The Medieval Church

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  • Gothic architecture – This photo from Sainte Chapelle (Holy Chapel) in Paris illustrates the vertical emphasis, the large, pointed windows, and the ribbed vault typical of Gothic architecture.
  • The Medieval Church

    1. 2. <ul><li>First Roman emperor to become Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced “correct practice” of religion </li></ul><ul><li>After his death in 337, Byzantium was renamed Constantinople </li></ul>Constantine the Great, mosaic in Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul) Constantine I, bronze statue in York, England
    2. 3. <ul><li>Five special bishops had authority over other church leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bishop of Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bishop of Alexandria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bishop of Antioch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bishop of Constantinople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bishop of Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Argued over who </li></ul><ul><li>was most powerful </li></ul>http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~atlas/europe/interactive/map31.html The Spread of Christianity Map of the Roman Empire
    3. 4. <ul><li>Innocent I – pope is supreme leader of the church </li></ul><ul><li>Leo I – pope’s word is law </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition of Apostle Peter as the first pope </li></ul><ul><li>Christian church split into East and West </li></ul>The Papal Emblem
    4. 5. <ul><li>Setting oneself apart from the secular world </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Coptic Orthodox Church established in Egypt, 450 AD </li></ul>Cloister, Abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa, France Chapter house, Abbey of Notre Dame de Pontaut, France
    5. 6. <ul><li>Church leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Two groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular clergy – lived in the world and interacted with people on a regular basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular clergy – monks and nuns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Monk” comes from a Greek word meaning “solitary” or “alone” </li></ul>Leaf from a Royal Manuscript, Scenes from the life of Saint Francis
    6. 7. <ul><li>Rules for monks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chastity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obedience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the end of 600s, most monasteries in the West followed Benedictine rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne required all monks to follow the Rule. </li></ul>A Benedictine monk, Monte Oliveto Maggiore, Tuscany, Italy
    7. 8. <ul><li>Centers for knowledge, information, & literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Monks copied manuscripts, especially copies of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Between 400 – 800 AD, monks and scholars fled to Ireland to escape Germanic pagans </li></ul><ul><li>Kept Western learning and religion alive </li></ul>The opening of St Luke's Gospel in the Lindisfarne Gospels
    8. 9. <ul><li>Wrote early histories of England </li></ul><ul><li>Popularized the term anno Domini , meaning “in the year of our Lord” </li></ul>Bede’s Tomb in Durham Cathedral, England The Venerable Bede Translates John By J.D. Penrose
    9. 10. Durham Cathedral, England Canterbury Cathedral, England Chartres Cathedral, France
    10. 11. <ul><li>CHURCH HIERARCHY </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER POSITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Abbot/Abbess </li></ul><ul><li>Almoner </li></ul><ul><li>Cantor </li></ul><ul><li>Friar </li></ul><ul><li>Monk/Nun </li></ul><ul><li>Pardoner </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrim/Palmer </li></ul><ul><li>Sacristan </li></ul><ul><li>Sexton </li></ul>

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