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MT5009 ANALYZING HI-TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIESCIGS Solar Cells Zhang Xuan (a0068215) Rajendiran Aravind Raj (a0065709) Wu Yiming (a0068957) 21/04/2011
  Outline
Motivation Motivation Solar energy is the most abundant energy and free of cost ,[object Object]
Solar cell is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions,[object Object]
  Outline
Technology Paradigm of Solar Cells Crystalline silicon (c-Si) 85-90% market share ,[object Object],Basic Operation ,[object Object],Methods to improve ,[object Object]
Cell contacts, emitter and passivation
Improve device structure and develop new device with novel concept
Wafer equivalent technologies
Productivity and cost optimizationLimitation for paradigm ,[object Object]
The thickness of silicon wafer is hard to reduce,[object Object]
Cell structure improvement
High rate deposition in large area
Defects and nanostructure improvementLimitation of paradigm ,[object Object]
Band gap & grain size
Low-lifetime of thin film, sensitive to moisture
  Thermo-physical properties of layers and substrates,[object Object]
Solar tracking system
Optic concentrationNovel technologies Develop active layers which best match the solar spectrum or which modify the incoming solar spectrum. Both approaches build on progress in nanotechnology and nano-materials.  Structures of the active layer - quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. Key issues - collection of excited charge carriers (hot carrier cells) and the formation of intermediate band gaps. Ultra-high efficiency with full spectrum utilization Methods to improve ,[object Object]
Processing,[object Object]
Different PV technologies market share
CIGS Thin Film Solar Cell CIGS Technology:  ,[object Object]
I-III-VI2 compound semiconductor material 
Direct band gap material
Multicrystalline nature
Band gap can be varied from 1.0 eV to 1.7 eV
Light absorber (Active Layer) material for TFSC,[object Object]
CIGS Value Proposition  ,[object Object]
Adaptability - transferable know how from existing industry
LCD industry technology
Lightweight and light bulk, Can be manufactured on flexible substrate
lead to niche market applications. E.g. BIPV
Less environmental footprint for recycling for CIGS
Green technology compared with silicon solar cell,[object Object]
                    Why CIGS has high efficiency than other thin films?  By adjusting ratio of CIGS mixture , the broad energy band distribution can be achieved. CIGS absorb light of different wavelengths in solar spectrum. It has wide solar spectrum response and is capable of fully utilizing incident light compared to it competitors .   % I can absorb more light than other thin films  – CIGS  % Courtesy : AUO Solar
  Outline
  Does the CIGS has reached maximum efficiency ?      CIGS absorber layer  quantum efficiency might have reached saturation, but improvements  can  be  done in  cell structure  and  materials used for fabrication to increase efficiency. End user is concerned about cost also.
  Improvements in components ,[object Object]
   An anti reflective layer is used to reduce front surface reflection loss( Pin)
   Contacts can be made thinner /transparent  to allow more sunlight to reach the                       cell and low resistivity materials can be considered. (21 % without contacts),[object Object]
Improvements in modules    CIGS   * Laser scribing * Monolithic fabrication * More transparent , less absorption     glass for lamination* Ink based printing technology     on flexible substrates *  BOS improvements              Cell Module  Substrate
  Improvements in Systems Controversies between research and industrial results ! ,[object Object]
  Uniform & quality deposition of thin films over large area
  Role of contaminants and some unexplained stories too….Courtesy: Global Solar

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CIGS Solar Cells: How and Why is their Cost Falling?

Editor's Notes

  1. Today, PV provides 0.1% of total global electricity generation. However, PV is expanding very rapidly due to effective supporting policies and recent dramatic cost reductions. In the IEA solar PV roadmap vision, PV is projected to provide 5% of global electricity consumption in 2030, rising to 11% in 2050
  2. A p-n junction is formed by placing p-type and n-type semiconductors next to one another. The p-type, with one less electron, attracts the surplus electron from the n-type to stabilize itself. Thus the electricity is displaced and generates a flow of electrons, otherwise known as electricity. When sunlight hits the semiconductor, an electron springs up and is attracted toward the n-type semiconductor. This causes more negatives in the n-type semiconductors and more positives in the p-type, thus generating a higher flow of electricity. This is the photovoltaic effect.For crystal-growth feedstock, the c-Si PV industry has been relying on waste material from the semiconductor Si industry and on secondary polysilicon, the excess or rejected material from electronic-grade polysilicon production. This amounts to about 10% of the polysilicon material used by the semiconductor Si industry
  3. Thin-film silicon cells have become popular due to cost, flexibility, lighter weight, and ease of integration, compared to wafer silicon cells.Thin film is a process where material from a target source is coated onto a substrate via a plasma field. These thin films are minuscule — angstroms to microns thick — and therefore use a very small amount of material to achieve most coating thickness goals.Active materials: CdS and CdTe converts sun energy to electricityTCO layer: allows light to pass through to the active materials while being electrically conductiveGlass: provide mechanical strength and protection against weather elementsAmorphous silicon (a-Si) and other thin film silicon (TF-Si)Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)Copper indium gallium selenide (CIS or CIGS)Dye-sensitized solar cell and other organic solar cell
  4. direct solar radiation can be concentrated by optical means and used in concentrator solar cell technologies. Considerable research has been undertaken in this high-efficiency approach because of the attractive feature of the much smaller solar cell area required. Low and medium concentration systems (up to 100 suns) work with high-efficiency silicon solardeveloping active layers which best match the solar spectrum or which modify the incoming solar spectrum. Both approaches build on progress in nanotechnology and nano-materials. Quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots are examples of structures introduced in the active layer. Further approaches deal with the collection of excited charge carriers (hot carrier cells) and the formation of intermediate band gaps.
  5. The abbreviation CIS stands for copper indium diselenide and CIGS for copper indium gallium diselenide. The x describes the ratio between indium and gallium.CIS and CIGS are compound semiconductors of the I-III-VI group.The band-gap structure is a complex heterojunction system.That means that thejunction is formed by different semiconducting materials with unequal band gaps.
  6. These thin film solar cells show efficiencies of 19% in the case of small area modules in laboratory and of about 13 % in large area modules.They show a very good stability in outdoor tests concerning mechanical load and radiation hardness against electrons and protons.CIGS has no intrinsic degradation mechanisms can be limited to a very small proportion by effective encapsulation. CIGS PV manufacturers are currently targeting module lives of 30 years.
  7. Thin-film solar cells are created by depositing several layers of a light-absorbing material (a semiconductor) onto a substrate such as coated glass, metal, or plastic. These semiconductor layers don't have to be thick because they can absorb solar energy very efficiently. As a result, thin-film solar cells require less materials to manufacture, are flexible, and are therefore suitable for many applications that crystalline cells are not. Thin-film can also be manufactured in a large-area process, which can be an automated, continuous production process, and therefore has the potential to significantly reduce manufacturing costs.