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The Language Of
Medicine
10 edition
th

Davi-Ellen Chabner
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevie...
Chapter 10
Nervous System

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2
Chapter Goals


Name, locate, and describe major organs of the nervous system and
their functions.



Learn nervous syst...
Chapter Goals (cont’d)


Describe laboratory tests, clinical procedures, and
abbreviations that pertain to the system.

...
Chapter 10
Lesson 10.1

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

5
Introduction
Nervous system:


Complex: 10 billion nerve cells



Voluntary and involuntary functions



Carries electr...
Introduction (cont’d)
Nerve cells (neurons):


Microscopic



Collected into macroscopic nerves



Carry electrical mes...
General Structure of the
Nervous System
Two major divisions:


Central nervous system—CNS





Brain
Spinal cord

Peri...
General Structure of the
Nervous System (cont’d)


Cranial and spinal nerves



Motor nerves carry messages from the br...
General Structure of the
Nervous System (cont’d)
Autonomic nervous system:


Carries impulses from the central nervous sy...
Divisions of the Central and
Peripheral Nervous System

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier I...
Neurons, Nerves, and Glia
Neuron = Individual nerve cell





Dendrite
Cell nucleus
Axon






Myelin sheath
Neuril...
Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d)
Label the parts
of a neuron,
and review the
path of a
nervous
impulse.

Copyright © 201...
Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d)
The image
shows the parts
of a neuron.
Review the path
of a nervous
impulse.

Copyright...
Neurons, Nerves, and Glia
(cont’d)
Glia cells:


Maintain the health of the nervous system



Do not transmit impulses

...
Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d)
Four types:
 Astrocytes (astroglial cells)
 Microglia (microglial cells)
 Oligodendr...
Chapter 10
Lesson 10.2

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

17
The Brain

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

18
The Brain (cont’d)

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

19
The Brain (cont’d)


Cerebrum


The largest section of the brain



Surface nerve cells called cerebral cortex



Mana...
The Brain (cont’d)


Cerebellum





Coordinates voluntary movements
Maintains balance

Thalamus


Integrates and mon...
The Brain (cont’d)


Hypothalamus


Controls body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire,
and emotions



Regulate...
The Brain (cont’d)
Brainstem


Pons


Bridges the cerebrum and cerebellum with the rest of the
brain



Houses nerves f...
The Brain (cont’d)
Brainstem


Medulla oblongata


Connects the spinal cord to the brain



Nerve tracts from side to s...
The Spinal Cord and Meninges
Spinal cord

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

25
The Spinal Cord and Meninges (cont’d)

Meninges

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

26
The Spinal Cord and Meninges (cont’d)

Meninges

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

27
Vocabulary


acetylcholine



afferent nerve



arachnoid
membrane

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprin...
Vocabulary (cont’d)






acetylcholine

afferent nerve

arachnoid
membrane

Neurotransmitter chemical released at
ends...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


astrocyte



autonomic nervous
system



axon

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an impri...
Vocabulary (cont’d)






astrocyte

Glial cell that transports water
and salts from capillaries

autonomic nervous
sys...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


blood-brain
barrier



brainstem



cauda equina
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imp...
Vocabulary (cont’d)






blood-brain
barrier

Protective separation between the
blood and brain cells that keeps
subst...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


cell body



central nervous
system (CNS)



cerebellum

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders...
Vocabulary (cont’d)






cell body

The part of a nerve cell that contains
the nucleus

central nervous
system (CNS)

...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


cerebral cortex



cerebrospinal
fluid



cerebrum

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an ...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


cerebral cortex

Outer region of the cerebrum; contains
sheets of nerve cells; gray matter



cere...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


cranial nerves



dendrite



dura mater

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


cranial nerves

Twelve pairs; carry messages to and from
the brain with regard to the head and
neck...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


efferent nerve



ependymal cell



ganglion (plural:
ganglia)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Sa...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


efferent nerve

Carries messages away from the
brain and spinal cord; motor nerve



ependymal cel...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


glial cell
(neuroglial cell)



gyrus (plural:
gyri)



hypothalamus
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007...
Vocabulary (cont’d)






glial cell
(neuroglial cell)

gyrus (plural:
gyri)

hypothalamus

Supportive and connective n...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


medulla
oblongata



meninges



microglial cell

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an im...
Vocabulary (cont’d)






medulla
oblongata

The part of the brain just above the
spinal cord; controls breathing,
hear...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


motor nerve



myelin sheath



nerve
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Els...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


motor nerve

Carries messages away from the brain
and spinal cord to muscles and organs;
efferent n...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


neuron



neurotransmitter



oligodendroglial
cell
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an ...
Vocabulary (cont’d)






Nerve cell that carries impulses
throughout body; parenchyma of
the nervous system

neuron

n...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


parasympathetic
nerves



parenchyma



peripheral
nervous system
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


parasympathetic
nerves

Involuntary, autonomic nerves that
regulate normal body functions such as
h...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


pia mater



plexus (plural:
plexuses)



pons

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an impr...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


pia mater

The thin, delicate inner membrane of
the meninges



plexus (plural:
plexuses)



pons...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


receptor



sciatic nerve



sensory nerve

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint ...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


receptor

An organ that receives a nervous
stimulus and passes it on to afferent
nerves; the skin, ...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


spinal nerves



stimulus
(plural:
stimuli)



stroma

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, ...
Vocabulary (cont’d)






spinal nerves

stimulus
(plural:
stimuli)

stroma

Thirty-one pairs arising from the
spinal c...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


sulcus (plural:
sulci)



sympathetic
nerves



synapse

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


sulcus (plural:
sulci)

Depression or groove in the surface of the
cerebral cortex; fissure



sym...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


thalamus



vagus nerve



ventricles of
the brain
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an i...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


thalamus

Main relay center of the brain;
conducts impulses between the spinal
cord and the cerebru...
QUICK QUIZ:
1. A sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the
surface of the cerebellum is the:
A.
B.
C.
D.

m...
QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d)
2. The thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges is the:
A.
B.
C.
D.

pia mater
dura mater
parenc...
Terminology
ORGANS AND STRUCTURES
Combining Form
Meaning
 cerebell/o
cerebellum


cerebr/o

cerebrum



dur/o

dura mat...
Terminology (cont’d)
ORGANS AND STRUCTURES
Combining Form
 lept/o

Meaning
thin, slender



mening/o,
meningi/o

membran...
Terminology (cont’d)
ORGANS AND STRUCTURES
Combining Form
 pont/o

Meaning
pons



radicul/o

nerve root



thalam/o

t...
Terminology (cont’d)
SYMPTOMS
Combining Form


alges/o, -algesia



-algia



caus/o



comat/o



esthesi/o, -esthes...
Terminology (cont’d)
SYMPTOMS
Combining Form


-kinesis, kinetic



-lepsy



lex/o



-paresis



-phasia

Meaning
m...
Terminology (cont’d)
SYMPTOMS
Combining Form

Meaning



-plegia

paralysis



-praxia

action



-sthenia

strength

...
QUICK QUIZ:
3. Which term means nerve pain?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Cephalgia
Analgesia
Hypalgesia
Neuralgia

Copyright © 2014, 2011,...
QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d)
4. Which type of hematoma occurs between the skull and the dura as a
result of a ruptured meningeal a...
Chapter 10
Lesson 10.3

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

72
Pathology
Congenital disorders


Hydrocephalus



Spina bifida


Spina bifida cystica



Spina bifida occulta

Copyrig...
Degenerative Movement,
and Seizure Disorders










Alzheimer disease (AD)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
Infectious Disorders

 Herpes

zoster (shingles)

 Meningitis
 Human

immunodeficiency virus
(HIV) encephalopathy

Copy...
Traumatic Disorders


Cerebral concussion:



There may be no evidence of structural damage to brain tissue or loss of
...
Vascular Disorders


Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)



Embolic — A dislodged clot that travels to the cerebral arteries...
Vascular Disorders (cont’d)

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

78
Clinical Procedures

X-ray tests:


Cerebral angiography



Computed tomography (CT) of the brain



Myelography

Other...
Abbreviations










AD
AFP
ALS
AVM
BBB
CNS
CT
CSF
CVA

Alzheimer disease
alpha-fetoprotein
amyotrophic latera...
Abbreviations (cont’d)
•

EEG

electroencephalogram

•

GABA

gamma-aminobutyric acid (neurotransmitter)

ICP

intracrania...
Abbreviations (cont’d)











1/2 P
PCA
PNS
PET
Sz
TBI
TENS



TIA
TLE
tPA













hemiparesi...
Practical Applications



What symptoms signal nervous system problems?



What tests are conducted to diagnose these pr...
Review Sheet
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



alges/o

___________



angi/o

___________



caus/o

________...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



alges/o

sensitivity to pain



angi/o

vessel, blood

...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



comat/o

___________



crani/o

___________



cry/o
...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



comat/o

deep sleep



crani/o

skull



cry/o



dur...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



gli/o

_________



hydr/o

_________



kines/o

____...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



gli/o

glue



hydr/o

water



kines/o

movement



...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



myel/o

___________



narc/o

___________



neur/o

...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



myel/o

spinal cord



narc/o

sleep



neur/o

nerve
...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



spin/o

___________



syncop/o

___________



tax/o
...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



spin/o

spine



syncop/o

cut off



tax/o



thalam...
The Language Of
Medicine
10 edition
th

Davi-Ellen Chabner
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevie...
Chapter 12
Respiratory System

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

95
Chapter Goals


Name the organs of the respiratory system and describe their location
and function.



Identify various ...
Chapter Goals (cont’d)


Describe important clinical procedures related to the
respiratory system, and recognize relevant...
Chapter 12
Lesson 12.1
Introduction
External respiration: Exchange of air in lung capillaries


Oxygen inhaled into the air sacs of the lungs

...
Introduction (cont’d)
Internal respiration: Exchange of gases in the cells


Occurs simultaneously between cells and capi...
Respiratory Anatomy


Mediastinum: Middle of chest where trachea divides
into two branches



Bronchi: Each leads to a s...
Anatomy of Respiration

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

102
Anatomy of Respiration (cont’d)

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

103
Respiratory Structures
Conduct air

Exchange gases

 Nose

 Bronchioles

 Nasal

 Alveoli

cavities and
paranasal sinu...
Respiratory Flow Chart

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

105
Respiratory Flow Chart (cont’d)

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

106
Vocabulary


adenoids



alveolus (plural:
alveoli)



apex of the lung

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an i...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


adenoids

Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx;
pharyngeal tonsils



alveolus (plural:
alveoli)

A...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


base of the lung



bronchioles



bronchus (plural:
bronchi)

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Sa...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


base of the lung



bronchioles



bronchus (plural:
bronchi)

The lower portion of the lung

The...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


carbon dioxide (CO2)



cilia



diaphragm

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint ...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


carbon dioxide (CO2)



cilia



diaphragm

Gas produced by body cells when
oxygen and carbon ato...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


epiglottis



expiration



glottis

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Else...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


epiglottis

Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx;
keeps food from entering the larynx...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


hilum (of lung)



inspiration



larynx

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of...
Vocabulary (cont’d)






hilum (of lung)

inspiration

larynx

Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels,
and ne...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


lobe



mediastinum



nares

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier In...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


lobe

Division of a lung



mediastinum

The region between lungs in the chest cavity;
contains th...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


oxygen (O2)



palatine tonsil

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier I...
Vocabulary (cont’d)




oxygen (O2)

palatine tonsil

Gas that makes up 21% of air; passes into the
bloodstream at the l...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


paranasal sinus



parietal pleura



pharynx

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an impri...
Vocabulary (cont’d)
paranasal sinus

One of the air cavities in the bones near the nose



parietal pleura

Outer fold of...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


pleura



pleural cavity



pulmonary parenchyma

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an im...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


pleura

Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung
Space between the folds of the pleura





p...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


respiration



trachea



visceral pleura

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint o...
Vocabulary (cont’d)


respiration

The process of moving air into and out of the
lungs; breathing



trachea

Windpipe

...
QUICK QUIZ:
1. What is the tip or uppermost portion of the lung?

A.

Base

B.

Lobe

C.

Apex

D.

Nares

Copyright © 201...
Combining Forms
and Terminology
Combining Form

Meaning



adenoid/o

adenoids



alveol/o

alveolus, air sac



bronch...
Combining Forms
and Terminology (cont’d)
Combining Form

Meaning



coni/o

dust



cyan/o

blue



epiglott/o

epiglot...
Combining Forms
and Terminology (cont’d)
Combining Form

Meaning



nas/o

nose



orth/o

straight, upright



ox/o

...
Combining Forms
and Terminology (cont’d)
Combining Form

Meaning



phren/o

diaphragm



pleur/o

pleura



pneum/o

...
Combining Forms
and Terminology (cont’d)
Combining Form

Meaning



sinus/o

sinus cavity



spir/o

breathing



tel/o...
Combining Forms, Suffixes, and
Terminology
SUFFIXES
Suffix
-ema

Meaning
condition

-osmia

smell

-pnea

breathing

-ptys...
Chapter 12
Lesson 12.2

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

134
Diagnostic Terms


Auscultation



Percussion



Pleural rub



Rale (crackle)



Rhonchus



Sputum



Stridor


...
Pathology
Upper respiratory disorders

 Croup
 Diphtheria
 Epistaxis
 Pertussis

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saund...
Pathology (cont’d)
Bronchial tube disorders

 Asthma
 Bronchiectasis
 Chronic

bronchitis
 Cystic fibrosis

Copyright ...
Pathology (cont’d)
Lung disorders

 Atelectasis



Pulmonary edema

 Emphysema



Pulmonary embolism (PE)



Pulmonar...
Pathology
Atelectasis
Lung Disorders


Two forms



Proximal obstruction of distal
airways



Accumulations of fluid, b...
Pathology
Pleural disorders


Mesothelioma



Pleural effusion



Pleurisy (pleuritis)



Pneumothorax

Copyright © 20...
Pathology
Pleural Disorders
Pneumothorax: Air gathers in the pleural cavity

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an ...
Study Section


Anthracosis



Hydrothorax



Asbestosis



Infiltrate



Bacilli



Palliative



Chronic obstruct...
Chapter 12
Lesson 12.3

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

143
Clinical Procedures
X-rays


Chest x-ray (CXR)



Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest



Pulmonary angiography

...
Clinical Procedures (cont’d)
X-rays: radiographic imaging

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevie...
Clinical Procedures (cont’d)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): magnetic waves create
images

Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 ...
Clinical Procedures (cont’d)


Nuclear tests


Positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung



Ventilation-perfu...
Clinical Procedures (cont’d)
Bronchoscopy: fiberoptic or rigid endoscope
inserted into the bronchial tubes for
diagnosis, ...
Clinical Procedures (cont’d)
Endotracheal intubation: placement of tube from
mouth to trachea to establish airway

Copyrig...
Clinical Procedures (cont’d)


Laryngoscopy



Thoracotomy



Lung biopsy



Thorascopy



Mediastinoscopy



Trache...
Clinical Procedures (cont’d)
Thoracentesis: surgical puncture to
remove fluid from pleural space

Copyright © 2014, 2011, ...
Clinical Procedures (cont’d)
Tracheostomy: surgical creation of an
opening into the trachea through the neck

Copyright © ...
Abbreviations


ABGs



AFB



ARDS



BAL



Bronch



CF



CO2



COPD



CPAP



CPR
Copyright © 2014, 2011,...
Abbreviations (cont’d)


ABGs

Arterial blood gases



AFB

Acid-fast bacillus



ARDS

Acute respiratory distress synd...
Abbreviations (cont’d)


C&S



CTPA



CXR



DICO



DOE



DPT



FEV1



FVC



HCO3-



ICU
Copyright © 201...
Abbreviations (cont’d)


C&S

Culture and sensitivity testing (of sputum)



CTPA

Computed tomography pulmonary angiogr...
Abbreviations (cont’d)


LLL



LUL



MDI



NSCLC



O2



OSA



PaCO2



PaO2



PCP



PE
Copyright © 2014,...
Abbreviations (cont’d)


LLL

Left lower lobe (of lung)



LUL

Left upper lobe (of lung)



MDI

Metered-dose inhaler
...
Abbreviations (cont’d)


PEP



PEEP



PFTs



PND



PPD



RDS



RLL



RSV



RUL



RV
Copyright © 2014, 2...
Abbreviations (cont’d)


PEP

Positive expiratory pressure



PEEP

Positive end-expiratory pressure



PFTs

Pulmonary...
Abbreviations (cont’d)


SABA



SCLC



SOB



TB



TLC



URI



VT



VATS



VC



V/Q scan
Copyright © 201...
Abbreviations (cont’d)


SABA

Short-acting beta agonist



SCLC

Small cell lung cancer



SOB

Shortness of breath

...
Review Sheet
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form
adenoid/o
alveol/o

Meaning

____________
____________

bronch/o

____________...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



adenoid/o

adenoids



alveol/o

alveolus; air sac; sma...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form
coni/o

___________

cyan/o

Meaning

___________

epiglott/o

______...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



coni/o

dust



cyan/o

blue



epiglott/o

epiglottis...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form
nas/o

__________

orth/o

Meaning

__________

ox/o

__________

pec...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



nas/o

nose



orth/o

straight



ox/o



pector/o

...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form
phren/o

___________

pleur/o

Meaning

___________

pneum/o

_______...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



phren/o

diaphragm; mind



pleur/o

pleura



pneum/o...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form
sinus/o

___________

spir/o

Meaning

___________

tel/o

__________...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form

Meaning



sinus/o

sinus



spir/o

to breathe



tel/o



thor...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
SUFFIXES
Suffix

Meaning

-ema

___________

-osmia

___________

-pnea

___________

-ptysis

_____...
Review Sheet (cont’d)
SUFFIXES
Suffix

Meaning



-ema

condition



-osmia

smell



-pnea

breathing



-ptysis

spi...
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  1. 1. The Language Of Medicine 10 edition th Davi-Ellen Chabner Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1
  2. 2. Chapter 10 Nervous System Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2
  3. 3. Chapter Goals  Name, locate, and describe major organs of the nervous system and their functions.  Learn nervous system combining forms and use them with suffixes and prefixes.  Define pathological conditions affecting the nervous system. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3
  4. 4. Chapter Goals (cont’d)  Describe laboratory tests, clinical procedures, and abbreviations that pertain to the system.  Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in the proper contexts, such as medical reports and records. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4
  5. 5. Chapter 10 Lesson 10.1 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5
  6. 6. Introduction Nervous system:  Complex: 10 billion nerve cells  Voluntary and involuntary functions  Carries electrical messages  External and internal receptors Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6
  7. 7. Introduction (cont’d) Nerve cells (neurons):  Microscopic  Collected into macroscopic nerves  Carry electrical messages all over the body Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7
  8. 8. General Structure of the Nervous System Two major divisions:  Central nervous system—CNS    Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system—PNS  Cranial nerves  Spinal nerves  Plexuses  Peripheral nerves throughout the body Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8
  9. 9. General Structure of the Nervous System (cont’d)  Cranial and spinal nerves   Motor nerves carry messages from the brain   Sensory nerves carry messages toward the brain Mixed nerves carry both sensory and motor fibers Sensory receptors Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9
  10. 10. General Structure of the Nervous System (cont’d) Autonomic nervous system:  Carries impulses from the central nervous system to the organs  Sympathetic nerves stimulate the body under stress  Parasympathetic nerves balance the sympathetic system  Slow heart rate  Lower blood pressure Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10
  11. 11. Divisions of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11
  12. 12. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia Neuron = Individual nerve cell    Dendrite Cell nucleus Axon     Myelin sheath Neurilemma Terminal end fibers (secrete neurotransmitters) Neurotransmitters transfer impulse across synapse Ganglia = Small clusters of nerve cell bodies Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12
  13. 13. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d) Label the parts of a neuron, and review the path of a nervous impulse. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13
  14. 14. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d) The image shows the parts of a neuron. Review the path of a nervous impulse. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14
  15. 15. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d) Glia cells:  Maintain the health of the nervous system  Do not transmit impulses Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15
  16. 16. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d) Four types:  Astrocytes (astroglial cells)  Microglia (microglial cells)  Oligodendroglia (oligodendroglial cells)  Ependymal cells Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16
  17. 17. Chapter 10 Lesson 10.2 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17
  18. 18. The Brain Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18
  19. 19. The Brain (cont’d) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19
  20. 20. The Brain (cont’d)  Cerebrum  The largest section of the brain  Surface nerve cells called cerebral cortex  Manages speech, vision, smell, movement, hearing, and thought Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20
  21. 21. The Brain (cont’d)  Cerebellum    Coordinates voluntary movements Maintains balance Thalamus  Integrates and monitors impulses from skin (pain) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21
  22. 22. The Brain (cont’d)  Hypothalamus  Controls body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions  Regulates release of hormones from the pituitary gland  Monitors sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 22
  23. 23. The Brain (cont’d) Brainstem  Pons  Bridges the cerebrum and cerebellum with the rest of the brain  Houses nerves for the face and eyes Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 23
  24. 24. The Brain (cont’d) Brainstem  Medulla oblongata  Connects the spinal cord to the brain  Nerve tracts from side to side  Regulates:  Blood vessels  Heart  Respiratory system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 24
  25. 25. The Spinal Cord and Meninges Spinal cord Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 25
  26. 26. The Spinal Cord and Meninges (cont’d) Meninges Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 26
  27. 27. The Spinal Cord and Meninges (cont’d) Meninges Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 27
  28. 28. Vocabulary  acetylcholine  afferent nerve  arachnoid membrane Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 28
  29. 29. Vocabulary (cont’d)    acetylcholine afferent nerve arachnoid membrane Neurotransmitter chemical released at ends of nerve cells Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord Middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 29
  30. 30. Vocabulary (cont’d)  astrocyte  autonomic nervous system  axon Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 30
  31. 31. Vocabulary (cont’d)    astrocyte Glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 31
  32. 32. Vocabulary (cont’d)  blood-brain barrier  brainstem  cauda equina Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 32
  33. 33. Vocabulary (cont’d)    blood-brain barrier Protective separation between the blood and brain cells that keeps substances (such as anticancer drugs) from penetrating capillary walls and entering the brain Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord brainstem cauda equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 33
  34. 34. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cell body  central nervous system (CNS)  cerebellum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 34
  35. 35. Vocabulary (cont’d)    cell body The part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus central nervous system (CNS) cerebellum The brain and spinal cord The posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 35
  36. 36. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cerebral cortex  cerebrospinal fluid  cerebrum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 36
  37. 37. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum; contains sheets of nerve cells; gray matter  cerebrospinal fluid Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord cerebrum The largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscle activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory  Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 37
  38. 38. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cranial nerves  dendrite  dura mater Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 38
  39. 39. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cranial nerves Twelve pairs; carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)  dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell; the first part to receive the nervous impulse  dura mater The thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 39
  40. 40. Vocabulary (cont’d)  efferent nerve  ependymal cell  ganglion (plural: ganglia) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 40
  41. 41. Vocabulary (cont’d)  efferent nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve  ependymal cell Glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord; helps form cerebrospinal fluid  ganglion (plural: ganglia) Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 41
  42. 42. Vocabulary (cont’d)  glial cell (neuroglial cell)  gyrus (plural: gyri)  hypothalamus Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 42
  43. 43. Vocabulary (cont’d)    glial cell (neuroglial cell) gyrus (plural: gyri) hypothalamus Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses; can reproduce itself Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution The portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and pituitary gland secretions Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 43
  44. 44. Vocabulary (cont’d)  medulla oblongata  meninges  microglial cell Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 44
  45. 45. Vocabulary (cont’d)    medulla oblongata The part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels meninges Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord microglial cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 45
  46. 46. Vocabulary (cont’d)  motor nerve  myelin sheath  nerve Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 46
  47. 47. Vocabulary (cont’d)  motor nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve  myelin sheath Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell; speeds impulse conduction  nerve Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 47
  48. 48. Vocabulary (cont’d)  neuron  neurotransmitter  oligodendroglial cell Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 48
  49. 49. Vocabulary (cont’d)    Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout body; parenchyma of the nervous system neuron neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell; stimulates or inhibits another cell oligodendroglial cell Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons; oligodendrocyte Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 49
  50. 50. Vocabulary (cont’d)  parasympathetic nerves  parenchyma  peripheral nervous system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 50
  51. 51. Vocabulary (cont’d)  parasympathetic nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract  parenchyma Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system; for the nervous system, neurons and nerves that carry impulses  peripheral nervous system Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 51
  52. 52. Vocabulary (cont’d)  pia mater  plexus (plural: plexuses)  pons Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 52
  53. 53. Vocabulary (cont’d)  pia mater The thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges  plexus (plural: plexuses)  pons A large, interlacing network of nerves The part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 53
  54. 54. Vocabulary (cont’d)  receptor  sciatic nerve  sensory nerve Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 54
  55. 55. Vocabulary (cont’d)  receptor An organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves; the skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors  sciatic nerve The nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot  sensory nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from receptor; afferent nerve Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 55
  56. 56. Vocabulary (cont’d)  spinal nerves  stimulus (plural: stimuli)  stroma Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 56
  57. 57. Vocabulary (cont’d)    spinal nerves stimulus (plural: stimuli) stroma Thirty-one pairs arising from the spinal cord An agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response Connective and supporting tissue of an organ; glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 57
  58. 58. Vocabulary (cont’d)  sulcus (plural: sulci)  sympathetic nerves  synapse Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 58
  59. 59. Vocabulary (cont’d)  sulcus (plural: sulci) Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure  sympathetic nerves Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress  synapse The space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 59
  60. 60. Vocabulary (cont’d)  thalamus  vagus nerve  ventricles of the brain Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 60
  61. 61. Vocabulary (cont’d)  thalamus Main relay center of the brain; conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum  vagus nerve Tenth cranial nerve; branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach  ventricles of the brain Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 61
  62. 62. QUICK QUIZ: 1. A sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebellum is the: A. B. C. D. microglial gyrus parenchyma stroma Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 62
  63. 63. QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) 2. The thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges is the: A. B. C. D. pia mater dura mater parenchyma stroma Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 63
  64. 64. Terminology ORGANS AND STRUCTURES Combining Form Meaning  cerebell/o cerebellum  cerebr/o cerebrum  dur/o dura mater  encephal/o brain  gli/o glial cells Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 64
  65. 65. Terminology (cont’d) ORGANS AND STRUCTURES Combining Form  lept/o Meaning thin, slender  mening/o, meningi/o membranes, meninges  my/o  myel/o spinal cord  neur/o nerve muscle Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 65
  66. 66. Terminology (cont’d) ORGANS AND STRUCTURES Combining Form  pont/o Meaning pons  radicul/o nerve root  thalam/o thalamus  thec/o sheath (refers to meninges)  vag/o vagus nerve Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 66
  67. 67. Terminology (cont’d) SYMPTOMS Combining Form  alges/o, -algesia  -algia  caus/o  comat/o  esthesi/o, -esthesia  kines/o, -kinesia Meaning excessive sensitivity to pain pain burning deep sleep feeling, nervous sensation movement Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 67
  68. 68. Terminology (cont’d) SYMPTOMS Combining Form  -kinesis, kinetic  -lepsy  lex/o  -paresis  -phasia Meaning movement seizure word, phrase slight paralysis speech Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 68
  69. 69. Terminology (cont’d) SYMPTOMS Combining Form Meaning  -plegia paralysis  -praxia action  -sthenia strength  syncop/o cut off  tax/o order, coordination Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 69
  70. 70. QUICK QUIZ: 3. Which term means nerve pain? A. B. C. D. Cephalgia Analgesia Hypalgesia Neuralgia Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 70
  71. 71. QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) 4. Which type of hematoma occurs between the skull and the dura as a result of a ruptured meningeal artery, usually after a fracture of the skull? A. Subdural B. Epidural C. Intracerebral Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 71
  72. 72. Chapter 10 Lesson 10.3 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 72
  73. 73. Pathology Congenital disorders  Hydrocephalus  Spina bifida  Spina bifida cystica  Spina bifida occulta Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 73
  74. 74. Degenerative Movement, and Seizure Disorders          Alzheimer disease (AD) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Epilepsy Huntington disease (Huntington chorea) Multiple sclerosis (MS) Myasthenia gravis (MG) Palsy Parkinson disease Tourette syndrome Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 74
  75. 75. Infectious Disorders  Herpes zoster (shingles)  Meningitis  Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 75
  76. 76. Traumatic Disorders  Cerebral concussion:   There may be no evidence of structural damage to brain tissue or loss of consciousness  Rest is very important to allow the brain to heal   Temporary brain dysfunction after injury Usually clears within 24 hours Cerebral contusion:  Bruising of brain tissue through direct trauma to the head  Usually associated with skull fracture as well as edema and an increase in intracranial pressure  Neurological deficits persist longer than 24 hours Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 76
  77. 77. Vascular Disorders  Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)   Embolic — A dislodged clot that travels to the cerebral arteries   Thrombotic — A blood clot in an artery leaving the brain Hemorrhagic — A blood vessel, such as the cerebral artery, breaks and bleeding occurs — A severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache Migraine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 77
  78. 78. Vascular Disorders (cont’d) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 78
  79. 79. Clinical Procedures X-ray tests:  Cerebral angiography  Computed tomography (CT) of the brain  Myelography Other procedures:  MRI—Magnetic resonance Imaging  PET—Positron emission scan  EEG—Electroencephalography Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 79
  80. 80. Abbreviations          AD AFP ALS AVM BBB CNS CT CSF CVA Alzheimer disease alpha-fetoprotein amyotrophic lateral sclerosis arteriovenous malformation blood brain barrier central nervous system computed tomography cerebrospinal fluid cerebrovascular accident Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 80
  81. 81. Abbreviations (cont’d) • EEG electroencephalogram • GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid (neurotransmitter) ICP intracranial pressure; normal pressure is 5 to 15 mmHG • LP monitored anesthetic care • MAC myasthenia gravis • MG magnetic resonance angiography • MRA magnetic resonance imaging • MRI • lumbar puncture Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 81
  82. 82. Abbreviations (cont’d)           1/2 P PCA PNS PET Sz TBI TENS  TIA TLE tPA          hemiparesis patient-controlled anesthesia peripheral nervous system positron emission tomography seizure traumatic brain injury transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation transient ischemic attack temporal lobe epilepsy tissue plasminogen activator Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 82
  83. 83. Practical Applications  What symptoms signal nervous system problems?  What tests are conducted to diagnose these problems?  Why are an MRI and an MRA ordered?  What are common pathologies of the nervous system? Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 83
  84. 84. Review Sheet COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  alges/o ___________  angi/o ___________  caus/o ___________  cephal/o ___________  cerebell/o ___________  cerebr/o ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 84
  85. 85. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  alges/o sensitivity to pain  angi/o vessel, blood  caus/o burn, burning  cephal/o head  cerebell/o cerebellum  cerebr/o cerebrum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 85
  86. 86. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  comat/o ___________  crani/o ___________  cry/o  dur/o ___________  encephal/o ___________  esthesi/o ___________ ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 86
  87. 87. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  comat/o deep sleep  crani/o skull  cry/o  dur/o dura mater  encephal/o brain  esthesi/o nervous sensation cold Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 87
  88. 88. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  gli/o _________  hydr/o _________  kines/o _________  lept/o _________  lex/o  mening/o, meningi/o  my/o _________ _________ _________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 88
  89. 89. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  gli/o glue  hydr/o water  kines/o movement  lept/o thin, slender  lex/o  mening/o, meningi/o membranes, meninges  my/o word, phrase muscle Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 89
  90. 90. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  myel/o ___________  narc/o ___________  neur/o ___________  olig/o ___________  pont/o ___________  radicul/o ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 90
  91. 91. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  myel/o spinal cord  narc/o sleep  neur/o nerve  olig/o scanty  pont/o pons  radicul/o nerve root Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 91
  92. 92. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  spin/o ___________  syncop/o ___________  tax/o  thalam/o ___________  thec/o ___________  troph/o ___________  vag/o ___________ ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 92
  93. 93. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  spin/o spine  syncop/o cut off  tax/o  thalam/o thalamus  thec/o sheath (refers to meninges)  troph/o nourishment  vag/o vagus nerve order Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 93
  94. 94. The Language Of Medicine 10 edition th Davi-Ellen Chabner Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 94
  95. 95. Chapter 12 Respiratory System Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 95
  96. 96. Chapter Goals  Name the organs of the respiratory system and describe their location and function.  Identify various pathological conditions that affect the system.  Learn medical terms that pertain to respiration. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 96
  97. 97. Chapter Goals (cont’d)  Describe important clinical procedures related to the respiratory system, and recognize relevant abbreviations.  Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 97
  98. 98. Chapter 12 Lesson 12.1
  99. 99. Introduction External respiration: Exchange of air in lung capillaries  Oxygen inhaled into the air sacs of the lungs  Immediately passes into capillaries  Carbon dioxide passes from capillaries into air sacs, to be exhaled Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 99
  100. 100. Introduction (cont’d) Internal respiration: Exchange of gases in the cells  Occurs simultaneously between cells and capillaries  Oxygen passes out of the bloodstream into the tissues  Carbon dioxide passes out of tissues back into the bloodstream to travel to the lungs Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 100
  101. 101. Respiratory Anatomy  Mediastinum: Middle of chest where trachea divides into two branches  Bronchi: Each leads to a separate lung  Lungs: Lobes are not mirror images  Hilum: Blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic tissue, and bronchial tubes enter and exit Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 101
  102. 102. Anatomy of Respiration Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 102
  103. 103. Anatomy of Respiration (cont’d) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 103
  104. 104. Respiratory Structures Conduct air Exchange gases  Nose  Bronchioles  Nasal  Alveoli cavities and paranasal sinuses  Pharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Lung capillaries Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 104
  105. 105. Respiratory Flow Chart Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 105
  106. 106. Respiratory Flow Chart (cont’d) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 106
  107. 107. Vocabulary  adenoids  alveolus (plural: alveoli)  apex of the lung Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 107
  108. 108. Vocabulary (cont’d)  adenoids Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils  alveolus (plural: alveoli) Air sac in the lung  apex of the lung Tip or uppermost portion of the lung Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 108
  109. 109. Vocabulary (cont’d)  base of the lung  bronchioles  bronchus (plural: bronchi) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 109
  110. 110. Vocabulary (cont’d)  base of the lung  bronchioles  bronchus (plural: bronchi) The lower portion of the lung The smallest branches of the bronchi The branch of the trachea (windpipe) that is a passageway into the lung; bronchial tube Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 110
  111. 111. Vocabulary (cont’d)  carbon dioxide (CO2)  cilia  diaphragm Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 111
  112. 112. Vocabulary (cont’d)  carbon dioxide (CO2)  cilia  diaphragm Gas produced by body cells when oxygen and carbon atoms from food combine; exhaled through the lungs Thin hairs attached to mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract Muscle separating the chest and abdomen; contracts to pull air into lungs; relaxes to push air out Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 112
  113. 113. Vocabulary (cont’d)  epiglottis  expiration  glottis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 113
  114. 114. Vocabulary (cont’d)  epiglottis Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx; keeps food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing Breathing out (exhalation)  expiration Slit-like opening to the larynx  glottis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 114
  115. 115. Vocabulary (cont’d)  hilum (of lung)  inspiration  larynx Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 115
  116. 116. Vocabulary (cont’d)    hilum (of lung) inspiration larynx Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs Breathing in (inhalation) Voice box; contains the vocal cords Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 116
  117. 117. Vocabulary (cont’d)  lobe  mediastinum  nares Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 117
  118. 118. Vocabulary (cont’d)  lobe Division of a lung  mediastinum The region between lungs in the chest cavity; contains the trachea, heart, lymph nodes, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes  nares Openings through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 118
  119. 119. Vocabulary (cont’d)  oxygen (O2)  palatine tonsil Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 119
  120. 120. Vocabulary (cont’d)   oxygen (O2) palatine tonsil Gas that makes up 21% of air; passes into the bloodstream at the lungs and travels to all body cells One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 120
  121. 121. Vocabulary (cont’d)  paranasal sinus  parietal pleura  pharynx Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 121
  122. 122. Vocabulary (cont’d) paranasal sinus One of the air cavities in the bones near the nose  parietal pleura Outer fold of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall  pharynx The throat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx  Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 122
  123. 123. Vocabulary (cont’d)  pleura  pleural cavity  pulmonary parenchyma Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 123
  124. 124. Vocabulary (cont’d)  pleura Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung Space between the folds of the pleura   pleural cavity pulmonary parenchyma Essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 124
  125. 125. Vocabulary (cont’d)  respiration  trachea  visceral pleura Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 125
  126. 126. Vocabulary (cont’d)  respiration The process of moving air into and out of the lungs; breathing  trachea Windpipe  visceral pleura Inner fold of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 126
  127. 127. QUICK QUIZ: 1. What is the tip or uppermost portion of the lung? A. Base B. Lobe C. Apex D. Nares Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 127
  128. 128. Combining Forms and Terminology Combining Form Meaning  adenoid/o adenoids  alveol/o alveolus, air sac  bronch/o bronchial tube  bronchi/o bronchus  bronchiol/o bronchiole, small bronchus  capn/o carbon dioxide Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 128
  129. 129. Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning  coni/o dust  cyan/o blue  epiglott/o epiglottis  laryng/o larynx, voice box  lob/o  mediastin/o lobe of the lung mediastinum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 129
  130. 130. Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning  nas/o nose  orth/o straight, upright  ox/o  pector/o chest  pharyng/o pharynx, throat  phon/o voice oxygen Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 130
  131. 131. Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning  phren/o diaphragm  pleur/o pleura  pneum/o  pneumon/o  pulmon/o  rhin/o air, lung lung lung nose Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 131
  132. 132. Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning  sinus/o sinus cavity  spir/o breathing  tel/o  thorac/o chest  tonsill/o tonsils  trache/o trachea, windpipe complete Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 132
  133. 133. Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology SUFFIXES Suffix -ema Meaning condition -osmia smell -pnea breathing -ptysis spitting -sphyxia pulse -thorax pleural cavity, chest Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 133
  134. 134. Chapter 12 Lesson 12.2 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 134
  135. 135. Diagnostic Terms  Auscultation  Percussion  Pleural rub  Rale (crackle)  Rhonchus  Sputum  Stridor  Wheeze Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 135
  136. 136. Pathology Upper respiratory disorders  Croup  Diphtheria  Epistaxis  Pertussis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 136
  137. 137. Pathology (cont’d) Bronchial tube disorders  Asthma  Bronchiectasis  Chronic bronchitis  Cystic fibrosis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 137
  138. 138. Pathology (cont’d) Lung disorders  Atelectasis  Pulmonary edema  Emphysema  Pulmonary embolism (PE)  Pulmonary fibrosis  Sarcoidosis  Tuberculosis (TB)  Lung cancer  Pneumoconiosis  Pneumonia  Pulmonary abscess Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 138
  139. 139. Pathology Atelectasis Lung Disorders  Two forms  Proximal obstruction of distal airways  Accumulations of fluid, blood, or air in the pleural cavity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 139
  140. 140. Pathology Pleural disorders  Mesothelioma  Pleural effusion  Pleurisy (pleuritis)  Pneumothorax Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 140
  141. 141. Pathology Pleural Disorders Pneumothorax: Air gathers in the pleural cavity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 141
  142. 142. Study Section  Anthracosis  Hydrothorax  Asbestosis  Infiltrate  Bacilli  Palliative  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  Paroxysmal  Pulmonary infarction  Cor pulmonale  Purulent  Exudate  Silicosis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 142
  143. 143. Chapter 12 Lesson 12.3 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 143
  144. 144. Clinical Procedures X-rays  Chest x-ray (CXR)  Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest  Pulmonary angiography Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 144
  145. 145. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) X-rays: radiographic imaging Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 145
  146. 146. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): magnetic waves create images Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 146
  147. 147. Clinical Procedures (cont’d)  Nuclear tests  Positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung  Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan: inhalation of radioactive gas for imaging, followed by injection of different radioactive material for imaging Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 147
  148. 148. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Bronchoscopy: fiberoptic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of secretions Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 148
  149. 149. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Endotracheal intubation: placement of tube from mouth to trachea to establish airway Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 149
  150. 150. Clinical Procedures (cont’d)  Laryngoscopy  Thoracotomy  Lung biopsy  Thorascopy  Mediastinoscopy  Tracheostomy  Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)  Tuberculin test  Thoracentesis  Tube thoracostomy Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 150
  151. 151. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Thoracentesis: surgical puncture to remove fluid from pleural space Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 151
  152. 152. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Tracheostomy: surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 152
  153. 153. Abbreviations  ABGs  AFB  ARDS  BAL  Bronch  CF  CO2  COPD  CPAP  CPR Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 153
  154. 154. Abbreviations (cont’d)  ABGs Arterial blood gases  AFB Acid-fast bacillus  ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome  BAL Bronchioalveolar lavage  Bronch Bronchoscopy  CF Cystic fibrosis  CO2 Carbon dioxide  COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  CPAP Continuous positive airway pressure  CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 154
  155. 155. Abbreviations (cont’d)  C&S  CTPA  CXR  DICO  DOE  DPT  FEV1  FVC  HCO3-  ICU Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 155
  156. 156. Abbreviations (cont’d)  C&S Culture and sensitivity testing (of sputum)  CTPA Computed tomography pulmonary angiography  CXR Chest x-ray (film)  DICO Diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide  DOE Dyspnea on exertion  DPT Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus  FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 second  FVC Forced vital capacity  HCO3- Bicarbonate  ICU Intensive care unit Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 156
  157. 157. Abbreviations (cont’d)  LLL  LUL  MDI  NSCLC  O2  OSA  PaCO2  PaO2  PCP  PE Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 157
  158. 158. Abbreviations (cont’d)  LLL Left lower lobe (of lung)  LUL Left upper lobe (of lung)  MDI Metered-dose inhaler  NSCLC Non-small cell lung cancer  O2 Oxygen  OSA Obstructive sleep apnea  PaCO2 Carbon dioxide partial pressure  PaO2 Oxygen partial pressure  PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia  PE Pulmonary embolism Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 158
  159. 159. Abbreviations (cont’d)  PEP  PEEP  PFTs  PND  PPD  RDS  RLL  RSV  RUL  RV Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 159
  160. 160. Abbreviations (cont’d)  PEP Positive expiratory pressure  PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure  PFTs Pulmonary function tests  PND Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea  PPD Purified protein derivative  RDS Respiratory distress syndrome  RLL Right lower lobe (of lung)  RSV Respiratory syncytial virus  RUL Right upper lobe (of lung)  RV Residual volume Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 160
  161. 161. Abbreviations (cont’d)  SABA  SCLC  SOB  TB  TLC  URI  VT  VATS  VC  V/Q scan Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 161
  162. 162. Abbreviations (cont’d)  SABA Short-acting beta agonist  SCLC Small cell lung cancer  SOB Shortness of breath  TB Tuberculosis  TLC Total lung capacity  URI Upper respiratory infection  VT Tidal volume  VATS Video-assisted thoracic surgery  VC Vital capacity  V/Q scan Ventilation-perfusion scan Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 162
  163. 163. Review Sheet COMBINING FORMS Combining Form adenoid/o alveol/o Meaning ____________ ____________ bronch/o ____________ bronchi/o ____________ bronchiol/o ____________ capn/o ____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 163
  164. 164. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  adenoid/o adenoids  alveol/o alveolus; air sac; small sac  bronch/o bronchial tube  bronchi/o bronchial tube  bronchiol/o bronchiole  capn/o carbon dioxide Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 164
  165. 165. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form coni/o ___________ cyan/o Meaning ___________ epiglott/o ___________ laryng/o ___________ lob/o ___________ mediastin/o ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 165
  166. 166. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  coni/o dust  cyan/o blue  epiglott/o epiglottis  laryng/o larynx (voice box)  lob/o  mediastin/o lobe mediastinum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 166
  167. 167. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form nas/o __________ orth/o Meaning __________ ox/o __________ pector/o __________ pharyng/o __________ phon/o __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 167
  168. 168. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  nas/o nose  orth/o straight  ox/o  pector/o chest  pharyng/o throat (pharynx)  phon/o voice; sound oxygen Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 168
  169. 169. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form phren/o ___________ pleur/o Meaning ___________ pneum/o ___________ pneumon/o ___________ pulmon/o rhin/o ___________ ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 169
  170. 170. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  phren/o diaphragm; mind  pleur/o pleura  pneum/o lung; air; gas  pneumon/o  pulmon/o lung  rhin/o lung; air; gas nose Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 170
  171. 171. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form sinus/o ___________ spir/o Meaning ___________ tel/o ___________ thorac/o ___________ tonsill/o ___________ trache/o ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 171
  172. 172. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  sinus/o sinus  spir/o to breathe  tel/o  thorac/o chest  tonsill/o tonsil  trache/o trachea (windpipe) complete Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 172
  173. 173. Review Sheet (cont’d) SUFFIXES Suffix Meaning -ema ___________ -osmia ___________ -pnea ___________ -ptysis ___________ -sphyxia ___________ -thorax ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 173
  174. 174. Review Sheet (cont’d) SUFFIXES Suffix Meaning  -ema condition  -osmia smell  -pnea breathing  -ptysis spitting  -sphyxia pulse  -thorax chest; pleural cavity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 174

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