Etc And Glycolysis


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Etc And Glycolysis

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration Ch 7 pp.145-155
  2. 2. Energy From Electrons <ul><li>Atom nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracts/pulls electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential energy released when nucleus pulls electrons to it (makes bond) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Think of the atomic structure of the following atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen (make up the oxygen molecule in cell resp) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and Carbon (bonded to each other in glucose) </li></ul><ul><li>Which has a stronger attraction for electrons? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens in cell respiration? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen molecule reacts with glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon and hydrogen leave each other and become bonded to oxygen's, creating the carbon dioxide and water produced in cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The electrons in hydrogen and carbon are pulled toward the nucleus of the oxygen atoms, thus releasing potential energy </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when you burn sugar, lots of energy released almost instantaneously </li></ul><ul><li>In cellular respiration, occurs in controlled steps to prevent a massive release of energy </li></ul>
  3. 4. Electron Transport Chain (etc) <ul><li>Cell respiration releases E in small amounts in the form of ATP molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Several steps </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is only involved in the end </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons=energy </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are carried by electron carrier molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron carrier is a molecule that can accept a pair of high-E electrons and transfer them along with most of their energy to another molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is the final electron acceptor that joins with hydrogen ions to make water </li></ul><ul><li>This transfer of electrons throughout cellular respiration is called the electron transport chain (ETC) </li></ul><ul><li>For every transfer of electrons between molecules in the chain, a little E is released </li></ul>
  4. 6. Classwork
  5. 7. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>A cellular process (part of metabolism) </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of chem. rxns through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out life’s processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq) + 6O 2 (g) -> 6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O (l) </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIRES OXYGEN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Cellular Respiration: 3 parts <ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kreb’s Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondrian matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the inner mitochondrial membran </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Glucose Glycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion Mitochondrion
  8. 10. Glucose (C 6 H 12 0 6 ) + Oxygen (0 2 ) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) + Water (H 2 O) Cellular Respiration
  9. 11. Glycolysis <ul><li>Greek word “glukus” sweet </li></ul><ul><li>Latin word “lysis” loosening or decomposing </li></ul><ul><li>Def: the process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid (a three-carbon compound) </li></ul><ul><li>Takes place outside mitochondria, in cytoplasm of cell </li></ul><ul><li>Energy releasing process </li></ul><ul><li>Does NOT require oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Requires an investment of 2 ATP molecules at beginning to get it going </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These 2 atp’s are like an investment that pays back with interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to earn money from a bank, you have to put $$ in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 molecules of ATP produced at the end of Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>What is the “net” gain? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ATPs </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. NADH production <ul><li>4 high-E e- are removed and passed to two electron carriers called NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) (each NAD+ carries 2 e-) </li></ul><ul><li>Each NAD+ molecule accepts a pair of high-E e- </li></ul><ul><li>Once e- are accepted, NAD+ becomes NADH, which will transfer e- to other molecules </li></ul><ul><li>NAD+ helps pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell </li></ul>
  11. 14. Glycolysis <ul><li>Glucose, a six-carbon sugar, receives 2 phosphates from the first 2 ATPs invested in Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose now becomes fructose 1,6-biphosphate (highly energized) </li></ul><ul><li>Fructose 1,6-biphosphate splits to become two molecules of CCC-P (glyceraldehyde 3-P) </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these molecules transfers electrons and hydrogen ions to NAD+ molecules that come in </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting two e- and hydrogen ion changes NAD+ to NADH, which carry electrons to the next part of Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>An inorganic phosphate is added to the CCC-P molecule changing it to P-CCC-P (1,3-biphosphoglycerate) </li></ul><ul><li>2 ADP molecules will come in and snatch off the phosphates from P-CCC-P and the molecule has now become PYRUVATE or PYRUVIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate is then sent on to the next phase, the Kreb’s Cycle </li></ul>
  12. 17. Reactants and Products of Glycolysis <ul><li>In </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 NAD+ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 NADH (to ETC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Pyruvates (to Kreb’s cycle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Net ATPs 2) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. Glucose To the electron transport chain 2 Pyruvic acid