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Etc And Glycolysis
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Etc And Glycolysis


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  • 1. Cellular Respiration Ch 7 pp.145-155
  • 2. Energy From Electrons
    • Atom nucleus
      • Positive
      • Attracts/pulls electrons
      • Potential energy released when nucleus pulls electrons to it (makes bond)
    • Think of the atomic structure of the following atoms
    • Oxygen (make up the oxygen molecule in cell resp)
    • Hydrogen and Carbon (bonded to each other in glucose)
    • Which has a stronger attraction for electrons?
    • What happens in cell respiration?
      • Oxygen molecule reacts with glucose
      • Carbon and hydrogen leave each other and become bonded to oxygen's, creating the carbon dioxide and water produced in cellular respiration
    • The electrons in hydrogen and carbon are pulled toward the nucleus of the oxygen atoms, thus releasing potential energy
    • Occurs when you burn sugar, lots of energy released almost instantaneously
    • In cellular respiration, occurs in controlled steps to prevent a massive release of energy
  • 3.  
  • 4. Electron Transport Chain (etc)
    • Cell respiration releases E in small amounts in the form of ATP molecules
    • Several steps
    • Oxygen is only involved in the end
    • Electrons=energy
    • Electrons are carried by electron carrier molecules
      • Electron carrier is a molecule that can accept a pair of high-E electrons and transfer them along with most of their energy to another molecule
    • Oxygen is the final electron acceptor that joins with hydrogen ions to make water
    • This transfer of electrons throughout cellular respiration is called the electron transport chain (ETC)
    • For every transfer of electrons between molecules in the chain, a little E is released
  • 5.  
  • 6. Classwork
  • 7. Cellular Respiration
    • A cellular process (part of metabolism)
    • Metabolism
      • Set of chem. rxns through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out life’s processes
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq) + 6O 2 (g) -> 6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O (l)
    • Glucose reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water
      • Aerobic
  • 8. Cellular Respiration: 3 parts
    • Glycolysis
      • cytoplasm
    • Kreb’s Cycle
      • Mitochondrian matrix
    • Electron Transport Chain
      • Within the inner mitochondrial membran
  • 9. Glucose Glycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion Mitochondrion
  • 10. Glucose (C 6 H 12 0 6 ) + Oxygen (0 2 ) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) + Water (H 2 O) Cellular Respiration
  • 11. Glycolysis
    • Greek word “glukus” sweet
    • Latin word “lysis” loosening or decomposing
    • Def: the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid (a three-carbon compound)
    • Takes place outside mitochondria, in cytoplasm of cell
    • Energy releasing process
    • Does NOT require oxygen
    • Requires an investment of 2 ATP molecules at beginning to get it going
      • These 2 atp’s are like an investment that pays back with interest
      • In order to earn money from a bank, you have to put $$ in
    • 4 molecules of ATP produced at the end of Glycolysis
    • What is the “net” gain?
      • 2 ATPs
  • 12. NADH production
    • 4 high-E e- are removed and passed to two electron carriers called NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) (each NAD+ carries 2 e-)
    • Each NAD+ molecule accepts a pair of high-E e-
    • Once e- are accepted, NAD+ becomes NADH, which will transfer e- to other molecules
    • NAD+ helps pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell
  • 13.  
  • 14. Glycolysis
    • Glucose, a six-carbon sugar, receives 2 phosphates from the first 2 ATPs invested in Glycolysis
    • Glucose now becomes fructose 1,6-biphosphate (highly energized)
    • Fructose 1,6-biphosphate splits to become two molecules of CCC-P (glyceraldehyde 3-P)
    • Each of these molecules transfers electrons and hydrogen ions to NAD+ molecules that come in
    • Accepting two e- and hydrogen ion changes NAD+ to NADH, which carry electrons to the next part of Glycolysis
    • An inorganic phosphate is added to the CCC-P molecule changing it to P-CCC-P (1,3-biphosphoglycerate)
    • 2 ADP molecules will come in and snatch off the phosphates from P-CCC-P and the molecule has now become PYRUVATE or PYRUVIC ACID
    • Pyruvate is then sent on to the next phase, the Kreb’s Cycle
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17. Reactants and Products of Glycolysis
    • In
      • 1 glucose
      • 2 ATP
      • 2 NAD+
    • Out
      • 2 NADH (to ETC)
      • 4 ATP
      • 2 Pyruvates (to Kreb’s cycle)
      • (Net ATPs 2)
  • 18. Glucose To the electron transport chain 2 Pyruvic acid