PV Conference Summary Example

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A review of a photovoltaic conference I attended.

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  • Diffusion length
  • Cf IEDM and MRS
  • Wacker Chemie
  • Absorption vs wavelength
  • PV Conference Summary Example

    1. 1. This is a conference review presentation I made in 2007. SSM considered moving into the PV market and wanted an assessment of the opportunities. I and our Sale Manager were sent to review.
    2. 2. 22 nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition A review Sept. 3-7, 2007
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Primary thoughts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upfront summary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solar cell refresher </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies (market study) </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda of the conference </li></ul><ul><li>My impressions (technical and general) </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition visits </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
    4. 4. Primary thoughts <ul><li>The technology of solar cells is strongly coupled to economic and political factors </li></ul><ul><li>The market would greatly decrease without government subsidies or direction </li></ul><ul><li>But progress has been made in efficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good prospects for implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upfront summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth profiles are done very infrequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I agree with <our Sales Manager> that this is a small market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price is extremely sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High efficiency niche uses materials that challenge SRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GaAs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Solar cell refresher-1 <ul><li>MRS BULLETIN • VOLUME 32 • MARCH 2007 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Solar cell refresher-2 R shunt R series External Load <ul><li>Leakage Current </li></ul><ul><li>Process Issue Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Wet Cleaning Process </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion Process </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorous Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorous Depth </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Current </li></ul><ul><li>Process Issue Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>PECVD Process </li></ul><ul><li>AL Layer Process </li></ul><ul><li>Screen Contact Process </li></ul>Equivalent Circuit <ul><li>After a customer presentation and D. Schroder </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally infinite </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally zero </li></ul>
    7. 7. Solar cell refresher-3 <ul><li>Parameters of interest/concern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V oc -open circuit voltage (always less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>than bandgap) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I sc -short circuit current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill factor -optimal V and I are compared to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V oc -I sc area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Series resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectral response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell power/(solar irradiance*A) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$/kWh (or /W p ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost/m 2 / Watts/m 2 </li></ul></ul></ul>MRS BULLETIN VOLUME 32 MARCH 2007
    8. 8. Technologies (Market Study)
    9. 9. Agenda of the conference <ul><li>Contacts told us this was the conference to attend </li></ul><ul><li>From call for papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>22nd EU PVSEC: The leading platform for the world’s PV specialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most inspiring forum for the global PV Solar market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Italian institutional patronage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry for the Economic Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The European Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WCRE - World Council for Renewable Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional PV Industry collaboration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EPIA – European Photovoltaic Industry Association </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordination of the Technical Program: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Agenda of the conference-2 In exhibit hall
    11. 11. Impressions <ul><li>Large conference attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Very diverse topics </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibition busy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But open to general public </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Impressions
    13. 13. Impressions
    14. 14. Impressions
    15. 15. Impressions-General <ul><li>There are quite a few niches in the race to grid equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected by 2013 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher oil prices expected to help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectation is a form of thin film will win, but that is not universal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or a wafer based technology will transfer to thin film </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large academic component </li></ul><ul><li>Germany leads due to subsidies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan less visible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Globalization resistance? </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuel has hidden subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>China-installed PV Megawatts  #1 this year </li></ul><ul><li>Low η low cost </li></ul><ul><li>High η high cost </li></ul>
    16. 16. Impressions-Opening Session <ul><li>W. Platz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First meeting 1977 in Luxemburg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>400 attendees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground work laid 1974 (right after oil crisis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed-in tariffs needed- pushing for EU wide tariff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wants to provide electricity to the 1-2 billion people without </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keynote speaker, Dr. Shah, Univ. of Neuchatel (ch) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bell labs 1954 5% eff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moore’s law equivalent for PV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PV generated electricity 0.50 euro/kWh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Std generated electricity 0.10 euro/kWh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expects a-Si/mc-Si (thin film) to build off of LCD market (synergy) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Impressions-General-2 <ul><li>A bubble forming? </li></ul><ul><li>80% of market is in Germany </li></ul>
    18. 18. Impressions-General-3 <ul><li>Price is dropping </li></ul><ul><li>Expected to drop further with Asian manufacturing </li></ul>
    19. 19. Materials Distribution
    20. 20. Impressions-Major Players <ul><li>IMEC Solar division </li></ul><ul><li>Fraunhoffer Institute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several tests run there </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University of New South Wales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australian National University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Univ. of Delaware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amonix (in CA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ECN (nl) </li></ul><ul><li>SunPower (USA) wafer based (concentrator) </li></ul><ul><li>NREL (small presence) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Impressions-Silicon Wafer <ul><li>11.7% eff. a-Si/mc-Si </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24% theoretical η </li></ul></ul><ul><li>17.6% a-Si/sc-Si (p sub, slightly less on n) </li></ul><ul><li>11.6% on MSG Si </li></ul><ul><li>Slivers (ribbon) of Si </li></ul><ul><li>Bifacial films-white backing </li></ul><ul><li>~3 week cycle time </li></ul><ul><li>Minor changes to reduce cost pay off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower temps= lower cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to use lower quality (cheaper) Si </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi grade hundreds euro/kg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cf 15 euros/kg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spin-on dopant (UNSW) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Impressions-Thin Film <ul><li>Thin film is expected to increase in volume </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plates up to 1300 x 1100 mm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AMAT has moved into this area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bought German company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds on TFT experience (AKT) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a-Si/c-Si/glass ~11% η </li></ul><ul><li>mc-Si/glass 9% η </li></ul><ul><li>mc-Si (poly)/glass 2.7% η </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alumina substrate 8% η </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plastic substrates for flexible deployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li><200 º C processing OK </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Impressions-Compound Semiconductor <ul><li>Multi-junction for high efficiency (tandem) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40.7% efficiency (USA NREL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 junction 50% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 junction 56% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly for space applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime degrades with irradiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GaAs, GaN, In, ZnOTe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2 CdTe comps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>InGaN alloy 0.7 eV-3.4 eV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HIT </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layer quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Band offsets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 inch wafers (most CS seem to be wafer based) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Impressions-Others <ul><li>Concentrator systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirrors focus sunlight on a PV system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>500X </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 MW plant in Spain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA needs could be met with 150 km x 150 km area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spin off of compound semi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li><Customer D>is a CIS comp. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Few organic or dye cells seen </li></ul>
    25. 25. Texture-aids efficiency <ul><li>K. Van Nieuwenhuysen </li></ul><ul><li>PV 22nd 2AO.2.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Texture usually adds 1% absolute to η </li></ul><ul><li>Wet etch-regular </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma etch (dry)-irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma etch </li></ul><ul><li>Wet chemical etch </li></ul>
    26. 26. Impressions-Metrology <ul><li>Photoluminescence -lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Q uasi S teady- S tate P hotoconductance (QSSPC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-detect impurities and defects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XRD- orientation, structure, grain size </li></ul><ul><li>Light-Beam-Induced Current (LBIC) - quantum efficiency maps </li></ul><ul><li>4PP (Sunlab, not KLA) </li></ul><ul><li>Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD)-crystal texture/orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC)- defects, minority carriers </li></ul><ul><li>FTIR-evaluating crystalline silicon material quality. </li></ul><ul><li>SEM </li></ul><ul><li>TEM </li></ul><ul><li>SRP </li></ul><ul><li>SIMS </li></ul><ul><li>Raman Spectroscopy-investigate mechanical stresses in semiconductor materials </li></ul><ul><li>SSRM (IMEC) </li></ul><ul><li>List is in order of frequency </li></ul>
    27. 27. Impressions-Metrology example <ul><li>LBIC and QE. K.C. Heasman, 2 CV. 5.21 </li></ul>
    28. 28. Quotations <ul><li>Single crystal and multi crystal Si are in a bicycle race. Unlike most bike races, doping is encouraged. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: EU solar patents aren’t increasing. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>A: “Why would I tell my competitors what to do?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slammed far east IP practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talked about fairness in globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecclesiastes 1:9-14, NIV “What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there is nothing new under the sun ”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple junctions proposed prior to 1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But tremendous improvement in efficiency </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Demo customers present <ul><li><Names are confidential> </li></ul>
    30. 30. Exhibition visits <ul><li>Customer A (lunch) </li></ul><ul><ul><li><proposed solution>costs too much </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need $150 k (or $100 k!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Really want mapping capability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See no great drive for SRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But sell a 4PP, so might be competitive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VP of technology development said they did 15-20 SRP measurements last year </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Summary <ul><li>Depth profiles are done very infrequently </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like a small market </li></ul><ul><li>Price is extremely sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency niche uses materials that challenge SRP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GaAs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“Semiconductor “ Si use growth 8%/yr (stable) </li></ul><ul><li>PV Si use growth 40%/yr </li></ul>
    32. 32. End Result <ul><li>This presentation was well received. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales found it very useful. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Despite the low volume of SRP, SSM decided to develop a lower end product to address the PV need for a lower cost system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRP Express 170 </li></ul></ul>

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