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資訊組織第二章
 

資訊組織第二章

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    資訊組織第二章 資訊組織第二章 Document Transcript

    • 資訊組織(教育部) 第二章 記述編目 學習目標 ---學習本單元,學生應能達到下列目標: 能夠了解編目規則發展歷史 能夠了解如何書目著錄 能夠了解檢索款目如何選擇 能夠了解標目格式的訂定 能夠具備參照的概念 能夠了解檢索款目如何選擇 能夠了解標目格式的訂定 能夠具備參照的概念 第一節 編目規則的發展歷史 十九世紀,一系列的編目規則才先後發展而出現於世。目前沒有一套包括記述編目及主題編 目、完整的編目規則,可以告知編目員如何建立書目記錄。雖然如此,在記述編目方面,《英 美編目規則(Anglo-American Cataloging Rules)》及《中國編目規則》提供了標準化的著錄方 式。。 1 一、英美編目規則的沿革 1. 1841 年,Anthony Panizzi 為大英博物館(British Museum)訂立 91 條規則 (Panizzi’s 91 Rules),被譽為第一套現代化編目規則,因為該規則反應出現代 化目錄的揭示館藏及檢索工具兩大功能。 2. 1853 年,Charles C. Jewett 為 Smithsonian Institution 所編訂的 33 條規則報告出
    • 版第二版。規則大部分以 Panizzi’s 91 Rules 為基礎,討論到主題標目,是最早 將主題標目規則化的第一人。Jewett 以主張編製聯合目錄,建議集中及合作編 目而聞名於世。 3. 1876 年,Boston Athenaeum 的館長 Charles Cutter 出版 Rules for A Dictionary Catalog,為第一部最完整的編目規則,包含記述編目、主題標目及排序(filing)。 Cutter 的目的在於追求編目原則的創立,因此其規則對後人的影響遠超於 Panizzi 及 Jewett。 4. AA1908 是英美兩國圖書館協會首次合作的成果,不過細則未充分協調一致, 故出版有英美兩種版本。AA1908 受 Panizzi 及 Cutter 的影響很大,大部分反 映當時美國國會圖書館的編目作業。AA1908 並未包括 Cutter 主題標目的規 則,主要為大型研究及大學圖書館而設。 5. 1941 年,美國圖書館協會為修訂 AA1908,推出 ALA Draft。由 88 頁的 AA1908 擴增到 408 頁的 ALA Draft,新規被批評過於繁複。1949 年,美國圖書館協會 再次出版 ALA 1949,和同年美國國會圖書館出版的 LC1949 著錄規則成為當 時記述編目的標準。 6. 1967 年,英美加三國圖書館協會及美國國會圖書館合力出版《英美編目規則(Anglo-American Cataloging Rules)》,以 1961 年在巴黎召開的 The International Conference on Cataloguing Principles 的決議為基礎。AACR 有兩種 版本,一為北美版(North American Text),一為英國版(British Text)。
    • 7.1974 年,IFLA Committee on Cataloguing 出版《國際標準書目著錄規則(圖書單行本) (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publication –ISBD(M) 》,為 1969 年在 Copenhagen 召開的 International Meeting of Cataloguing Experts 的決議。 8.1978 年,《英美編目規則(Anglo-American Cataloging Rules)》第二版出版,分成著錄及標目 兩部分。1988 年、1998 年、2001 年、2002 年陸續出版第二版的修訂版及補篇。 目前編目規則的增加、刪除及改變由一國際性團體(Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR, JSC)負責,出版者有三,包括美、英、加三國的圖書館協會。 二、中國編目規則的沿革 1. 民國 24 年,國立中央圖書館發表中文圖書編目規則,分為甲乙兩編,甲編為 普通中文圖書編目規則,乙編分為四部分,分列善本圖書、期刊、地圖及拓片 編目規則。 2. 民國 69 年,國立中央圖書館圖書館自動化作業計畫,成立中國編目規則研訂 小組。民國 72 年,《中國編目規則》由國立中央圖書館出版。民國 73 年,央圖停用《國立 中央圖書館中文圖書編目規則》,改採中國編目規則。為適應小型圖書館編目工作的需要, 民國 74 年又有《中國編目規則簡編》之編印。《中國編目規則》以《英美編目規則》為藍 本,參考《國際標準書目著錄規則 ISBD》。 3. 民國 84 年,《中國編目規則修訂版》改由中國圖書館學會出版。 4. 民國 89 年,《中國編目規則修訂二版》由中國圖書館學會出版。
    • 目前編目規則的修訂單位及出版者為中國圖書館學會。 三、編目規則發展的影響因素: 1.自動化(mechanization ) 2.集中編目(centralized )及合作編目(cooperative) 3.書目服務及書目網路(bibliographic services and networks ) 4.新媒體(new media ) 第二節 中文書目著錄 《中國編目規則修訂二版》全部規則分為甲乙兩編。甲編為著錄規則,分為 14 章,第 1 章為總 則,第 2 章至第 13 章為各種資料類型的著錄規則,第 14 章為分析 。 一、基本書目著錄 (一)圖書館資料的類型 中國編目規則的第一部分 “甲編 著錄”,適用於圖書館的各種資料類型,包括: 圖書(第 2 章) 連續性出版品(第 3 章) 善本圖書(第 4 章) 地圖資料(第 5 章)
    • 樂譜(第 6 章) 錄音資料(第 7 章) 電影片及錄影資料(第 8 章) 靜畫資料(第 9 章) 立體資料(第 10 章) 拓片(第 11 章) 微縮資料(第 12 章) 電子資源(第 13 章) 編目時,第一項工作就是決定手上待編的資料屬於何種類型。 當編連續性出版品時,若是紙 本,需參看編目規則第 3 章的連續性出版品及總則(第 1 章);若非紙本,則必先確定是錄音資 料、或是錄影資料、還是電子資源或其他類型。例如,屬錄音資料的連續性出版品,需參考的 規則除包括第 3 章及總則(第 1 章)外,還需查看第 7 章錄音資料。欲編網路資源,需參看的規則 包括第 3 章、第 1 章及第 13 章。若所編資料由數部分組成,而且不只一種資料類型,若其中有 一為主要資料類型,則參考該資料類型的相關規則條文,其他資料類型以附件著錄之。若無一 主要資料類型,則以多媒體組件(kit)著錄之,參看規則 1.10,及相關資料類型的各章規則條 文。 (二)著錄項目 1.書目著錄分為八大項,依序如下: 題名及著者敘述項 版本項
    • 資料特殊細節項 出版項 稽核項 集叢項 附註項 標準號碼項 2.各大項進一步細分為小項目。 1)題名及著者敘述項(正題名、資料類型標示、並列題名、副題名、著 者敘述) 2)版本項(版本敘述、關係版本著者敘述) 3)資料特殊細節項 4)出版項(出版地、出版者、出版年) 5)稽核項(數量單位、插圖及其他細節、高獷尺寸、附件) 6)集叢項(集叢正題名、集叢並列題名、集叢副題名、集叢著者敘述、 集叢之國際標準叢刊號碼、集叢號、附屬集叢) 7)附註項 8)標準號碼項(標準號碼、識別題名、獲得方式、裝訂及其他區別字樣) (三)著錄來源
    • 《中國編目規則》規定書目著錄必有依據。書目資料的來源中列為第一優先者稱為主要著錄來 源。每一資料類型有特定的主要著錄來源。主要著錄來源的規定有助於書目著錄的一致性及劃 一性。規則編號有助記性質,各種資料類型的著錄來源規則編號為”.0.2”,例如圖書為 2.0.2,地 圖資料為 5.0.2…。 個別著錄項目有其指定著錄來源,非得自指定著錄來源者,以外加方括弧區別之。只有第一 項”題名及著者敘述項”的指定著錄來源只有一個,規定是主要著錄來源,其他各項的來源範圍 較大,不只一個著錄來源,稽核項、集叢項的來源遍及全出版品,而附註項及標準號碼項可得 自任何來源。 (四)標點符號 為了使不同語言的各國圖書館使用者能夠瞭解與使用書目記錄,國際圖書館協會聯盟(IFLA)的 編目專家們設計了一套標點符號系統,用以區別編目紀錄的各項著錄。常用之標點符號有 15 個,列舉如下: 圓點(.) 連字符號(﹣) 分項符號(.-- ) 冒號(:) 等號(﹦) 斜撇(/) 逗點(,) 分號(;) 圓括弧(( ))
    • 方括弧([ ]) 乘號(×) 刪節號(…) 加號(+) 引號( " " ) 問號( ? ) 記住要將指定的標點符號著錄於標引的著錄項目之前,如同於電腦程式中必 須告訴電腦收發哪一種資料在電腦化目錄一樣。 例如 標引著者的標點符號為斜撇(/) 中國現代小說史 / 夏至清原著 如果無著者敘述,斜撇(/)則可以省略。 二、各項著錄 下面就《中國編目規則》八大著錄項目的著錄方法逐一說明,並以最新的《中國機讀編目格式 民 90 年修訂版》為依據,說明機讀目錄的著錄方式。《中國編目規則》的條文號碼及及《中國 機讀編目格式》的欄位號碼均記於相關項目後之圓括弧內。 (一)題名及著者敘述項(中國編目規則 *.1) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 200) 1.正題名 ( 中國編目規則 *.1.1) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 200,分欄 a) 2.資料類型標示 (中國編目規則 *.1.2) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 200,分欄 b) 3.並列題名 (中國編目規則 *.1.3 ) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 200,分欄 d)
    • 4.副題名 (中國編目規則 *.1.4) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 200,分欄 e) 5.著者敘述 (中國編目規則 *.1.5) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 200,分欄 f,g) (二)版本項 (中國編目規則 *.2) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 205) 1.版本敘述 (中國編目規則 *.2.1) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 205,分欄 a) 2.關係版本之著者敘述 (中國編目規則 *.2.2) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 205,分欄 f,g) (三)資料特殊細節項 (中國編目規則 *.3) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 206,地圖資料; 207, 連續性出 版品;208, 樂譜;230, 電子資源) (四)出版項 (中國編目規則 *.4) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 210) 1.出版地 (中國編目規則 *.4.2) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 210,分欄 a) 2.出版者 (中國編目規則 *.4.3) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 210,分欄 c) 3.出版年 (中國編目規則 *4.5) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 210,分欄 d) 4.印製地、印製者、印製年 (中國編目規則 *.4.6) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 210,分欄 e,g,h) (五)稽核項 (中國編目規則 *.5) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 215) 1.數量單位 (中國編目規則 *.5.1) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 215,分欄 a) 2.插圖及其他稽核細節 (中國編目規則 *.5.2) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 215,分欄 c) 3.高廣、尺寸 (中國編目規則 *.5.3) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 215,分欄 d)
    • 4.附件 (中國編目規則 *.5.4) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 215,分欄 e) (六)集叢項 (中國編目規則 *.6) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 225) (七)附註項 (中國編目規則 *.7) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 3XX) (八)標準號碼及獲得方式項 (中國編目規則 *.8) (中國機讀編目格式欄位 010, 011) (九)舉例 010 1 |bbound|dNT$170 200 1 圖書館學概論|e 圖書館服務的基本要素|f 傑西.薛拉(Jesse H. Shera)著|g 鄭肇陞譯 210 新竹市|c 楓城|d 民 75[1986] 215 0 13,207 面|d22 公分 225 1 楓城學術叢書 320 含索引 第三節 西文書目著錄 一、AACR2R 的組織結構 Part I: Description
    • 以 ISBD 為基礎。 Chapter 1: 所有資料類型著錄的基本規則。 (defines the 8 areas and prescribed punctuation) Chapter 2-12: 特定資料類型的著錄規則。 1.1 title and statement of responsibility 2.1 title and statement of responsibility of monographs 3.1 title and statement of responsibility of cartographic materials Chapter 13: 分析 Chapter 14-20: 空白 Part II: Headings, uniform titles, and references Chapter 21-26: Headings Uniform titles: authorized form or standardized title References from forms not used to the authorized form 二、著錄項目的組織(Organization of the Description ) 包括八大項目(8 main areas): Area 1 Title and statement of responsibility Area 2 Edition Area 3 Material (or type of publication) Area 4 Publication, distribution, etc. Area 5 Physical description
    • Area 6 Series Area 7 Notes Area 8 Standard number and terms of availability Chapter 1: General rules for description 1.1 Title and statement of responsibility 1.2 Edition 1.3 Material(or type of publication)specific details 1.4 Publication, distribution, etc. 1.5 Physical description 1.6 Series 1.7 Notes 1.8 Standard number and terms of availability Chapter 2: Books, pamphlets, and printed sheets 2.1 Title and statement of responsibility 2.2 Edition 2.3 Material(or type of publication)specific details 2.4 Publication, distribution, etc. 2.5 Physical description 2.6 Series 2.7 Notes 2.8 Standard number and terms of availability
    • 三、規則的組織結構(Organizational Structure of Rules ) Chapter 1: General Rules for Description --應用於所有資料的基本規則 --通常必須使用本章 --對特定資料類型再補充相關規則條文 Chapter 2-13: Rules in specific chapters --以手上待編資料類型為著錄起點 --必須參考使用第一章相關規則條文。 四、AACR2R:選用規則 Optional additions (or Optionally)或 Alternative rules 例如 Rule 1.1C Optional addition. 依編目機構的政策決定是否選用。 1. apply always/never 2. apply case by case GMD 的著錄是選用規則。 [electronic resource] [microform] 其他選用規則: Rule 1.4F5. Optional addition Rule 22.3C2. Alternative rule
    • alternative rule 視語言而定。 五、AACR2R 的一般規則 1.涵蓋所有圖書館資料類型的著錄及檢索點 2.遵行 Chicago Manual of Styles (for style) 3.採用 Webster’s New International Dictionary (for spelling) 4.AACR2r (範例)為說明性(illustrative),非指定性(prescriptive) 5.容許使用選用規則(Optional Rules) 6.依編目員的判斷及詮釋(“if appropriate,” “ if necessary” 7.著錄來源(1.0A): 每一章都有主要著錄來源、每一著錄項目都有指定著錄來源的規定。非得自指定著錄來源者以 方括弧[]指示。 8.使用本文語言著錄的項目 (1.0E): (1)title and statement of responsibility (2)edition (3)publication, distribution, (4)series 9.錯誤 Inaccuracies (1.0F): wolrd[sic] of television The Paul Anthony Buck [i.e. Brick] 10.附錄 Appendices
    • Appendix A--Capitalization for headings for persons, places, and corporate bodies (A.2) for title and statement of responsibility area(A.4) for edition area (A.5) for physical description area (A.8) for languages English (A.12-A.32) Appendix B--Abbreviations must follow the rules of abbreviations Appendix C--Numerals Appendix D—Glossary 11.著錄層次 Levels of Description (Rule 1.0D) --based on Cutter’s Rules for a Dictionary Catalog levels: short, medium, full -- [Based on cataloging agency’s policy] First level of description(Rule 1.0D1) Minimum requirement: title proper statement of responsibility edition first publisher, date of publication extent (only pages) notes and standard number
    • access point (title only) Second level of description (Rule 1.0D2) --standard description --descriptive part may facilitate some --relationship with other pieces --all access points --LC uses level 2 cataloging Third level of description (Rule 1.0D3) --for manuscripts, rare books 六、著錄項目 (一)題名及著者敘述項 Area 1: Title and statement of responsibility [MARC field 245] 1.主要著錄來源: Title page “Substitute” chief source of information: Cover, Half title page, Caption title, Colophon, Running title, Spine title, Added title page, Preliminaries 2. Title 的解釋及著錄 title proper general material designation
    • parallel titles other titles Title(s): definitions --names a publication --recognizes the title (title proper, subtitle…) --appears on different places (cover, spine, caption) --recognizes other title, (1) Title proper --is the chief name of an item --includes alternative title --excludes parallel title and other title (2)Other title information --is a term, phrase, or series of characters appearing in conjunction --with the title proper (include subtitles; exclude variant titles) --ISBD punctuation preceded by space colon space( : ) (3)title proper 的著錄 --describe the title in exact word order --and spelling but may change the punctuation and capitalization
    • (Appendix A) --may add punctuation to clarify meaning --don’t use the punctuation if conflicts with the prescribed punctuation --document with no title page: use title page substitute and record source of title page Title from cover. (4)Parallel title --titles in another language --if there is one parallel title, transcribe as it appears and follow the title proper --ISBD punctuation preceded by the space equal sign space( = ) -- if there are more than two level 3: record all titles level 2: record the first one appears and additionally one in English --if there is a title in other languages but it is not on the title page (e.g., translation), record in the Notes area. (5)Alternative title --is a part of title proper --one work with two titles, or, 2nd title to same work --For ISBD punctuation use the word “or” (or its foreign-language equivalent) precede and followed by commas --capitalize first letter of alternative title 例如: Slaughterhouse-five, or, The children’s crusade : a duty- dance with death by Kurt
    • (6)Title and other titles --For a long title proper or other titles --may abridge --must record the first five words of the title --use the mark of omission to indicate the abridgment ( …) --Original title: transcribe as other title information if it appears in the title page (7)Collective Title Collective title and the titles of individual works (1.1B10) -- is a title proper that is an inclusive title for an item containing several works --use collective title as the title proper, give the title of the individual works in the contents note. 例如: Contents: To be not to be / Mrs. Alexander -- Love and peril / the Marquis of Lorne. --Items without a collective title and no one work predominates -describe the item as a unit -transcribe the titles of the individual works in the order in which they appear on the chief source of information and separate the tiles by “space semi-colon space” ( ; ) 例如: Clock symphony : no. 101 ; Surprise symphony : no. 94 3.著者敘述 Statement of responsibility 的說明及著錄 (1)說明 --refers a person or persons --responsible for creation of intellectual or artistic contents of a work --may be a single author, multiple authors
    • --can have many functions of authorship: editor, compiler, illustrator, reproducer, etc. (2)著錄 a.抄錄主要著錄來源所出現的著者 b.主要著錄來源若未出現著者,不必建構著者敘述。必要時,成立附註。i c.通常記載貴族頭銜(“Sir”, “Dame”, “Lord”, “Lady”),但 Ph.D.或 Dr.等頭銜不記。 必要時可加字 或片語於著者敘述(to make it clear ) d. ISBD punctuation; preceded by space slash space / e.許多著者 --同一著作方式最多著錄 3 個著者: 例如: Title / edited by P.C. Wason and P.N. Johnson-Laird ; photography by Thomas Wilson and John Smith. --若同一著作方式超過 3 個著者,只著錄第一個著者其餘省略,記以刪節號 及[et al.]。 例如:Title / first author … [et al.]. (二)版本項 Area 2: Edition Area [MARC field 250] edition statement statement of responsibility relating to the edition statement relating to a named version of an edition statement of responsibility relating to a named version of an
    • 1.定義 -- is a term, phrase, or number of characters indicating that an item belongs to an edition (“edition”, “issue”, “version”) --is defined as the total number of copies of a publication produced from the same master copy by the same publisher 例如: 250 World Cup ed. - alters changes in intellectual content between editions (e.g., rev. ed., illustrated ed., edition in another language) 2.指定著錄來源 Prescribed source of information -- title page, other preliminaries, colophon 3.標點符號 ISBD punctuation -- Preceded by space dash space ( -- ) 4.著錄 (1)版本敘述 An edition statement is recorded when: -- the item carries a formal statement that it belongs to an edition, or, the item belongs to an edition -- showing significant differences from a previous edition, whether nor not these changes -- are indicated by a formal statement on the item -- use abbreviations (Appendix B and C) edition = ed.
    • revised = rev. -- record the edition statement as it appears (the order and original punctuation) -- use abbreviations in languages of the text 例如: 250 2nd ed., rev. and enlarged. 250 English full ed., 4th international ed. 250 2e. - everything that stated edition is not necessarily an edition 例如: “Limited edition” “MacMillan edition” (2)Statement of responsibility in edition statement: -- identify the person or body responsible for one or more editions, but not for all editions of a work --ISBD punctuation preceded by _/_ 例如: 250 5th ed. / |b by C. Ellis. 250 Facsimile ed. / |b edited, with an introduction, by John Goode. 三、出版項 Area 4: Publication, Distribution, etc. [MARC Field 260] Area 4: Publication, Distribution, etc. [MARC field 260] 1) place of publication, distribution, etc.[MARC field 260, subfield |a] 2) name of publisher, distributor, etc.[MARC field 260, subfield |b ] 3) statement of function of publisher, distributor,etc.
    • 4) date of publication, distribution, etc.[MARC field 260, subfield |c] 5) place of manufacture, name of manufacturer, date of manufacture [MARC field 260, subfield |e, |f, |g] 1.指定著錄來源 Prescribed source of information Title page Other preliminaries Colophon 2.標點符號 Punctuation Place : publisher ; place : distributor [distributor], date. 3.定義 Definition -- the term ‘publication, distribution, etc.’ covers all types of publication, distribution, releasing, and issuing activities connected with library materials. -- when a person or body combines the activities of publication, distribution, etc. and physical manufacture, or when it is uncertain whether the person or body is responsible for the publication, etc. or for the physical manufacture alone, the statement is treated as one relating to publication, distribution, etc 4.出版地 Place of publication, distribution, etc. (1)標點符號 Preceding punctuation each subsequent place of publication is preceded by a space, semicolon, space ( ; )
    • (2)著錄 --the place where the item is published, or from which it is distributed, released, etc. as named on the item --the difference between the first named place of publication, etc. and subsequent places is a matter of punctuation. --subsequently places may apply to the same publisher as the first, or may apply to another publisher, etc. -- when there is no place of publication on the item, the abbreviation “S.l.” 例如: 260 New York 260 London ; |a Chicago 260 Washington, D.C. 260 [S.l.] (3)許多出版地 Multiple places of publication -- transcribe the first one only if all places are in cataloging agency’s country -- if places are foreign and domestic, transcribe the one first stated and record the one first named in one’s cataloging country -- if one is in prominence then transcribe that one first include the State name when it is printed (see Abbreviation appendix B) 例如:260 Pleasantville , N.Y. ; |a London : |b Educational Audiovisual, |c 1970. -- use [ ] if the state name is added for identification 例如: London [Ind.] -- use square brackets if you supply the place name
    • 例如: [Chicago] -- add question mark for the unsure place 例如:[Chicago?] -- use country name only if the country is known 例如:[Poland] 5.出版者、經銷者 Name of publisher, distributor, etc. (1)標點符號 preceding punctuation space, colon, space ( : ) (2)定義 -- the name of, or a statement identifying, the person(s) or body (bodies) responsible for publishing, distributing, releasing, issuing, etc. the item (3)著錄 --record the name of publisher in shortest form --when no publisher, etc. is named on the item the abbreviation “s.n.” is used. - when publisher is unknown use printer in ( ) after date 例如: [S.l. : s.n.], 1967 (place : printer, date) 260 London : |b The Library Association 260 Paris : |b Europa Diffusion 260 Berlin : |b [s.n.] (4)Statement of function of publisher, distributor, etc. -- preceding punctuation: Square brackets, the first bracket being preceded, and the second followed, by a space ( [ ] )
    • -- a term indicating the activity performed by the publisher, distributor, etc. -- distributor: is company that sells all copies and always record the distributor when it is found on the piece 例如:260 Chicago : |b Coronet ; |a Bristol : |b Gateway [distributor] 260 New York : |b American Broadcasting Co. [producer] : |b released by Xerox Films 260 London : |b Martin Benson Films [production company] : |b EVR Partnership [distributor] 260 London : |b Macmillan : |b Educational Services [distributor] 6.出版年、經銷年 Date of publication, distribution, etc. (1)標點符號 preceding punctuation: comma (,) (2)著錄 -- the date of publication, distribution, release, issuing, etc. of the item being described, as given on that item, or as supplied when not given on the item. -- the date is given after the name of the publisher, distributor, etc., to which is relates. -- when the date applies to both or all publishers, distributors, etc., it is given after the last name. (3)許多年代(Multiple dates ) Publication date Manufacturing date Copyright date 1) Publication date
    • -- the document in the hand is first issued by the publisher in that physical format (not the first manufactured/printed) 2) Copyright date -- legal claim for intellectual content; when was the material in this document filed for legal protection 3) Publication date/ Copyright date together -- if the date is the same, use the publication date -- if the date is different, transcribe both dates (publication date first) 例如: 1967,c1953 -- if there are multiple copyright dates, record the most recent one -- if the copyright is renewed, record the original date -- if the copyright date appears only, describe that date 例如: c1967 4) Printing date --also called as date of manufacture -- can assume that date of first printing -- is probable date of publication -- use printing date if that is the only date (date of least priority) 5) Uncertain dates -- if the probable date known [1969?] -- if the approximate date known [ca. 1960] -- if the decade known [197-] -- if the probable decade known [197-?] -- if the century known [19--] -- if the century unsure [19--?]
    • 例如: 260 London : |b Methuen, |c 1977. 260 London : |b Educational Records, |c 1973 ; |a Beckenham : |b Edward Patterson [distributor], | c1975 260 New York : |b Williams, |c [1945?] 260 London : |b EMI, |c 1962 [i.e.1971] 7. Place of manufacture (1)定義: -- the place whether the item is manufactured as named on the item. (2)標點符號 punctuation: --all elements are all enclosed in one set of parentheses, -- the first parenthesis being preceded, and the second followed, by a space ( ) -- each subsequent place of manufacture is preceded by a space, semi-colon, space. 8. Name of manufacturer 標點符號 -- the name of the manufacturer is preceded by a space, colon, space ( : ) 9. Date of manufacture (1)定義: the date of manufacture of the item being described, as given on that item (2)標點符號: -- the date of manufacture is preceded by a comma, space (, ) 例如: 260 [S.l.] : |b [s.n.], |c 1974 |e(Manchester : |f Unity Press)
    • 260 London : |b Chapman and Hall, |c 1876 |e (London : |f Mercury) 260 Harmondsworth : |b Penguin, |c1949 |g (1963 printing) 四、稽核項 Area 5:Physical description [MARC Field 300] 1)extent of item [subfield |a] 2)other physical details [subfield |b ] 3)dimensions [subfield |c] 4)accompanying material [subfield |e] (一)數量單位 特定資料類型視其所屬規則章節著錄。 -- The name of the specific type of material to which the item belongs, and an indication of the number of pieces in an item, the number of constituent parts (e.g., pages, volumes, sound discs, film reels, etc.) of an item, etc., consisting of one physical entity, and, for items with a playing time, the duration of the item -- According to ISBD(G), the specialized ISBDs include lists of terms of specific material designations recommended by the IFLA’s Working Group. -- National bibliographic agencies will determine the exact terms which are acceptable to their needs and languages. 1.標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation point, space, dash, space(. -- ) or start a new paragraph 2.著錄來源 Source of information: -- the whole publication 3.面頁數 Pagination
    • -- Record as either pages or leaves -- Give the last numbered page/leaf of each numbered sequence 例如: 327 p. xii, 327 p. 321 leaves -- Disregard unnumbered sequences (2.5B3) unless such a sequence constitutes the whole or a substantial part, or referred to in a note -- Record the estimated number or counted number in square bracket when recording the unnumbered pages(2.5B3), count and record the page in bracket if less than 100 例如: [86] p. [8], 155 p. -- record to the nearest 50 if more than 100 例如: ca. 250 p. 8, vii, ca. 300, 73 p. -- if the number printed on the last page is not the total number of pages, leave uncorrected unless it gives a completely false impression (2.5B4) 例如: 48 [i.e. 96] p. -- if the volume has complicated paging 例如:1 v. (various paging) 1 v. (looseleaf) 3 v. (876 p.) -- if the paging is duplicated (e.g., parallel texts), give both pagings and make a note (2.5B13) 例如: xii, 35, 35 p. Note: opposite pages bear duplicated numbering
    • (1)Plates: illustrative material with or without text -- give pages or leaves of plates at the end of sequence of pagination -- plates (may/not numbered) -- own numeric sequence 例如: 300 240 p., 32 p. of plates : |b ill. 300 240 p., 8 leaves of plates : |b ill. -- always include ill. for plates -- give the number system which is predominant if the volume contains both leaves and pages (2) Volumes: 例如: 3 v. v. (for incomplete publication) -- Give the continuously paged numbers and preliminary pages of the first volume (2.5B20) 例如: 2 v. (xx, 880 p.) -- Give alternatively for individually paged set 例如: 2 v. (xvi, 329 p. ; xx, 412 p.) 4.其他稽核細節 Other physical detail (1)標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation space, colon, space ( : ) (2)著錄 Illustration (ill.): intentional inclusion for information drawings, charts, -- tables are not considered as ill.
    • -- if the ill. are all of one or more of the following, give the order of : coats of arms, facsimiles, forms, genealogical table, maps, music, plan, portraits, sample 例如: ill., map, ports. ill. (some col.) col. ill. all ill. maps chiefly maps ports. 5.高廣深 Dimensions (1)標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation : space, semi-colon, space ( ; ) (2)著錄 -- the linear measurements of an item, and/or, in the case of items which require equipment for their use, dimensions relevant to the use of the item -- measure the height of publication in centimeter. -- Measure the binding 例如: 323 p. : |b ill. ; |c 23 cm. -- round to the highest centimeter 6.附件 Accompanying material statement (1)標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation
    • space, plus sign, space ( + ) (2)著錄 -- a brief description of any material accompanying the main part(s) of the item being described, and intended to be used with it 例如: 200 p. : |b ill. ; |c 21 cm. + |e 2 computer disks. 271 p. : b ill. ; |c 21 cm. + |e 1 atlas. 200 p. : |b ill. ; |c 24 cm. + |e 1 user’s manual (20 p. : ill. ; 18 cm.) -- Or give this element in one of the following ways: make a separate entry , or describe accompanying material in a note (area 7) -- describe accompanying material at the multilevel description (see 13.6) 五、集叢項 Area 6: Series [MARC Field 4XX or 8XX] 1) title proper of series (subfield |a) 2) parallel titles of series 3) other title information of series 4) statements of responsibility relating to series 5) number of part/section (subfield |n) 6) ISSN of series(subfield |x) 7) numbering within series(subfield |v) 8) sub series(subfield |p) 9)more than one series statement,
    • 1.標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation --is preceded by a point, space, dash, space (. -- ). --Each series statement is enclosed in parentheses in card catalog 2. 著錄來源 Source of information (1)series title page (2) monograph title page (3)cover (4)rest of the publication 3. 著錄 (1)Title proper of series -- transcribe the title proper of the series as instructed in 1.1B --if different forms of the title proper appear, choose the title given in the order of the prescribed sources for the series. --Give the other form in the note area 例如: (Britain advances ; 10) 440 0 Britain advances ; |v 10 例如: (Educational progress series ; no. 3) 440 0 Educational progress series ; |v no. 3 (2)Parallel title of series ISBD preceding punctuation space, equals sigh, space ( = ) 例如: . – (Modern cinema = Cinema moderne)
    • 440 0 Modern cinema = Cinema moderne (3) Other title information of series ISBD preceding punctuation space, colon, space ( : ) -- give other title information only if it provides valuable information identifying the series 例如: (English linguistics, 1500-1750 : a collection of facsimile reprints) 440 0 English linguistics, 1500-1750 : a collection of facsimile reprints (4) Statement of responsibility relating to series: ISBD preceding punctuation: --is preceded by a space, diagonal slash, space ( / ). --Each subsequent statement is preceded by a space, semi-colon, space ( ; ). --transcribe statements of responsibility appearing in conjunction with the series title only if they are considered to be necessary 例如: 440 0 Research monographs / Institute of Economic Affairs (5) International Standard Serial Number of series ISBD preceding punctuation comma, space (, ) -- give the ISSN of a series if it appears -- give ISSN in standard manner. ISSN followed by a space. 例如:. – (Western Canada series report, ISSN 0317-3127)
    • 440 0 Western Canada series report, |x 0317-3127 (6) Numbering within series ISBD preceding punctuation space, semi-colon, space ( ; ) --Give the numbering of the item within the series in the terms given in the item. --Change roman numerals to arabic numbers. 例如:. – (Russian titles for the specialist, ISSN 0305-3741 ; no. 78) 440 0 Russian titles for the specialist, |x 0305-3741 ; |v no. 78 -- if the parts of a multipart item are separately numbered within a series, give the first and the last numbers. -- Otherwise, give all the number(1.6G2) 例如: (Advances in comparative and environmental physiology ; 23, 24) 440 0 Advances in comparative and environmental physiology ; |v 23, 24 (7) Sub-series ISBD preceding punctuation point, space (. ) --describe the chief designation of a sub-series as found on the item. The designation consists of an enumeration (or letter or other symbolic indication) and/or a title 例如: 440 0 Commonwealth and international library. |p Problems and progress in development (8)Parallel title of sub-series Other information of sub-series Statements of responsibility relating to sub-series ISSN of sub-series 例如: 440 0 World films. |p Series major, |x 0075-3114 Numbering within sub-series
    • 例如: 440 0 Science. |p Physics ; |v TSP (9) Series vs. Phrases: -- if the phrase is essentially an unnumbered statement of the name of the body, reject it as a series. --Give the phrase as a quoted note if the name is not given in the bibliographic record 例如: “An American Psychological Association publication” -- if the phrase is essentially a numbered statement of the name, initialism, or part of the name of the body from which it emanated and that body is not a commercial publisher, record as series statement 例如: 440 0 Buckinghamshire Record Society ; |v no.21 -- if the phrase is essentially a numbered/unnumbered statement of the commercial publisher, reject it as a series. Give the phrases as a quoted note if not recorded in the bibliographic record 例如: “DAW Books no. 123” -- do not treat as a series a combination of letters or letters and numbers that cannot be associated with a series title if there is evidence that the combination is assigned for control purposes. Record the information as a quoted note. 例如: “UC-13” “SP-MN” 六、附註項 Area 7: Notes 1.定義: -- contains any descriptive information which has not been given in other areas of the description but which is considered to be of importance. -- Notes amplify the formal description and can deal with any aspects of an item. 2. 標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation: precede each note by a full stop, space, dash, space (. -- ),or start a new paragraph for each.
    • 3.著錄來源 Source of information: --Any source 4.各種附註 1.7B1. Nature, scope, or artistic form 1.7B2. Language of item and/or translation or adaptation 1.7B3. Source of title proper 1.7B4. Variations in title 1.7B5. Parallel titles and other title information 1.7B6. Statements of responsibility 1.7B7. Edition and history 1.7B9. Publication, distribution, etc. 1.7B10. Physical description 1.7B11. Accompanying material 1.7B12. Series 1.7B13. Dissertations 1.7B14. Audience 1.7B16. Other formats 1.7B17. Summary 1.7B18. Contents 1.7B19. Numbers 1.7B20. Copy being described, library’s holdings, and restrictions on use 1.7B21. “With” notes
    • 5.著錄次序 Order of notes(1.7A3): -- apply the order of description of areas -- use prescribed punctuation for each area except substitute a full stop for a full stop, space, dash, space 例如: Adaptation of: The Great Wall of China. 6. Quotations: -- give quotations in quotation marks with indication of its source, unless that source is in the chief source of information 例如: “A textbook for 6th grade students”—Pref. 7. Formal notes: Contents: Partial contents: 例如: Revision of: 2nd ed., 1973. Adaptation of: Kipps / by H.G. Wells. 8. Informal Notes: --make a note brief and clear 9. 著錄舉例 (1)Nature, scope or artistic form 例如: 500 Two plays. 500 Documentary. (2)Language of the item and/or translation or adaptation 例如: 546 Text in Russian.
    • 546 In English, French and German. 500 Translation of selection from: Psychiatrie. (3) Source of title proper [MARC field 500] 例如: 500 Cover title. 500 Title from caption. 500 Title from cover. (4)Variations in title 例如: 500 Cover title: The fair American. 500 Alternative title: Alexandria, Virginia metropolitan area. 500 Original title: King Richard II. 500 Added t.p. in English: Echo. 500 Previously published as: The book of American rankings (5) Parallel titles and other title information -- give the title in another language and other title not recorded in the title and statement of responsibility area if they are to be important 例如: 500 Parallel title in Japanese: Nihon 500 Title on container: The four seasons. 500 At head of title: Popular culture. 500 American ed. published as: Different drummers (6) Statement of responsibility --make notes on persons or bodies connected with a work, or significant persons or bodies connected with previous editions. 例如: 500 “Also attributed to Jonathan Swift”—Introd.
    • 550 Issued by: School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University. 550 Formulated by: Office for Descriptive Cataloging Policy, Library of Congress. (7) Edition and history 例如: 500 “Based on a series of six broadcast talks broadcast by the BBC”—T.p. verso. 500 “Portion of this book appeared originally in the New Yorker in different form”—T.p. verso. 500 Previous ed. of: Harmondsworth : Penguin, 1950. 500 “College edition”—Cover. 500 “Now revised and updated”—Cover. 500 2nd ed. contains “no additions, no deletions and no corrections” from the 1st ed. (8) Publication, distribution, etc. --make notes on publication, distribution, et., details that are not included in the area 4. 例如:500 “Privately printed.” 500 “May 1, 1968.” 500 Updated with quarterly supplements. 500 Published simultaneously in Tokyo. 500 Originally published: London, 1854. 500 Originally published: New York : Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962. (9) Physical description -- make notes on important physical details not included in area 5. 例如: 500 Opposite pages bear duplicate numbering. 500 One folded map in pocket. 500 Grade 3 braille.
    • 500 Facsim. on lining papers. 500 Published in large print. (10)Accompanying material 例如: 500 Slides in pocket. 500 Recording mounted on front lining paper. (11) Series 例如: 500 Originally issued in series: Environmental science series. 500 “A Borzoi book”—T.p. verso. 500 “A Keith Jennison Book.” 500 “A Twentieth Century Fund report.” 500 “Early American collection (12) Dissertations 例如: 502 Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Toronto, 1974. 502 Thesis (M.A.)--University College, London, 1969. (13) Audience --note on the intended audience or intellectual level 例如: 500 For 9-12 years olds. 500 Undergraduate text. (14) Other formats 例如: 530 Issued also as computer file. 530 Issued also as video recording. (15) Summary (MARC field 520) --give a brief objective summary of the content
    • 例如: 520 Summary: Kate and Ben follow their rabbit into a haunted house and discover the source of the house’s ghostly sound. (16) Contents [MARC field 500, 504, or 505] 例如: 504 Bibliography: p. 859-910. 504 Includes bibliographies (p. 215-223) and index. 504 Includes bibliographical references (p. 175-200). 505 Hail, hail, the gang’s all here – Jigsaw—Fuzz. (17) Numbers --give important numbers borne by the item other than ISBN 例如: 500 Supt.of Docs. no.: HE20.8216:11. 500 “DRS-2600-92687.” 500 “Oceana book number 297-18”—T.p. verso. (18)Copy being described, library’s holdings, and restriction on use 例如: Library has v. 1, 3-5, and 7. 七、標準號碼項 Area 8: Standard Number and Terms of Availability Area ISBN: --developed from the book numbering system started in the UK (in 1967) -- to identify one title or edition of a title from one specific publisher by number for inventory control --allows access point 1.標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation: full stop, space, dash, space (. -- ) or start a new paragraph
    • precede each repetition of this area by a full stop, space, dash, space. (. -- ) enclose a qualification to the ISSN or terms of availability in parenthesis 2.著錄來源 Source of information: --any source --do not enclose any information in brackets in this area 3.ISBN: the four parts (1) group identifier (2) publisher identifier (3) title identifier (4) check digit 4.著錄 ISBN -- (always 10 digits in length) 例如: ISBN 0-8247-8493-6 020 0824784936 Multiple ISBNs --give the one that applies to the item -- optionally, give more than one number and add a qualification -- give a number for a complete set before the number for the part 例如: 020 0379005506 (set). 020 0379005514 (v. 1) 020 0435916602 (pbk.) 020 038708262 (U.S.)
    • 八、舉例 020 1563088576 (pbk.) 245 10 Wynar's introduction to cataloging and classification 246 30 Introduction to cataloging and classification 250 9th ed. /|bArlene G. Taylor ; with the assistance of David P. Miller 260 Englewood, Colo. :|bLibraries Unlimited,|c2000 300 xv, 552 p. :|bill. ;|c24 cm 440 0 Library and information science text series 504 Includes bibliographical references (p. 511-530) and index 第四節 中文檢索款目的擇定 檢索款目與檢索點 書目記錄在記述基本著錄項目之後,還要選擇適當的款目以供檢索。此種可供檢索的款目稱為 檢索款目。 檢索款目、檢索點及標目在涵義上很容易造成混淆。 款目(Entry):指目錄中某一編目物件的記錄。( A record of an item in a catalogue)。檢索款目即 作為檢索之用的款目。
    • 檢索點(Access Point) :指書目記錄中用以查尋及辨識的名稱、用詞及代碼等。(A name, term, code, etc., under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified) 標目(Heading): 指目錄款目中作為檢索點而置於目片頂端的名稱、字句或片語。(A name, word, or phrase placed at the head of a catalogue entry to provide an access point.) 二、檢索款目選定步驟 選定檢索款目有兩個基本步驟: 1.在所有檢索點中選定一主要款目,其餘確定為附加款目。 2.規範各種標目的形式。 檢索款目選定的兩個步驟包含於《中國編目規則》的第二部分「乙編」,自第二十一章至第二 十六章。其中第二十一章為檢索款目的擇定,第二十二章至第二十五章為各種標目形式的規 範,第二十六章為目錄使用者在查詢編目館員所選標目、可能需要的參照。 第二十一章 檢索款目之擇定 第二十二章 人名標目 第二十三章 地名 第二十四章 團體標目 第二十五章 劃一題名 第二十六章 參照
    • 根據中國編目規則(21.0.2),檢索款目必須取自各著錄項目,主要包括有題名及著者敘述項、版 本項、集叢項及附註項。 三、題名檢索款目的擇定(規則 21.1.1) 除正題名外,下列題名得作為檢索款目: (一)又名 (二)原題名(如翻譯作品、改寫作品之原題名) (三)並列題名 (四)「欽定」、「御批」、「增補」等字樣後之題名(或可另立參照片) (五)非載於主要著錄來源而與正題名有重要差異之題名,如封面題名、卷端題名等。 (六)劃一題名 (七)集叢名 四、著者檢索款目的擇定(規則 21.1.2) (一)基本原則: 作品的創作者應立檢索款目,其他著作方式則視重要性,立為檢索款目。特定資料(例如錄音資 料、錄影資料)的主要表演者亦視其重要性,立檢索款目。 (二)單一著者 無論作品載明與否,如確定某一個人或團體為著者,應立為檢索款目。
    • (三)合著者 同一著作方式的著者為二人或三人者,得分立檢索款目;若超過三人者,僅為首列者立檢索款 目。 (四) 著者題名款目(規則 21.1.3) 指檢索款目包括個人著者或團體名稱加上作品之題名。著者與題名之間以圓點 及空格相隔。 在下列情況得立為著者題名檢索款目: (1)集叢整套編目後其所屬各單元之著者及題名 (2)作品如係註釋、翻譯、改寫,其原作品之著者及題名 (3)無共同題名且無明顯主要部分之作品,以整體為一單元著錄,其各部分之著者及題名 (4)作品如為另一作品之相關作品 五、人名、地名及團體標目格式 (一) 人名標目(規則 22.1) 1. 基本原則: 擇其著稱者 2. 中國人名: 依擇定之名稱直接著錄。民國以前: 須註明朝代。 例: (宋)歐陽修撰 3. 西洋人名 (1)已取中文姓名 逕以中文姓名立標目。例:何瑞元 (2)中文譯名
    • 如無中文姓名,則以中文譯名著錄。以姓為標目,其後記其原文姓名於圓括弧內,姓在前,名 在後,二者以逗點相隔。名之後得加註生卒年代。 例: 詹姆斯(James, Preston Everett) (3)若有習用之譯名,逕錄之,不必記原文姓名。 例: 利馬竇 (4)標目相同 可於譯名後圓括弧內之原文名稱後加註公元生卒年代,原文名稱與生卒年以逗點相隔。 例:杜威(Dewey, John, 1859-1952) (二)地名標目(規則 23.0-23.3) 1. 通則: 國名選用習用的名稱,地方選用正式的地名。 2. 外國地名:如有習用之中文譯名,照錄之。如無習用者,則參考地名辭典及其他資料選定。 3. 地名如有變更:採用作品所載之地名。其新舊地名分立「參見」或「說明參照」款目。 4. 相同地名的區別 (1)本國地名 縣以下之市、鎮等地名應冠以所屬縣名。 例:嘉義縣朴子鎮 (2)外國地名 市、鎮等地名應冠以所屬縣名(州名、國名)。 例: 美國愛渥華州邁阿密(Miami, Iowa, U.S.A.)
    • (三)團體標目(規則 24.0-.24.2) 擇定通則 (1)團體名稱不止一個,採用其著稱者,未經採用者,另立參照款目引見。 (2)如無法確定團體名稱是否著稱,依下列順序擇定: 1)作品中最常用者。 2)文獻中最常用者。 3)最近使用者。 (3)如有變更 採用作品所載之名稱。新舊名稱分立「參見」。 (4)如有全銜與簡稱等不同形式 採正式名稱或全銜。 (5)外國團體 有中文名稱者,以其中文名稱為標目;無中文名稱者,以其中文譯名為標目。 2.標目格式 (1)一般團體機構 直接以其名稱為標目。團體名稱中如含下列字樣,宜省略之: 1)冠首之「私立」字樣。 2)冠首之「財團法人」字樣。 3)「股份有限」或「股份有限公司」字樣。 (2)需冠上級團體名稱之下級單位 1)下級單位之名稱本身不足以區辨者,須冠其上級單位之名稱。
    • 2)下級單位與其最高單位之中間層級,如無助於辨識者,可省略 之。 (3)政府機構 1)我國 直接以其名稱為標目,可省略「中華民國」字樣;惟中國大陸中央政府機關之標目可加註「中 國大陸」字樣,置於圓括弧內。地方政府機關,團體標目應冠地名。各級政府之二級以下單 位,如其名稱不足以辨識,需於單位名稱前加註其上級機關名稱。 2)外國 外國中央政府機關名稱之標目,應冠國名。國名採習用之名稱。地方政府機 關,團體標目應冠地名。 (4)會議、研討會、展覽、博覽會等 屆次、舉行時間、地點依次加註於名稱之後,置於圓括弧內。屆次、時間、地點間,以冒號相 隔。 例: 歐洲地區國家建設研討會(5:民 74:英國牛津大學) (5)寺廟、教堂等 寺廟、教堂等所在地之地名記載於其名稱之後,置於圓括孤內。如寺廟、教堂之名稱已包含其 所在地之地名,則不必重複記載 地名。 例: 龍山寺(臺北市) (6)電臺、電視臺等 電臺及電視臺之所在地記載於其名稱之後,置於圓括弧內。如電臺及電視臺之名稱已包含其所 在地之地名,則不必重複記載地名。 例: 臺灣省警察廣播電臺(臺北市)
    • 六、劃一題名(規則 25.0-25.4) 作品因版本或譯本不同,而題名有異時,期於目錄中匯集於一題名下;或題 名相同而作品不同,需於目錄加以辨識,編目時,都可使用劃一題名,立為檢索款目。中國編 目規則乙編第二十五章有劃一題名之相關條文。 (一)選擇劃一題名時可依下列順序: 1.最為著稱之題名。 2.作品中最常使用之題名。 3.原題名。 (二)可依下列情況考慮某一作品是否應使用劃一題名: 1.該作品之知名度。 2.該作品不同版本及譯本之多寡。 3.該作品之原文是否為外文。 4.該作品之不同版本、譯本是否需匯集一處,以便於研究。 宗教經典、文學作品、古典音樂作品等為最常使用劃一題名者。 例如紅樓夢,又名金玉緣、石頭記、風月寶鑑等,著錄紅樓夢為劃一題名。 七、參照(規則 26.0-26.3) 為便於檢索,參照(Cross Reference)指引目錄使用者從一標目去見另一標目。《中國編目規 則》乙編第二十六章有參照之相關條文。 (一)種類 參照有三種: 1.「見」(See Reference):指引讀者從可能查尋之人名、團體名稱或題名等「見」目錄中選用 之標目。
    • 2.「參見」(See Also Reference):指引讀者從某一標目「參見」其他相關之標目。 3.說明參照(Explanatory Reference):如僅以「見」或「參見」款目無法給予讀者適當之指引 時,得以簡潔之文字加 以說明。 (二)使用情況 1.應立「見」款目引見選用之標目有下列情況: (1)個人之名字,其未經選用為標目者。 (2)團體或地名之不同名稱,其未經選用為標目者。 (3)集叢之不同名稱,其未經選用為標目者。 2.得立「參見」款目互見之情況: (1)個人名字在目錄中使用不同之標目時。 (2)團體在目錄中使用不同之標目時。 (3)集叢名稱在目錄中使用不同之標目時。 3.得立「說明參照款目」之情況: (1)僅以「見」或「參見」款目無法給予讀者適當之指引時。 (2)團體名稱冠首之「私立」、「財團法人」等字樣,不記載於標目內,以「說明參照」說明。 (3)團體名稱如有更易時。 第五節 西文檢索款目的擇定 一、英美編目規則第二部分的組織結構
    • AACR2R, Part II. Headings, Uniform titles, and References 1. access points for main and added entries (chapter 21) 2. rules for name headings (chapter 22-24): persons, geographic names, corporate bodies 3. uniform titles (chapter 25) 4. references (chapter 26) 二、名詞解釋 1.Access Points (AACR2r) A name, term, code, etc., under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified 包括: names of person (author, editor, compiler, translator, illustrator, other related person);names of corporate bodies (society, institution, association); names of places;titles;names of series; subject: subject headings, classification codes 2. Entry Cutter: entry is the registry of a book in the catalogue AACR2r: entry is a record of an item in a catalogue 3. Main Entry Cutter and 1908 Joint Code: defined as the full or principal entry (called as main entry card; unit card) AACR2r: main entry is the complete catalogue record of an item, presented in form by which the entity is to be uniformly identified and cited 4.Added entries(AACR2r) An entry, additional to the main entry, by which an item is represented in a catalogue or secondary entry 5.Heading (AACR2r) A name, word, or phrase placed at the head of a catalogue entry to provide an access point -- is needed to create catalogue entries (as main entry heading)
    • -- is a work’s standardized access point -- refers to identifying the work by means of a standardized uniform title or name-title access points 6. Authorship What is an author? Cutter: Author, in the narrow sense, is the person who writes a book; in a wider sense, it may be applied to him who is the cause of the book’s existence by putting together the writings of several authors. (usually called the editor, more properly to be called the collector). Bodies of men(societies, cities, legislative bodies, countries) are to be considered the authors of their memoirs, transactions, journals, debates, reports, etc. ALA 1949: The writer of a book, as distinguished from translator, editor, etc. By extension, an artist, composer, photographer, cartographer, etc. In the broader sense, the maker of the work or the person or body immediately responsible for its existence. Thus a person who collects and puts together the writings of several authors (compiler or editor) may be said to be the authors of a collection. Corporate bodies may be considered the authors of publications issued in their name or by their authority ALA 1967: By author is meant the person or corporate body chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic contents of a work. Thus composers, artists, photographers, etc., are the authors of the works they create; chess players are authors of their recorded games; etc. The term “author” also embraces an editor or compiler who has primary responsibility for the content of a work, e.g., the compiler of a bibliography. AACR2R: Author see Personal author Personal author: --The person chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work.
    • Corporate body: --An organization of group of persons that is identified by a particular name and that acts, or may act, as an entity. Typical examples of corporate bodies are association, institutions, business firms, nonprofit enterprises, governments, government agencies, religious bodies, local churches, and conferences. 三、檢索點的選擇(AACR2R Chapter 21) (一)主要款目的類型 Types of main entry Personal name main entry: -- single personal author -- multiple authors -- mixed responsibility Corporate body main entry: Title main entry: (二)主要款目的擇定 Rule 21.1A. Works of personal authorship Choice of main entry based on the conditions of authorship: -- works with a single authorship -- works for unknown or uncertain authorship -- works of shared responsibility (collaboration between two or more persons or corporate bodies performing the same kind of activity in the creation of the content) -- collections and works produced under editorial direction -- works of mixed responsibility (collaborations between two or more by performing different kinds of activities; modifications or adaptations of other works or new works where individual make different contribution)
    • Rule 21.4A. Works of a single personal authorship -- enter a work by one personal author under the heading for that person(21.4A1) whether named in the item being catalogued or not. Rule 21.4C. Works erroneously or fictitiously attributed to a person or corporate body. -- enter under the actual personal author -- or under title if the actual personal author is not known. -- make an added entry under the heading for the person to whom the authorship is attributed, unless he/she is not a real person. Make an added entry under title. 例如: The hums of Pooh / by Winnie the Pooh (Written by A.A.Milne) ME: under the heading for Milne AE: Hums of Pooh Rule 21.5 Works of unknown or uncertain authorship -- enter under the probable personal author. If reference sources indicate that a person is the probable author of such a work, enter the heading for that person or body. And make added entries under title. Rule 21.5C -- enter under the characterizing word of phrase of authorship: if the name of a personal author is unknown and in the chief source of information of the item being catalogued the only indication of authorship is the appearance of a characterizing work or phrase. -- make an added entry under title. 例如: Memoir of Bowman Hendry … / by a Physician. ME: Physician
    • AE: Memoir of Bowman Hendry Rule 21.6 Works of shared responsibility a) works produced by the collaboration of two or more persons b) works for which different persons have prepared separate contributions c) works consisting of an exchange between two or more persons (e.g., correspondence, debates) d) works falling into one of more of the categories given in 21.1B2 that emanate from two or more corporate bodies if the principal responsibility is attributed, enter under the heading for that person or body. Rule 21.6B Make added entries under the heading for other persons involved if there are nor more than two. -- if the principal responsibility is not indicated, enter under the heading for the one named first. Make added entries under the heading for the others. Rule 21.6D. Shared pseudonyms -- if two or more persons collaborate and use a single pseudonym, use the pseudonym as the heading for a work produced by their collaboration. 例如: Deadly weapon / Wade Miller (Wade Miller is the joint pseudonym of Bill Miller and Bob Wade) ME: Miller, Wade AE: Title --refer to the pseudonym from their names (see 26.2C1). --If headings for one or more of the persons are also established in the catalogue, refer also from the pseudonym to those headings. 例如: reference to the pseudonym from Bill Miller (see) reference from the pseudonym to the heading for Bob Wade (see also)
    • Rule 21.8 Works of mixed responsibility -- refer to activities of writing, adapting, illustrating, editing, arranging, translating, e.g., adaptations, translations, musical arrangements Rule 21.10 Adaptations of texts -- enter a paraphrase, rewriting, adaptation for children, or version in a different literary form(e.g., novelization, dramatization) under the heading for the adapter. -- enter under the title if the name of the adapter is unknown -- make a name-title added entry for the original. -- enter under the heading for the original work in case of doubt whether a work is an adaptation Rule 21.11A Illustrated texts -- enter under the heading to the text -- make added entries under the heading for the illustrator if appropriate under the provision of 21.30K2. (if the illustrator’s name is given prominence; illustrations more than half; considered as an important feature of the work) Rule 21.11B Illustrations published separately -- enter the heading for the artist. -- make a name-title added entry for the work(s) illustrated if there are not more than three. Rule 21.12 Revisions of texts -- (revised, enlarged, updated)
    • Rule 21.12A. Original author considered responsible -- enter under the heading for the original author if the original author is named in a statement of responsibility, or the original author is named in the title proper and no other person is named in a statement of responsibility or other title information. -- make added entry under the heading for the reviser. -- enter an abridgment of work under the heading for the original author. -- make added entry under the heading for abridger. Rule 21.12B. Original author no longer considered responsible -- enter under the heading for the reviser or under title, if the wording of the chief source of information indicated that the original author is no longer considered responsible for the work. -- make a name-title added entry under the heading for the original author and title. Make added entry under the title. Rule 21.14A. Translations -- enter main entry under the heading appropriate to the original. -- make an added entry under the heading for the translator if appropriate under the provisions of 21.30K1. a) the translation is in verse b) the translation is important in its own right c) the work has been translated into the same language more than once d) the working of the chief source of information of the item being catalogued implies that the translator is the author e) the main entry heading may be difficult for catalogue users to find (e.g., as with many oriental and medieval works)
    • Rule 21.15. Texts published with biographical /critical material -- if a work consisting of a work or works by a writer accompanied by (or interwoven with) biographical or critical material by another person is presented in the chief source of information of the item being cataloged as a biographical/critical work, enter it as such (see 21.1-21.7). -- make an added entry under the heading appropriate to the work or works included. 例如: Life and letters of Mrs. Jason Lee … / by Theressa Gay ME: the heading for Gay AE: title AE: heading for Lee -- if the biographer/critic is represented as editor, compiler, etc., enter under the heading appropriate to the work(s). -- make an added entry under the heading for the biographer/critic. 例如: Life and letters of Catharine M. Sedgwick / edited by Mary E. Dewey ME: under the heading for Sedgwick AE: heading for Dewey AE: title Rule 21.24. Collaboration between artist and writer -- enter under the heading for the one who is named first in the chief source of information unless the other’s name is given greater prominence. -- make an added entry under the heading for the other one. Rule 21.25. Reports of interviews or exchanges -- enter the heading under the participant: if a report is essentially confined to the words of the person(s) interviewed or of the participants in an exchange (other than the reporter), enter under the principal participant, participant named first in the chief source of information, or enter under title as instructed in 21.6. -- make an added entry under the heading for the reporter if he/she is named prominently.
    • 例如: My wartime experiences in Singapore / Mamoru Shinozaki ; interviewed by Lim Yoon Lin ME: under heading for Shinozaki AE: heading for Lin AE: title -- enter under the heading for the reporter if a report is to a considerable extent in the words of the reporter. -- make added entries under the headings for the other persons involved. Rule 21.1C. Title main entry Enter under the title proper, or, when appropriate uniform title : -- if the personal authorship is unknown (see 21.5) or diffuse (see 21.6C2), or -- if the work does not emanate from a corporate body(see 21.1B) -- if the work is a collection or works by different persons and bodies (see 21.7) -- if the work emanates from a corporate body but does not fall into any of the categories given in 21.1B2 and is not of personal authorship -- if the work is accepted as sacred scripture by a religious group (see 21.37) -- if a work is of unknown or uncertain personal authorship or if it emanates from a body that lacks a name -- if such a work has been attributed to one or more persons or bodies, either in editions of the work or in reference sources, make added entries under the heading for these persons or bodies Rule 21.6C2. Title main entry (continued…) -- if responsibility is shared among more than three persons or bodies and principal responsibility is not attributed to any one -- make an added entry under the heading for the first person or body name named prominently in the item being catalogued 例如: Texas country / Willie Nelson … [et al.]
    • ME: under title AE: under the heading for Nelson Rule 21.7. Collections of works by different persons or bodies a) collections of independent works by different persons or bodies b) collections consisting of extracts from independent works by different person or bodies c) works consisting partly or independent works and partly of contributions by different persons or bodies Rule 21.7B. Enter under title: with collective title -- enter a work under the title if it has a collective title. -- make added entries under the heading for the compilers/editors if there are not more than three and named prominently. 例如:The Hamish Hamilton book of giants / edited by William Mayne ME: under the title AE: the heading for Mayne Rule 21.7C. Without collective title -- enter under the heading to the first work named in the chief source of information if the item lacks a collective title -- make added entries for editors/compilers and for the other works. 例如:In praise of older woman / Stephen Vizinczey. Feramontov/ Desmond Cory. ME: under the heading for Vizinczey AE (name-title): under heading for Cory Rule 21.1C1. Enter a work under its title proper or, when appropriate, uniform title: -- if it emanates from a corporate body but does not fall into any of the categories given in 21.1B2 and is not of personal authorship -- make added entries under the headings for prominently name corporate bodies as instructed in 21.30E
    • Rule 21.29-21.30. Added entries Access points not chosen as the main entry: -- Collaborators (up to three), if there are more than three, make added entry under the one name first only -- Writers (prominently named) if the main entry is under the heading for another person or a corporate body --Editors and compilers(prominently named) --Translators (certain cases only) --Illustrators (certain cases only) -- Other related persons or bodies (e.g., a museum where the exhibition is held) Rule 21.28B1. Related works (e.g., continuations and sequels, supplement, indexes, etc.) Rule 21.30L. Series Rule 21.30J. Added entries: titles -- make an added entry under the title proper of every item entered under a personal heading, a corporate heading, or a uniform title unless: a) the title proper is essentially the same as the main entry heading or a reference to that heading b) the title proper has been composed by the cataloguer c) in a catalogue in which name-title and subject entries are interfiled, the title proper is identical to a subject heading assigned to the work or a direct reference to that subject headings d) a conventionalized uniform title has been used as the uniform title for a musical work (see 25.25-35) -- make an added entry for any version of the title (e.g., cover, caption, running title) if considered necessary
    • Rule 21.1B. Entry under corporate body - enter a work emanating from one or more corporate bodies under the heading for the appropriate body (see 21.4B, 21.5B) if it falls into one or more of the following categories: a) those of an administrative nature dealing with the corporate body itself or its internal policies, procedure, finances, and/or operations or its officers, staff, and/or membership (e.g., directories) or it resources (e.g., catalogues, inventories) b) some legal, governmental, and religious works of the following types: laws decrees of the chief executive that have the force of law (see 21.31) constitutions(see 21.33) court rules (see 21.34) treaties, etc. (see 21.34) court decisions (see 21.36) legislative hearings religious laws(e.g., canon law) liturgical works(see 21.39) c) those that record the collective thought of the body (e.g., reports of commissions, committees, etc. official statements of position on external policies) d) those that report the collective activity of a conference (e.g., proceedings, collected papers), of an expedition (e.g., result of exploration, investigation). Or of an event(e.g., an exhibition, fair, festival). The conference, expedition, or event is prominently named in the item being catalogued
    • e) those that result from the collective activity of a performing group as a whole where the responsibility of the group goes beyond that of mere performance, execution, etc. Publications resulting from such activity include sound recordings, films, video recordings, and written records of performances. f) cartographic materials emanating from a corporate body other than a body that is merely responsible for their publication or distribution. In case of doubt about whether a work falls into one or more of these categories, treat it as if it does not. --in some cases of shared responsibility and mixed responsibility, enter such a work under the headings for the corporate body named first. --make added entries as instructed in 21.29-21.30. Rule 21.4D1. Official communications -- enter a work that falls into one of the following categories under the corporate heading for the official. a) an official communication from ahead of state, head of government, or head of an international body e.g., a message to a legislature, a proclamation, etc. b) an official communication from a pope, patriarch, bishop, etc. (e.g., an order, pastoral letter, etc.) --make an added entry under the personal heading for the person. 例如:New York City at war : emergency services : report / by F.H. La Guardia, mayor. ME: under the corporate heading for La Guardia as mayor AE: under the personal heading for La Guardia Rule 21.4D1. Official communications (continued…)
    • -- enter a communication that merely accompanies and transmits a documents under the heading for the document that it accompanies. -- make an added entry under corporate heading for the transmitting official. -- enter a collection of official communications of more than one holder of one of the offices listed in a) and b) above under the heading for the office. Make an added entry under the heading for a compiler name prominently. -- enter all other works of such a person under the personal heading. 四、人名標目 Headings for persons (一)個人名稱的選擇 Choice of Name 1. Rigid approach (Pre-AACR): -- heading based on the person’s real name or official name 例如: Clemens, Samuel Langhorne (not Twain, Mark) United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (not Unesco) 2. Relaxed approach (AACR): -- heading based on author’s name as it appears in the author’s books (1) AACR (1967): -- heading based on Paris principle, modified rigid approach -- allowed only one personal name’s heading -- based on commonly known name in the author’s work in his/her own language (2) AACR2 (1978): -- heading based on predominant form, but allowed multiple headings for the same person in limited cases
    • (3) AACR2r (1988): -- some major changes: allows multiple headings for the same person Rule 22.2B2 Separate bibliographic identity -- if a person has established two or more bibliographic identities, as indicated by the fact that works of one type appear under one pseudonym and works of other types appear other pseudonyms or the person’s real name, choose, as the basis for the heading for each group of works, the name by which works in that group are identified. Make references to connect the names. 例如:Day Lewis, C (Cecil) Blake, Nicholas Rule 22.2B3 Contemporary authors -- if contemporary author uses more than one pseudonym or his/her real name and one of more pseudonyms, use, as the basis for the heading for each work, the name appearing in it. And make references to connect the names. (see 26.2C 26.2D) -- if, different names appear in different editions of the same work or two or more names appear in one edition, choose, for all editions, the name most frequently used in editions of the work. If that cannot be determined readily, choose the name appearing in the latest available edition of the work. Make name- title references from the other name or names. (see 26.2B1) 例如:Ed McBain Evan Hunter (pseudonyms used by the same person, Ed McBain) McBain, Ed Search also under: Hunter, Evan The rising tide / M.J. Farrell (the later edition published under the name Molly Keane) Use Molly Keane as a heading
    • Farrell, M.J. The rising tide Search under: Keane, Molly (二)基本原則 -- determine commonly known name from the chief source of information of works by that person issued in his or her language. -- If the person works in nonverbal context (e.g., a painter, a sculptor) or is not known primarily as an author, determine the name by which he or she is commonly known from reference sources issued in his or her language or country of residence or activity. (22.1B) -- in general, choose, as the basis of the headings for a person the name by which he or she is commonly known. This may be the person’s real name, pseudonyms, title of nobility, nickname, initials, or other appellation. Treat a roman numeral associated with given name as part of that name. (22.1A) 例如: William Shakespeare Jimmy Carter (not James Earl Carter) H.D. (not Hilda Doolittle) -- include any titles of nobility or terms of honour or words or phrases that commonly appear in association with the name. Includes diacritical marks and hyphens 例如: Sister Mary Joseph (三)不同名稱的選擇 Choice among Different Names 1. Predominant Name:
    • -- if the person is known by several names (22.2A1): choose the name by which the person is clearly most commonly known, if there is one. -- Otherwise, choose…according to the following order of preference: a) the name that appears most frequently in the person’s work, b) the name that appears most frequently in reference sources, c) the latest name 2. Pseudonyms (22.2B) -- if the person is known by pseudonyms, enter under the pseudonyms --make reference from the real name (if known) to the pseudonym 3.Change of Name(22.2C) -- enter under the latest name (except the earlier name is better known) (四)同一名稱不同形式的選擇 Choice among Different Forms of the Same Name(22.3) 1. Spelling (22.3D): The same name may be spelled in more than one way, and a decision should be made. The basis for choice is official orthography or predominant spelling 2. Fullness(22.3A) a) choose the form most commonly found b) make reference from the other forms c) if no form predominates, choose the latest form
    • d) choose the fuller or fullest form in case of doubt 3. Choice among different languages (22.3B) -- if the person’s name appear in different language forms, a) choose the form corresponding to language of most of the works. b) in case of doubt, choose the form most commonly found in reference source of the person’s country or residence or activity 4. Names in vernacular and Greek or Latin forms -- choose the form most commonly found in reference sources 5. Names written in the roman alphabet and established in an English form -- choose the English form of name for a person entered under given name if the person’s name is well established in English form in reference sources. (五)款目要素 Entry Element 1.基本原則 General rule: Select the entry element based on (22.4): Preference Authoritative alphabetical lists (Who’s Who type sources) in his/her language or country of residence 2. Entry under Surname (22.5) 例如: Hemingway, Ernest 3. Name in Compound Surnames (22.5C) -- consisting two or more proper names under the preferred or established form if known 例如: Lloyd George, David refer from elements of compound surnames not chosen as the entry element
    • George, David Lloyd Search under: Lloyd George, David 4. Entry under Hyphenated Surnames (22.5C3) Enter under the first element 例如:Panter-Downes, Mollie 5. Entry under Compound Surnames. Married Woman(22.5C5) Enter under the husband’s surname first Enter the first element of the compound surname (in Czech, French, Hungarian, Italian, or Spanish) 6. Entry under Surname with separately written prefixes (22.5D) -- enter under the element most commonly used as entry element in reference sources in the person’s language or country of residence or activity 例如:De la Mare, Walter De Morgan, Augustus 7. Entry under Title of Nobility (22.6A1) -- Enter under the proper name in the title of nobility by personal name in direct order and the term of rank in the vernacular. 例如: Byron, George Gordon Byron, Baron
    • 8. Entry under Given Name (22.8) -- Enter a name that does not include a surname and that is borne by a person who is not identified by a title of nobility under the part of the name -- under which the person is listed in reference sources. -- Precede such associated words or phrases by a comma. 例如: Vinci, Leonado da Search under: Leonado, da Vinci 9. Entry under Initials, Letters, or Numerals (22.10A) -- Include any words or phrases associated with. -- In case of initials or letters, make a name-title reference from an inverted form beginning with the last letter for each item catalogued. 例如: H.D D., H. By Avon River Search under: H.D. 10. Entry under Phrases (22.11A) -- Enter in direct order a name that consists of a phrase or appellation that does not contain a forename -- Make a references from the forename followed by the initial word(s) 例如:X, Dr. Search under: Dr. X
    • 例如:Richard, Poor Search under: Poor Richard 11. Entry under Phrase naming another work (22.11D) -- Enter a characterizing word or phrase or a phrase naming another work by a person, in direct order. -- Omit initial article -- Refer, when appropriated, for the title of the other work in the from 例如: Author of A monstrous good lounge A Monstrous good lounge, Author of Search under: Author of A monstrous good lounge 12. Additions to Names (22.12-22.16) (1)Titles of nobility Diana, Prince of Wales Add British terms of honour (Sir, Dame, Lord, or Lady) commonly appears with the name in the person’s work (2)Saints Hepworth, Barbara, Dame Add Saint after the name of a Christian saint Teresa, of Avila, Saint (3) Add the word or phrase associated with the surname
    • 例如:Dr. Seuss Search under: Seuss, Dr. (4) Add to the name of the person with the highest royal status within a state or people, a phrase consisting of a person’s title and the name of the state or people in English 例如:Elizabeth I, Queen of England (五)獨特性標目的原則 Principle of Unique Heading 1. Add the dates (rule 22.17) 例如: Smith, John, 1924- Smith, John, b. 1825 2. Use fuller forms of the name (rule22.18) 例如: Smith, Russell E. (Russell Eugene) Smith, Russell E. (Russell Edgar) 3. Use of distinguishing terms (rule 22.19) 例如: Smith, John, soldier Smith, John, captain 五、團體標目(Chapter 24) (一)名稱的選擇 Choice of Name (Rule 24.1) 1. commonly known
    • 2. name change -- a new heading is established to be used in cataloging works issued by the body under that name (二)名稱形式的選擇 Choice of Form 1. principle of uniform heading 2. fullness of name (rule 24.2-24.3) 例如:unesco 3. conventional form in common use 4. spelling (rule 24.2C) 5. language( rule 24.3) 6. modifications (rule 24.4-24.11) (1)additions (2)omissions (3)other modifications (三)款目要素的選擇(Choice of entry element) 1. enter under its own name 例如:University of Pennsylvania 2.subordinate and related bodies (rule 24.12-24.13) --entered under its own name, with the exception of six types of subordinate and related bodies (rule 24.13) 例如:University of Illinois. Library. Electrochemical Society. Electronics Division. 3.direct or indirect subheading (rule 24.14) (1) Direct subheading
    • 例如:American Library Association. Reference Tools Advisory Committee. Hierarchy: American Library Association Reference and Adult Services Division Reference Tools Advisory Committee. (2) Indirect subheading 例如:American Library Association. Reference and Adult Services Division. History Section. Bibliography and Indexes Committee. Hierarchy: American Library Association. Reference and Adult Services Division. History Section. Bibliography and Indexes Committee. (四)會議標目及政府標目 1. Conference congresses, meetings, etc. (rule 24,7) name of conference (number if any : date : place or institution) 2. Governments and government bodies (rule 24.3E, 24.6, 24.17-24.26) (1)conventional name 例如:United States (not United States of America) (2)jurisdictional name -- adding the name of larger place and/or a type-of-jurisdiction qualifier 例如:Chicago(Ill.) Veracruz (Mexico : State)
    • 3. Government officials (rule 24.20) (1) Heading for government. Title of the office 例如: Chicago(Ill.). Mayor (2) Heading for government. Title of the office (inclusive years of the reign : name of person in brief form) 例如:United States. President (1961-1963 : Kennedy) 4. Popes 例如: Catholic Church. Pope (1978- : John Paul II) 六、劃一題名(Chapter 25) 使用 1. Individual uniform titles: -- are used to bring together in the catalog different manifestations of a work that has been issued under more than one title and to distinguish between different works that have been issued under identical titles. 2. Collective uniform titles -- are used to provide a common access point for editions of an individual's complete works and for works consisting of selections of an individual's works that lack a distinctive title of their own. (二)劃一題名的選定 1. Individual uniform titles for works created after 1500 (general) (1) Works issued with variant titles (except revised editions) --create a uniform title for the work based on the best known version or, lacking that, on the earliest edition. If the different versions are published simultaneously in the same language use the title of the U.S. edition as the uniform title. (Cf. AACR2 25.3) (2) Works issued with variant titles (revised editions
    • -- If a revised edition of a work is issued in the same language with a different title do not use a uniform title for the work being cataloged. Instead, make an added entry for the earlier version, either author/uniform title or uniform title as appropriate. (Cf. AACR2 25.2B) (3) Translations -- Make a uniform title in the original language for translations. Add the language of the translation (Cf. 25.5C1). (4) Works issued simultaneously with titles in more than one language -- These are not considered translations since an original language cannot be determined. If a work in this category is entered under a corporate body, use as a uniform title the title in the language in which the corporate body is established. [Cf. AACR2 25.3C2] 2. Individual uniform titles for works created before 1500 (general) -- Uniform titles for these works are generally created in the original language by which they are identified in modern sources. However, for Greek titles, an English or Latin uniform title is sometimes preferred. For anonymous works written neither in Greek nor in roman script use an established English title if there is one. See AACR2 25.4 for guidance in specific cases. 3. Collective uniform titles for works by a single person (1)Complete works -- Use uniform title "Works" and add date of publication. To distinguish between editions of complete works issued in the same year add the name of the publisher after the date [AACR2 25.8] (2) Selections
    • --"Use the collective title 'Selections' for items consisting of three or more works in various forms, or in one form if the person created works in one form only, and for items consisting of extracts, etc. from the works of one person" [AACR2 25.9] -- Add date of publication. To distinguish between editions published in the same year add the name of the publisher after the date 4. Special rules for the Bible (rule 25.17-25.18A) Bible. [O.T. or N.T.]. [individual book or group of books]. [language]. [version]. [year]. e.g. Bible. N.T. Luke. English. New English. 1965 七、參照(cross references) 種類 1.See reference 2.See also reference 3.Name-title reference 4.Explanatory reference personal name headings(rule 26.2) 1.see reference 2.see also reference
    • names of corporate bodies and geographic names (rule 26.3) 1. see reference 2. see also reference 3. explanatory reference (四) uniform title (rule 26.4) 1. see reference 2. see also reference 作業 挑選中西文圖書各十本,並依中國編目規則或英美編目規則編目。(須按標準目片格式,包括追 尋) 參考教材 1.中國圖書館學會分類編目委員會。中國編目規則。修訂二版。臺北市: 中國圖書館學會,民 89 年。 2.中國圖書館學會分類編目委員會,國家圖書館。中國編目規則修訂二版使用手冊。臺北市: 國 家圖書館,民 89 年。 3.陳和琴,吳琉璃,江琇瑛編著。圖書分類編目。臺北縣: 空大,民 85 年。 4.陳和琴等著。資訊組織。臺北縣蘆洲市:國立空中大學,民 92 年。
    • 5.Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. 2nd ed. 2002 Revision. Chicago :American Library Association, 2002. 6.Chan, Lois M. Cataloging and Classification: An Introduction.. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994. 6.Descriptive Cataloging Tutorial <http://www-class.unl.edu/curr921b/1sld006.htm> 7.MARC 21 format for bibliographic data 8.Maxwell, Robert & Margaret Maxwell. Maxwell’s Handbook for AACR2R: Explaining and illustrating the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and 1993 amendments. Chicago: American Library Association, 1997. 9.Piepenburg, Scott. More easy MARC: format integration: a simplified guide to creating catalog records for library automation systems incorporating for integration. Castle Rock, Colo.: F and W Associates, 1996. 10.Taylor, Arlene G.. Wynar’s Introduction to cataloging and classification. 9th ed. Englewood, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited, 2002. 1 Lois Mai Chan. Cataloging and classification: 1n introduction. 2nd ed. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1994. p.33-43. 11