Presentation Solar Technologies Leonardo Energy - ICREPQ Congress 2009


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Presentation of Leonardo ENERGY Initiative and an example of available resources on concentrated solar technologies.

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  • Presentation Solar Technologies Leonardo Energy - ICREPQ Congress 2009

    1. 1. ICREPQ – April 2009 New Technologies for Small and Medium Scale Solar Power Plants Fernando Nuño [email_address]
    2. 2. Index <ul><li>Leonardo ENERGY Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy : why should it make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>CPV review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources on Leonardo ENERGY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CSP review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upcoming resources on Leonardo ENERGY </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. What is Leonardo ENERGY? Community of Sustainable Energy professionals <ul><li>79 application notes </li></ul><ul><li>69 white papers </li></ul><ul><li>34 reports </li></ul><ul><li>30 minute lectures </li></ul><ul><li>21 webcasts </li></ul><ul><li>20 videos </li></ul><ul><li>18 tools </li></ul><ul><li>Social network </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of practice (PQ, EE, RES…) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows finding the right colleague, correspondent or entry contact </li></ul><ul><li>Power Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Transformers </li></ul><ul><li>Motors </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-design </li></ul><ul><li>Renewables </li></ul>Resource Centre for Professional Training and Information 5 000 available resources Publication and spreading platform <ul><li>Let the World know about your findings through Leonardo ENERGY </li></ul>
    4. 4. Kind invitation to actively participate… Conferencing interactive system You are all invited to make your presentation You are all invited to attend
    5. 5. … past webinars remain recorded and discussion open <ul><li>PV installations – Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>CPV technology </li></ul><ul><li>CSP technology </li></ul><ul><li>Solar resource analysis </li></ul><ul><li>EU RES Directive explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Grids </li></ul><ul><li>Project Analysis with RETScreen </li></ul><ul><li>Thermography for industry and buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Legal & Policy issues </li></ul><ul><li>EU’s 27 EE Action Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Smart metering </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal energy storage </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Pumps </li></ul>Renewables and Distributed Generation Energy Efficiency Power Quality <ul><li>Power Quality measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Thermography applied to electrical issues </li></ul><ul><li>Link between PQ and Energy Efficiency </li></ul>
    6. 6. But not only on the web Low Carbon Electricity Systems Congress 16 th June 09 Arnhem – The Netherlands Large-scale wind energy systems Electricity storage Quality of supply Smart Grids Concentrated Solar Power Ocean Energy – State of the Art Electric Vehicles Strategic Energy Technology Plan Participation is free of charge, but seating is limited Register at:
    7. 7. For those who already know about us… We have a new look since Monday 13 th April…! Easier navigation Structured contents Better adapted search engine
    8. 8. Leonardo ENERGY’s footprint 1.4 million visits / year From 227 countries <ul><li>6.5 million page views / year </li></ul><ul><li>500 000 file downloads / year </li></ul>100 webinars <ul><li>2008 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32 webinars, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6000 registrations </li></ul></ul>70 000 subscribers <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>One reference site + 4 language chapters 200 partners <ul><li>Industry, Academia, Institutional, NGO, Information centers… </li></ul>
    9. 9. Example of Renewables on Leonardo ENERGY <ul><li>We’ll go accross some available resources on Concentration Photovoltaics </li></ul><ul><li>And we’ll present what is upcoming about Concentration Solar Thermal Power </li></ul>
    10. 10. Index <ul><li>Leonardo ENERGY Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy : why should it make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>CPV review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources on Leonardo ENERGY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CSP review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upcoming resources on Leonardo ENERGY </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Solar roadmap – Increasing role in the coming years
    12. 12. Where does solar energy make sense? Source : Schott Solar
    13. 13. Why solar energy fits well in hot climates Spanish average load profile vs average irradiation Source : Red Eléctrica de España
    14. 14. Concentration technologies CSP CPV <ul><li>CONCENTRATION SOLAR POWER : thermal process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heating a fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating mechanical power through a thermodynamic cycle (rankine, brayton, stirling…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting mechanical power into electrical power (alternator) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONCENTRATION PHOTOVOLTAICS : photovoltaic process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate solar radiation on the PV cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct generation of electrical power </li></ul></ul>Both work only with Direct Irradiation (Diffuse Irradiation is lost)
    15. 15. Index <ul><li>Leonardo ENERGY Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy : why should it make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>CPV review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources on Leonardo ENERGY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CSP review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upcoming resources on Leonardo ENERGY </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. CPV - General features <ul><li>In spite of its childhood (much less mature than CSP), already several MW installed around the world </li></ul><ul><li>The big cost reduction is still to come, essentially by means of mass production </li></ul>
    17. 17. CPV – The strategy <ul><li>Substitution of the expensive semiconductor material with a cheap optical system and low-cost mechanics </li></ul><ul><li>Use of best efficiency cells </li></ul>Source : Concentrix
    18. 18. CPV - Advantages No water needs Time to Operation Less sensitive to hot climates Modular / Scalable
    19. 19. CPV - Disadvantages Sensitivity to clouds No easy storage possibilities <ul><li>These issues difficult their integration to grid </li></ul>No dispatchable generation Source : Concentrix
    20. 20. CPV – Components: Multi-Junction cells <ul><li>The principle is that each material operates at different wavelengths, the total covering a large spectrum </li></ul>
    21. 21. CPV – Components: Cells - Technology evolution <ul><li>In 2009 an average production efficiency higher than 40% should be the rule for multi-junction cells </li></ul>
    22. 22. CPV – Components: Concentrator - Technologies
    23. 23. CPV – Components: Concentrator - Technologies Central tower CPV Developed by Solar Systems in Australia
    24. 24. CPV – Components: Tracking system <ul><li>Light needs to be focused at the cell, not close to the cell </li></ul><ul><li>The higher concentration ratio, the lower angle tolerance </li></ul>Need for increased accuracy <ul><li>In practice, 0.1% accuracy is currently reached </li></ul><ul><li>Solid structures are required </li></ul><ul><li>New structural concepts are being developed </li></ul>
    25. 25. CPV – Potential for cost reduction Flat PV : module reaches 45% of cost share 40% of remaining costs are proportional to area <ul><li>Reductions in module cost and required area would lead to drastic decrease of Levelized Cost of Energy </li></ul>Source : Concentrix
    26. 26. CPV – Area reduction For the same surface, almost 50% more installed power To reach the same power, 30% less need for materials Source : Concentrix
    27. 27. Cross-PV-technology comparison 0.354 0.332 0.332 0.332 0.311 0.310 0.315 0.334 0.332 LEC (€/kWh) 60 22 26 34 80 56 40 28 16 Land needed (Ha) 7000 5500 5500 5500 7000 6500 6500 6500 5500 Initial investment (€/kWp) 5 11 13 17 8 8 8 8 8 Module (m2/ kWp) 1870 1380 1380 1380 2001 1863 1835 1725 1380 Initial annual electricity yield per kWp (kWh/kWp·year) 20 8.0 6.6 5.3 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 System efficiency (%) 23 9 7.5 6 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 Module Efficiency (%) CIS Static optimally tilted CdTe Static optimally tilted a-Si Static optimally tilted c-Si Two axes c-Si Single vertical axis (azimutal) c-Si Single tilted axis (0, 20º) c-Si Single horizontal axis (N-S) c-Si Static optimally tilted Thin-film Crystalline CPV Flat-plate PV Each system is 10 MWp Annual NDI is 2200 kWh/m2
    28. 28. CPV available resources on Leonardo ENERGY Documentary series Webinars : recorded and upcoming <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Industry representatives interviews </li></ul>E-learning course <ul><li>Upcoming </li></ul>
    29. 29. Index <ul><li>Leonardo ENERGY Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy : why should it make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>CPV review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources on Leonardo ENERGY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CSP review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upcoming resources on Leonardo ENERGY </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. CSP Technology overview Parabolic Troughs Parabolic Dishes with Stirling Engine Central Tower Fresnel Concentrators
    31. 31. CSP Technology review Parabolic Troughs Structure Parabolic Mirror Receiver
    32. 32. CSP Technology review Parabolic Troughs Solar Field Power Block
    33. 33. CSP Technology review HFT (Heat Transfer Fluid) Technology in commercial operation Parabolic Troughs Melted Salts Hot Storage Solar Field Melted Salts Cold Storage Steam Generator Steam Turbine Superheated Steam (100 bar, 380ºC) Reheated Steam (17 bar, 371ºC) Condenser Pre-heater Re-heater Oil Expansion Tank Deaerator Oil 395ºC Oil 295ºC
    34. 34. CSP – Technology review <ul><li>Steam is generated directly in the collecting solar field, so no need for heat exchange, reducing costs and increasing efficiency </li></ul>Parabolic Troughs DSG (Direct Steam Generation) Coming soon…
    35. 35. CSP : Project Development – Technological issues Mirrors <ul><li>Thin glass, thick glass, metal… </li></ul>Absorber Tube Support Structure Thermal storage <ul><li>Manufacturers oligopoly, but upcoming new developments with low vacuum or not vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely critical and technical product (lasting vacuum, layers stability, high transmissivity of glass, high absorptivity and low emissivity of absorber, junctions metal/glass, dilatation management…) </li></ul><ul><li>Several structures available in the market (Solargenix, Skal-ET, LS3, Sener Trough…) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous evolution to comply with alignment requirements at the lowest cost </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid salts is the technology used for the moment, but many other are in development : concrete, phase change… </li></ul>
    36. 36. Small scale CSP : the concept Solar Field Thermal Storage Power Block Cooling System Electricity <ul><li>Solar Field : low cost, even if temperature is not very high (<300 ºC) </li></ul><ul><li>Power block : efficient at small scale (0,5 to 2 MW) and flexible operation </li></ul>
    37. 37. Solar field : low cost / moderate temperature Parabolic trough <ul><li>Absorber tubes without vacuum (or very little), without junction glass/metal. Cheaper selective surface. Lower efficiency, lower cost, but competitive for operating temperatures <300ºC </li></ul><ul><li>New reflectors at lower cost, testing new materials, composites… </li></ul>Fresnel <ul><li>Important potential for cost reduction : almost flat reflectors, less occupation of land, lighter structures, lower material requirement, simpler construction, better integration to the environment. </li></ul>Upcoming new concepts <ul><li>Multi-tower : distributed small central towers with heliostat fields around. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Power block : efficient at low temperature and small size ORC <ul><li>Organic Rankine Cycle : good candidate as efficiency remains high for small Temperature differentials and maintains efficiency in partial load operation </li></ul>Source : Steam
    39. 39. Thermal storage : allows dispatchability and a higher load factor Oil <ul><li>Expensive, but could make sense as it flows directly from solar field to storage. It saves heat exchangers and temperature management required by melted salts. </li></ul>Phase Change Materials <ul><li>This option would need heat exchangers and further technological development. </li></ul>Concrete <ul><li>Potential for low investment and cheap operation. Needs further technological development. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Cooling system Wet <ul><li>Heat rejection is employed in a Multiple Effect Desalination (MED) device </li></ul>Dry Cogeneration Desalination <ul><li>Heat rejection is not anymore a problem but a value </li></ul><ul><li>3 to 4 m3 / MWh electricity generated </li></ul><ul><li>+ mirror cleaning (0,1 m3 / MWh e) </li></ul><ul><li>Only mirror cleaning required (0,1 m3 / MWh e), but </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger investment in cooling towers by about 50%. </li></ul><ul><li>Fans parasitic consumption : 6% to 8% of gross electricity generation </li></ul><ul><li>+ 15ºC in condensing temperature, - 7,5% electricity generation </li></ul>
    41. 41. Upcoming resouces about CSP on LE Documentary series Webinars Conference <ul><li>Congress “Low Carbon Electricity Systems” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 th June 2009 in Arnhem, Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By Luis Crespo, secretary of Protermosolar, the CSP Spanish association </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upcoming along 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>In progress </li></ul>
    42. 42. Thank you! Waiting for your participation! [email_address] Let the World know about your findings through Leonardo ENERGY!