receives the fluid waste from digestion and stores it until it can be released from the body. <br /> What are the three sections of the colon and what are their functions? <br />
  • Quiz students to complete the labels in this figure. <br /> What is emulsification? <br />
  • Have the students check their answers. <br /> What is emulsification? <br />
  • How does the liver maintain blood glucose levels? <br />
  • The correct answer is C: hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice). Hyperbilirubinemia can show yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes. <br />
  • The pancreas is both an exocrine and endocrine organ. <br /> As an exocrine organ, it produces enzymes to digest starch (amylase), fat (lipase), and proteins (protease). <br /> As an endocrine organ it secretes insulin. <br /> What is the function of insulin? <br />
  • Quiz students by having them complete the flow chart of how food progresses through the GI tract. <br />
  • The correct answer is A: the cecum. <br />
  • The correct answer is B: deglutition. <br />
  • Define combining forms for organs and the meanings of related terminology using these word parts. <br /> Name two medical terms (not mentioned above) from the word forms listed. <br />
  • Define combining forms for organs and the meanings of related terminology using these word parts. <br /> Name two medical terms (not mentioned above) from the word forms listed. <br />
  • Define combining forms for organs and the meanings of related terminology using these word parts. <br /> Name two medical terms (not mentioned above) from the word forms listed. <br />
  • Define combining forms for organs and the meanings of related terminology using these word parts. <br /> Name two medical terms (not mentioned above) from the word forms listed. <br />
  • Define combining forms for organs and the meanings of related terminology using these word parts. <br /> Name two medical terms (not mentioned above) from the word forms listed. <br />
  • Define suffixes for organs and the meanings of related terminology using these word parts. <br />
  • When -stomy is used with two or more combining forms for organs, it means the surgical creation of an opening between those organs inside the body. <br /> Anastomosis is the surgical connection between two body parts such as vessels, ducts, or bowel segments. <br /> In what other places might anastomoses be made? <br />
  • The correct answer is D: cheilitis. <br />
  • Discuss symptoms such as ascites, borborygmus, constipation, diarrhea, dysphagia, flatus, hematochezia, jaundice, melena, and nausea. <br /> Based on your knowledge of the functions of the liver, how might cirrhosis cause ascites? <br /> For more signs and symptoms, see Chapter 5, Pathology Section. <br />
  • Discuss herpetic stomatitis, oral leukoplakia, and periodontal disease. <br /> How does tooth decay progress? <br /> How is it treated? <br />
  • What kind of diet do physicians recommend to relieve symptoms of achalasia? <br />
  • Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer. <br /> What is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma? How is it treated? <br /> LES is lower esophagus sphincter. <br />
  • Discuss the following terms: gastroesophageal reflux disease, hernia, and peptic ulcer. <br />
  • What causes cirrhosis of the liver? <br />
  • What is biliary colic? <br /> What type of surgery is performed to remove the gallbladder and stones? <br />
  • Which suffix(es) describe(s) a position? <br /> Which suffix(es) describe(s) a motion? <br /> Which suffix is used in a term that describes uncontrolled eating? <br /> Which suffixes are surgical? <br /> What is the difference between hematemesis and hemoptysis? <br />
  • Which suffix(es) describe(s) a position? <br /> Which suffix(es) describe(s) a motion? <br /> Which suffix is used in a term that describes uncontrolled eating? <br /> Which suffixes are surgical? <br /> What is the difference between hematemesis and hemoptysis? <br />
  • Which suffixes also stand alone as a word? <br /> Which suffix describes a motion? <br /> Which suffix is used in a term that describes flow or discharge? <br />
  • Which suffixes also stand alone as a word? <br /> Which suffix describes a motion? <br /> Which suffix is used in a term that describes flow or discharge? <br />
  • Use two of these terms in a sentence. <br />
  • The correct answer is B: dysphagia. (Answer A, dysphasia, means difficulty speaking; answer C, dysplasia, means abnormal formation or development; answer D, polyphagia, means excessive appetite.) <br />
  • The correct answer is A: hemostasis. <br />
  • “Col/o” is commonly combined with another form. What is it? (Colorectal) <br /> What is a cholecystectomy? <br />
  • “Col/o” is commonly combined with another form. What is it? (Colorectal) <br /> What is a cholecystectomy? <br />
  • Using the previous suffixes, combine forms to build terms. <br /> Which terms refer to parts of the small intestine? <br />
  • Using the previous suffixes, combine forms to build terms. <br /> Which terms refer to parts of the small intestine? <br />
  • Which of these terms pertains to the liver? <br /> Which pertains to the tongue? <br /> Which terms refer to parts of the small intestine? <br />
  • Which of these terms pertains to the liver? <br /> Which pertains to the tongue? <br /> Which terms refer to parts of the small intestine? <br />
  • Using the previous suffixes, combine forms to build terms. <br /> Which combining forms are not anatomical for a specific body part? (lip/o, lith/o) <br />
  • Using the previous suffixes, combine forms to build terms. <br /> Which combining forms are not anatomical for a specific body part? (lip/o, lith/o) <br />
  • What is sialadenitis? <br /> What is steatorrhea? <br /> What is stomatitis? (Many students believe this is for stomach.) <br />
  • What is sialadenitis? <br /> What is steatorrhea? <br /> What is stomatitis? (Many students believe this is for stomach.) <br />
  • The correct answer is C: hepatomegaly. <br />
  • What is a screening test for colon cancer? <br /> How does it work? <br /> Describe the enzymes LFTs measure. <br />
  • The correct answer is D: LFTs—liver function tests. LFTs test for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in serum. <br />
  • Which test uses a contrast medium? <br /> In a cholangiography, how does the contrast material enter the body? <br />
  • Which test is used to examine the gallbladder? <br /> Which test creates a scan of the liver? <br />
  • Which procedure is a visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract? <br /> Which procedure removes fluid after surgery? <br /> Which procedure is also called gastrojejunostomy? What is this an example of? (Anastomosis) <br /> Which procedure is used to pump out stomach contents? <br />
  • The correct answer is D: abdominocentesis. The suffix -centesis means to surgically puncture to remove fluid. <br />
  • Use three of these abbreviations in sentences. <br /> Identify suffixes learned in this chapter. <br /> What is the medical term for BRBPR? (Hematochezia) <br /> Which is an imaging test? <br /> What does tomography mean? <br /> Which are laboratory tests? <br />
  • Use three of these abbreviations in sentences. <br /> Identify suffixes learned in this chapter. <br /> What is the medical term for BRBPR? (Hematochezia) <br /> Which is an imaging test? <br /> What does tomography mean? <br /> Which are laboratory tests? <br />
  • Which of these abbreviations are pathologies? <br /> What is the purpose of liver function tests? <br />
  • Which of these abbreviations are pathologies? <br /> What is the purpose of liver function tests? <br />
  • What are the probable locations of PUD? (Stomach, duodenum) <br /> What is the difference between the PEG tube and the PEJ tube? <br /> What is the Latin term for “nothing by mouth”? <br /> Which enzymes are tested to detect liver disease? <br /> Which term describes intravenous nutrition? What is included in the formula? <br />
  • What are the probable locations of PUD? (Stomach, duodenum) <br /> What is the difference between the PEG tube and the PEJ tube? <br /> What is the Latin term for “nothing by mouth”? <br /> Which enzymes are tested to detect liver disease? <br /> Which term describes intravenous nutrition? What is included in the formula? <br />

Week 3 presentation Week 3 presentation Presentation Transcript

  • The Language Of Medicine 10 edition th Davi-Ellen Chabner Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1
  • Chapter 5 Digestive System Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2
  • Chapter Goals • Name the organs of the digestive system and describe their locations and functions. • Define combining forms for organs and know the meaning of related terminology. • Describe signs, symptoms, and disease conditions affecting the digestive system. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3
  • Chapter 5 Lesson 5.1 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4
  • Introduction The digestive or gastrointestinal system performs four main functions: • ingestion • digestion • absorption • elimination Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5
  • Introduction: Ingestion and Digestion • Ingestion—food material taken into mouth • Digestion—food is broken down, mechanically and chemically, as it travels through the gastrointestinal tract.  Digestive enzymes aid the breakdown of complex nutrients. • • • Proteins → amino acids Sugars → glucose Fats → fatty acids or triglycerides Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6
  • Introduction: Absorption passes into the bloodstream through • Digested food Digested food passes into the bloodstream through lining cells of the small intestine. • Nutrients travel to all cells of the body. • Cells burn nutrients to release the energy stored in food. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7
  • Introduction: Elimination • The body eliminates solid waste materials that The body eliminates solid waste materials that cannot be absorbed into bloodstream. • The large intestine concentrates feces. • The wastes pass out of the body through the anus. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8
  • Organs of the Digestive System • The gastrointestinal tract begins with the oral cavity. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9
  • Oral Cavity Major parts of the oral cavity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10
  • Oral Cavity (cont’d) Major parts of the oral cavity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11
  • Oral Cavity (cont’d) Upper permanent teeth within the dental arch → Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12
  • Oral Cavity (cont’d) Upper permanent teeth within the dental arch Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13
  • Oral Cavity (cont’d) Anatomy of a tooth Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14
  • Oral Cavity (cont’d) Anatomy of a tooth Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15
  • Oral Cavity (cont’d) Salivary glands Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16
  • Pharynx Deglutition Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17
  • Pharynx (cont’d) Deglutition Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18
  • Esophagus/Stomach Parts of the stomach Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19
  • Esophagus/Stomach (cont’d) Parts of the stomach Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20
  • The Digestive Tract Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21
  • The Digestive Tract (cont’d) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 22
  • Small Intestine Villi in the lining of the small intestine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 23
  • Large Intestine Parts of the large intestine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 24
  • Large Intestine (cont’d) Parts of the large intestine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 25
  • Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Parts of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 26
  • Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas (cont’d) Parts of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 27
  • Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas (cont’d) Besides producing bile, the liver: • Helps maintain normal blood glucose levels • Manufactures blood proteins necessary for clotting • Releases bilirubin, a pigment in bile • Removes toxins and poisons from the blood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 28
  • QUICK QUIZ: 1. What happens if bilirubin cannot leave the body and remains in the bloodstream? A. Gluconeogenesis B. Emulsification C. Hyperbilirubinemia D. Glycogenolysis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 29
  • Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas The pancreas and its functions Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 30
  • Food Pathway through the GI Tract Food enters through the oral cavity and exits through the anus Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 31
  • Food Pathway through the GI Tract (cont’d) Food enters through the oral cavity and exits through the anus Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 32
  • QUICK QUIZ: 2. Which term is the first part of the large intestine? A. Cecum B. Duodenum C. Jejunum D. Pylorus Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 33
  • QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) 3. Which term means swallowing? A. Mastication B. Deglutition C. Emulsification D. Peristalsis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 34
  • Vocabulary • absorption Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream Small building blocks of proteins; • amino acids released when proteins are digested • amylase • anus Enzyme secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of body Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 35
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • appendix Blind pouch hanging from the cecum • bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder; breaks up large fat globules; composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts • bilirubin • bowel Pigment released by the liver in bile Intestine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 36
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • canine teeth • cecum • colon • common bile duct Pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors; also called cuspids or eyeteeth First part of the large intestine Consists of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum; also called the choledochus Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 37
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • defecation Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus • deglutition Swallowing • dentin Primary material found in teeth; covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root • digestion Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 38
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • duodenum First part of the small intestine; measures 12 inches long Act of removal of materials from the body • elimination • emulsification • enamel Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules Hard, outermost layer of a tooth Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 39
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • enzyme Chemical that speeds up reactions between substances; enzyme names end in –ase • esophagus Tube connecting the throat to the stomach • fatty acids Substances produced when fats are digested; a category of lipids • feces Solid wastes; stool Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 40
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • gallbladder Small sac under the liver; stores bile • glucose Simple sugar • glycogen Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells • hydrochloric acid Substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 41
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • ileum Third part of the small intestine • incisor One of four front teeth in the dental arch • insulin Hormone produced by endocrine cells of the pancreas; transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver Second part of the small intestine • jejunum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 42
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) Pancreatic enzyme needed to digest fats • lipase • liver Large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen; secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn-out RBCs; filters out toxins; normal adult liver weighs about 2 ½ to 3 pounds • lower esophageal sphincter (LES) Ring of muscles between the esophagus and stomach; cardiac sphincter Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 43
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • mastication Chewing • molar teeth Sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch • palate • pancreas Roof of the mouth Organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 44
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • papillae (singular: papilla) • parotid gland • peristalsis Small, nipple-like elevations on the tongue Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs • pharynx Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 45
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines • protease Enzyme that digests protein • pulp Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels • pyloric sphincter Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum; opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 46
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • pylorus Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum • rectum Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus • rugae Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach • saliva Digestive juice produced by salivary glands; contains the enzyme amylase Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 47
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • salivary glands Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands • sigmoid colon • sphincter • stomach Fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 48
  • Vocabulary (cont’d) • triglycerides Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol; subgroup of lipids Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate • uvula • villi (singular: villus) Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 49
  • Terminology – Combining Forms Parts of the Body Combining Form • • • • • • • • an/o append/o, appendic/o bucc/o cec/o celi/o cheil/o cholecyst/o choledoch/o Meaning anus appendix cheek cecum belly,abdomen lip gallbladder common bile duct Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 50
  • Terminology – Combining Forms Parts of the Body (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning • • • • • • • • • colon colon tooth duodenum intestines, usually small intestine esophagus face stomach gums col/o colon/o dent/i duoden/o enter/o esophag/o faci/o gastr/o gingiv/o Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 51
  • Terminology – Combining Forms Parts of the Body (cont’d) Combining Form • • • • • • • • • Meaning gloss/o hepat/o ile/o ileum jejun/o labi/o lapar/o lingu/o mandibul/o odont/o tongue liver jejunum lip abdomen tongue lower jaw, mandible tooth Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 52
  • Terminology – Combining Forms Parts of the Body (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning • • • • • • • • • mouth palate pancreas peritoneum throat anus and rectum pyloric sphincter rectum salivary gland or/o palat/o pancreat/o peritone/o pharyng/o proct/o pylor/o rect/o sialaden/o Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 53
  • Terminology – Combining Forms Parts of the Body (cont’d) Combining Form • sigmoid/o • stomat/o • uvul/o Meaning sigmoid colon mouth uvula Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 54
  • Terminology – Combining Forms Substances Combining Form • • • • • • • Meaning amyl/o starch bil/i gall, bile bilirubin/o bilirubin (bile pigment) chol/e gall or bile chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid gluc/o sugar glyc/o sugar Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 55
  • Terminology – Combining Forms Substances (cont’d) Combining Form • • • • • • • Meaning glycogen/o glycogen, animal starch lip/o fat lith/o stone prote/o protein py/o pus sial/o saliva, salivary steat/o fat Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 56
  • Terminology – Suffixes Suffix • -ase • -chezia • -iasis • -prandial Meaning enzyme defecation, elimination of wastes abnormal condition meal Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 57
  • Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology (cont’d) Three types of anastomoses Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 58
  • QUICK QUIZ: 4. Which term means inflammation of the lip? A. Cholecystitis B. Celiac C. Appendicitis D. Cheilitis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 59
  • Chapter 5 Lesson 5.2 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 60
  • Pathology of the Digestive System Signs and symptoms • Anorexia – lack of appetite • Ascites – abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen • Borborygmus (plural: borborygmi) – rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the GI tract • Constipation – difficulty in passing stools • Diarrhea – frequent passage of loose, watery stools Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 61
  • Pathology of the Digestive System (cont’d) • Dysphagia – difficulty in swallowing • Eructation – gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth • Flatus – gas expelled through the anus • Hematochezia – passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum • Jaundice (icterus) – yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 62
  • Pathology of the Digestive System (cont’d) • Melena – black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood • Nausea – unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit • Steatorrhea – fat in the feces; frothy, foulsmelling fecal matter Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 63
  • Pathologic Conditions Oral Cavity and Teeth • Aphthous stomatitis – inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers • Dental caries – tooth decay • Herpetic stomatitis – inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpes virus • Oral leukoplakia – white plaques or patches • Periodontal disease – inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth and surrounding bone Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 64
  • Pathologic Conditions Upper Gastrointestinal Tract • Achalasia – failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 65
  • Pathologic Conditions Upper Gastrointestinal Tract • Esophageal cancer – malignant tumor of the esophagus • Esophageal varices – swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus • Gastric carcinoma – malignant tumor of the stomach Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 66
  • Pathologic Conditions Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 67
  • Pathologic Conditions Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (cont’d) • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach • Peptic ulcer – open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 68
  • Pathologic Conditions Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (cont’d) • Hernia – protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 69
  • Pathologic Conditions Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Small and Large Intestines • Anal fistula – abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus • Colonic polyposis – polyps protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 70
  • Pathologic Conditions Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Small and Large Intestines (cont’d) • Colorectal cancer – adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum or both Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 71
  • Pathologic Conditions Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Small and Large Intestines (cont’d) • Crohn disease – chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract • Diverticulosis – abnormal side pockets (outpouchings) in the intestinal wall Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 72
  • Pathologic Conditions Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Small and Large Intestines (cont’d) • Dysentery – painful, inflamed intestines • Hemorrhoids – swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region • Ileus – failure of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) – inflammation of the colon and small intestine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 73
  • Pathologic Conditions Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Small and Large Intestines (cont’d) • Intussusception – telescoping of the intestines • IBS – irritable bowel syndrome – group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension • Ulcerative colitis – chronic inflammation of the colon with the presence of ulcers • Volvulus – twisting of the intestines on itself Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 74
  • Pathologic Conditions Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas • • • • Cirrhosis – chronic degenerative disease of the liver Pancreatic cancer – malignant tumor of the pancreas Pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas Viral hepatitis – inflammation of the liver caused by a virus Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 75
  • Pathologic Conditions Liver Gallbladder, and Pancreas (cont’d) • Cholelithiasis – gallstones in the gallbladder Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 76
  • Suffixes Suffix • • • • • • Meaning -ectasis, -ectasia __________ -emesis __________ -pepsia __________ -phagia __________ -plasty __________ -ptysis __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 77
  • Suffixes Suffix • • • • • • Meaning -ectasis, -ectasia dilation, widening -emesis vomiting -pepsia digestion -phagia eating, swallowing -plasty surgical repair -ptysis spitting Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 78
  • Suffixes (cont’d) Suffix • • • • • • • Meaning -rrhage, -rrhagia __________ -rrhaphy __________ -rrhea __________ -spasm __________ -stasis __________ -stenosis __________ -tresia __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 79
  • Suffixes (cont’d) Suffix Meaning • • • • -rrhage, -rrhagia bursting forth (of blood) -rrhaphy suture -rrhea flow, discharge -spasm involuntary contraction of muscles • -stasis stopping; controlling • -stenosis narrowing, tightening • -tresia opening Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 80
  • Suffixes (cont’d) • Suffixes that are also used alone as separate terms:  Emesis (emetic)  Spasm  Stasis  Stenosis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 81
  • QUICK QUIZ: 1. Which term means difficulty in swallowing? A. Dysphasia B. Dysphagia C. Dysplasia D. Polyphagia Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 82
  • QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) 2. Which term means to control or stop bleeding? A. Hemostasis B. Hematoma C. Hemoptysis D. Cholestasis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 83
  • Combining Forms and Terminology Combining Form Meaning • • • • • • • • bucc/o __________ cec/o __________ celi/o __________ cheil/o __________ chol/e __________ cholangi/o __________ cholecyst/o __________ choledoch/o __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 84
  • Combining Forms and Terminology Combining Form Meaning • • • • • • • • bucc/o cheek cec/o cecum celi/o abdomen cheil/o lip chol/e gall, bile cholangi/o bile duct (vessel) cholecyst/o gallbladder choledoch/o common bile duct Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 85
  • Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form • • • • • • • • Meaning col/o __________ colon/o __________ dent/i __________ duoden/o __________ enter/o __________ esophag/o __________ gastr/o __________ gingiv/o __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 86
  • Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form • • • • • • • • Meaning col/o colon colon/o colon dent/i tooth duoden/o duodenum enter/o intestines esophag/o esophagus gastr/o stomach gingiv/o gums Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 87
  • Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form • • • • • • • • gloss/o gluc/o glyc/o hepat/o herni/o ile/o jejun/o labi/o Meaning __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 88
  • Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning • • • • • • • • tongue sugar sugar liver hernia gloss/o gluc/o glyc/o hepat/o herni/o ile/o jejun/o labi/o ileum jejunum lip Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 89
  • Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning • • • • • • • lingu/o __________ lip/o __________ lith/o __________ odont/o __________ or/o __________ palat/o __________ pancreat/o __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 90
  • Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning • • • • • • • lingu/o tongue lip/o fat lith/o stone odont/o tooth or/o mouth palat/o palate pancreat/o pancreas Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 91
  • Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning Combining Form • • • • • • • Meaning proct/o __________ pylor/o __________ rect/o __________ sialaden/o __________ splen/o __________ steat/o __________ stomat/o __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 92
  • Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning Combining Form • • • • • • • Meaning proct/o anus and rectum pylor/o pyloric sphincter rect/o rectum sialaden/o salivary gland splen/o spleen steat/o fat stomat/o mouth Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 93
  • QUICK QUIZ: 3. Which term means enlarged liver? A. Acromegaly B. Cardiomegaly C. Hepatomegaly D. Hepatitis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 94
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures • Laboratory tests  Liver function tests (LFTs): tests for enzymes and bilirubin in blood  Stool culture: test for microorganisms in stool  Stool guaiac test or Hemoccult test: test to detect blood in feces Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 95
  • QUICK QUIZ: 4. Which of the following tests for the clear fluid that remains after blood has clotted (serum)? A. Stool guaiac B. Hemoccult C. Stool culture D. LFTs Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 96
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures • Clinical procedures  X-rays • Lower gastrointestinal series (barium enema) • Upper gastrointestinal series • Cholangiography • Computed tomography (CT scan) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 97
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) • Clinical procedures  Ultrasound examination • Abdominal ultrasonography • Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)  Magnetic resonance techniques • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  Nuclear medicine test • Hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan (HIDA scan) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 98
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) • Other procedures Gastric bypass or bariatric surgery: reduces stomach size Gastrointestinal endoscopy: visual examination of the GI tract Laparoscopy: visual examination of the abdomen Liver biopsy: removal of liver tissue for microscopic examination Nasogastric intubation: insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach Paracentesis (abdominocentesis): puncture to remove fluid from abdomen Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 99
  • QUICK QUIZ: 5. Which procedure is a surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen? A. Laparoscopy B. Laparotomy C. Abdominectomy D. Abdominocentesis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 100
  • Abbreviations • • • • • • • • • alk phos ALT, AST BE BM BRBPR CD CT EGD ERCP __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 101
  • Abbreviations • • • • • • • • • alk phos ALT, AST BE BM BRBPR CD CT EGD ERCP Alkaline phosphatase Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase Barium enema Bowel movement Bright red blood per rectum Celiac disease Computed tomography Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 102
  • Abbreviations (cont’d) • • • • • • • • • • EUS FOBT G tube GB GERD GI HBV IBD LAC LFTs __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 103
  • Abbreviations (cont’d) • • • • • • • • • • EUS FOBT G tube GB GERD GI HBV IBD LAC LFTs Endoscopic ultrasonography Fecal occult blood test Gastrostomy tube; also stomach tube, PEG tube Gallbladder Gastroesophageal reflux disease Gastrointestinal Hepatitis B virus Inflammatory bowel disease Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy Liver function tests Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 104
  • Abbreviations (cont’d) • • • • • • • • • MRI NG tube NPO PEG tube PEJ tube PTHC PUD TPN T tube __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 105
  • Abbreviations (cont’d) • • • • • • • • • MRI NG tube NPO PEG tube PEJ tube PTHC PUD TPN T tube Magnetic resonance imaging Nasogastric tube Nothing by mouth Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography Peptic ulcer disease Total parenteral nutrition Tube placed in the bile duct for drainage into a small pouch on the outside of the body Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 106
  • Review Suffixes -ase -centesis -chezia -ectasia -ectasis -ectomy -emesis -emia -genesis _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 107
  • Review Suffixes (cont’d) • -ase • -centesis fluid • -chezia wastes • -ectasia expansion • -ectasis expansion • -ectomy • -emesis enzyme surgical puncture to remove defecation; elimination of stretching; dilation; stretching; dilation; removal; excision; resection vomiting Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 108
  • Review Suffixes (cont’d) -graphy -iasis -lysis -megaly -orexia -pathy -pepsia -phagia _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 109
  • Review Suffixes (cont’d) • -graphy • -iasis • -lysis • -megaly • -orexia • -pathy • -pepsia • -phagia process of recording abnormal condition breakdown; separation; destruction; loosening enlargement appetite disease; emotion digestion eating; swallowing Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 110
  • Review Suffixes (cont’d) -prandial -plasty -ptosis -ptysis -rrhage -rrhagia -rrhaphy -rrhea _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 111
  • Review Suffixes (cont’d) • • • • • • • • -prandial -plasty -ptosis -ptysis -rrhage -rrhagia -rrhaphy -rrhea meal surgical repair droop; sag; prolapse; fall spitting bursting forth (of blood) bursting forth (of blood) suture flow; discharge Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 112
  • Review Suffixes (cont’d) -scopy -spasm -stasis -stenosis -stomy -tomy -tresia _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 113
  • Review Suffixes (cont’d) • -scopy • -spasm • -stasis • -stenosis • -stomy mouth) • -tomy • -tresia visual examination sudden contraction of muscles stop; control; place tightening; stricture new opening (to form a process of cutting opening Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 114