以 ISBD 為基礎。
Chapter 1: 所有資料類型著錄的基本規則。
(defines the 8 areas and prescribed punctuation)
Chapter 2-12: 特定資料類型的著錄規則。
1.1 title and statement of responsibility
2.1 title and statement of responsibility of monographs
3.1 title and statement of responsibility of cartographic materials
Chapter 13: 分析
Chapter 14-20: 空白
Part II: Headings, uniform titles, and references
Uniform titles: authorized form or standardized title
References from forms not used to the authorized form
二、著錄項目的組織(Organization of the Description )
包括八大項目(8 main areas)：
Area 1 Title and statement of responsibility
Area 2 Edition
Area 3 Material (or type of publication)
Area 4 Publication, distribution, etc.
Area 5 Physical description
Area 6 Series
Area 7 Notes
Area 8 Standard number and terms of availability
Chapter 1: General rules for description
1.1 Title and statement of responsibility
1.3 Material(or type of publication)specific details
1.4 Publication, distribution, etc.
1.5 Physical description
1.8 Standard number and terms of availability
Chapter 2: Books, pamphlets, and printed sheets
2.1 Title and statement of responsibility
2.3 Material(or type of publication)specific details
2.4 Publication, distribution, etc.
2.5 Physical description
2.8 Standard number and terms of availability
三、規則的組織結構(Organizational Structure of Rules )
Chapter 1: General Rules for Description
Chapter 2-13: Rules in specific chapters
四、AACR2R：選用規則 Optional additions (or Optionally)或 Alternative rules
例如 Rule 1.1C Optional addition.
1. apply always/never
2. apply case by case
Rule 1.4F5. Optional addition
Rule 22.3C2. Alternative rule
alternative rule 視語言而定。
2.遵行 Chicago Manual of Styles (for style)
3.採用 Webster’s New International Dictionary (for spelling)
6.依編目員的判斷及詮釋(“if appropriate,” “ if necessary”
(1)title and statement of responsibility
9.錯誤 Inaccuracies (1.0F):
wolrd[sic] of television
The Paul Anthony Buck [i.e. Brick]
for headings for persons, places, and corporate bodies (A.2)
for title and statement of responsibility area(A.4)
for edition area (A.5)
for physical description area (A.8)
must follow the rules of abbreviations
11.著錄層次 Levels of Description (Rule 1.0D)
--based on Cutter’s Rules for a Dictionary Catalog
levels: short, medium, full
-- [Based on cataloging agency’s policy]
First level of description(Rule 1.0D1)
statement of responsibility
first publisher, date of publication
extent (only pages)
notes and standard number
access point (title only)
Second level of description (Rule 1.0D2)
--descriptive part may facilitate some
--relationship with other pieces
--all access points
--LC uses level 2 cataloging
Third level of description (Rule 1.0D3)
--for manuscripts, rare books
Area 1: Title and statement of responsibility [MARC field 245]
1.主要著錄來源： Title page
“Substitute” chief source of information:
Cover, Half title page, Caption title, Colophon, Running title, Spine title,
Added title page, Preliminaries
2. Title 的解釋及著錄
general material designation
--names a publication
--recognizes the title (title proper, subtitle…)
--appears on different places (cover, spine, caption)
--recognizes other title,
(1) Title proper
--is the chief name of an item
--includes alternative title
--excludes parallel title and other title
(2)Other title information
--is a term, phrase, or series of characters appearing in conjunction
--with the title proper (include subtitles; exclude variant titles)
--ISBD punctuation preceded by space colon space( : )
(3)title proper 的著錄
--describe the title in exact word order
--and spelling but may change the punctuation and capitalization
--may add punctuation to clarify meaning
--don’t use the punctuation if conflicts with the prescribed punctuation
--document with no title page: use title page substitute and record source of title page
Title from cover.
--titles in another language
--if there is one parallel title, transcribe as it appears and follow the title proper
--ISBD punctuation preceded by the space equal sign space( = )
-- if there are more than two
level 3: record all titles
level 2: record the first one appears and additionally one in English
--if there is a title in other languages but it is not on the title page (e.g., translation), record in the Notes
--is a part of title proper
--one work with two titles, or, 2nd title to same work
--For ISBD punctuation use the word “or” (or its foreign-language equivalent) precede and followed by
--capitalize first letter of alternative title
例如: Slaughterhouse-five, or, The children’s crusade : a duty- dance with death by Kurt
(6)Title and other titles
--For a long title proper or other titles
--must record the first five words of the title
--use the mark of omission to indicate the abridgment ( …)
--Original title: transcribe as other title information if it appears in the title page
Collective title and the titles of individual works (1.1B10)
-- is a title proper that is an inclusive title for an item containing several works
--use collective title as the title proper, give the title of the individual works in the contents note.
例如: Contents: To be not to be / Mrs. Alexander -- Love and peril / the Marquis of Lorne.
--Items without a collective title and no one work predominates
-describe the item as a unit
-transcribe the titles of the individual works in the order in which they appear on the chief source of
information and separate the tiles by “space semi-colon space” ( ; )
例如: Clock symphony : no. 101 ; Surprise symphony : no. 94
3.著者敘述 Statement of responsibility 的說明及著錄
--refers a person or persons
--responsible for creation of intellectual or artistic contents of a work
--may be a single author, multiple authors
--can have many functions of authorship: editor, compiler, illustrator, reproducer, etc.
c.通常記載貴族頭銜(“Sir”, “Dame”, “Lord”, “Lady”)，但 Ph.D.或 Dr.等頭銜不記。 必要時可加字
或片語於著者敘述(to make it clear )
d. ISBD punctuation; preceded by space slash space /
--同一著作方式最多著錄 3 個著者:
例如: Title / edited by P.C. Wason and P.N. Johnson-Laird ; photography by Thomas Wilson and John
--若同一著作方式超過 3 個著者，只著錄第一個著者其餘省略，記以刪節號 及[et al.]。
例如:Title / first author … [et al.].
(二)版本項 Area 2: Edition Area [MARC field 250]
statement of responsibility relating to the edition
statement relating to a named version of an edition
statement of responsibility relating to a named version of an
-- is a term, phrase, or number of characters indicating that an item belongs to an edition (“edition”,
--is defined as the total number of copies of a publication produced from the same master copy by the
例如: 250 World Cup ed.
- alters changes in intellectual content between editions (e.g., rev. ed., illustrated ed., edition in another
2.指定著錄來源 Prescribed source of information
-- title page, other preliminaries, colophon
3.標點符號 ISBD punctuation
-- Preceded by space dash space ( -- )
An edition statement is recorded when:
-- the item carries a formal statement that it belongs to an edition, or, the item belongs to an edition
-- showing significant differences from a previous edition, whether nor not these changes
-- are indicated by a formal statement on the item
-- use abbreviations (Appendix B and C)
edition = ed.
revised = rev.
-- record the edition statement as it appears (the order and original punctuation)
-- use abbreviations in languages of the text
例如: 250 2nd ed., rev. and enlarged.
250 English full ed., 4th international ed.
- everything that stated edition is not necessarily an edition
例如: “Limited edition” “MacMillan edition”
(2)Statement of responsibility in edition statement:
-- identify the person or body responsible for one or more editions, but not for all editions of a work
--ISBD punctuation preceded by _/_
例如: 250 5th ed. / |b by C. Ellis.
250 Facsimile ed. / |b edited, with an introduction, by John Goode.
三、出版項 Area 4: Publication, Distribution, etc. [MARC Field 260]
Area 4: Publication, Distribution, etc.
[MARC field 260]
1) place of publication, distribution, etc.[MARC field 260, subfield |a]
2) name of publisher, distributor, etc.[MARC field 260, subfield |b ]
3) statement of function of publisher, distributor,etc.
4) date of publication, distribution, etc.[MARC field 260, subfield |c]
5) place of manufacture, name of manufacturer, date of manufacture
[MARC field 260, subfield |e, |f, |g]
1.指定著錄來源 Prescribed source of information
Place : publisher ; place : distributor [distributor], date.
-- the term ‘publication, distribution, etc.’ covers all types of publication, distribution, releasing, and
issuing activities connected with library materials.
-- when a person or body combines the activities of publication, distribution, etc. and physical
manufacture, or when it is uncertain whether the person or body is responsible for the publication, etc.
or for the physical manufacture alone, the statement is treated as one relating to publication,
4.出版地 Place of publication, distribution, etc.
(1)標點符號 Preceding punctuation
each subsequent place of publication is preceded by a space, semicolon, space ( ; )
--the place where the item is published, or from which it is distributed, released, etc. as named on the
--the difference between the first named place of publication, etc. and subsequent places is a matter of
--subsequently places may apply to the same publisher as the first, or may apply to another publisher,
-- when there is no place of publication on the item, the abbreviation “S.l.”
例如: 260 New York
260 London ; |a Chicago
260 Washington, D.C.
(3)許多出版地 Multiple places of publication
-- transcribe the first one only if all places are in cataloging agency’s country
-- if places are foreign and domestic, transcribe the one first stated and record the one first named in
one’s cataloging country
-- if one is in prominence then transcribe that one first include the State name when it is printed (see
Abbreviation appendix B)
例如:260 Pleasantville , N.Y. ; |a London : |b Educational Audiovisual, |c 1970.
-- use [ ] if the state name is added for identification
例如: London [Ind.]
-- use square brackets if you supply the place name
-- add question mark for the unsure place
-- use country name only if the country is known
5.出版者、經銷者 Name of publisher, distributor, etc.
(1)標點符號 preceding punctuation
space, colon, space ( : )
-- the name of, or a statement identifying, the person(s) or body (bodies) responsible for publishing,
distributing, releasing, issuing, etc. the item
--record the name of publisher in shortest form
--when no publisher, etc. is named on the item the abbreviation “s.n.” is used.
- when publisher is unknown use printer in ( ) after date
例如: [S.l. : s.n.], 1967 (place : printer, date)
260 London : |b The Library Association
260 Paris : |b Europa Diffusion
260 Berlin : |b [s.n.]
(4)Statement of function of publisher, distributor, etc.
-- preceding punctuation: Square brackets, the first bracket being preceded, and the second followed,
by a space ( [ ] )
-- a term indicating the activity performed by the publisher, distributor, etc.
-- distributor: is company that sells all copies and always record the distributor when it is found on the
例如:260 Chicago : |b Coronet ; |a Bristol : |b Gateway [distributor]
260 New York : |b American Broadcasting Co. [producer] : |b released by Xerox Films
260 London : |b Martin Benson Films [production company] : |b EVR Partnership [distributor]
260 London : |b Macmillan : |b Educational Services [distributor]
6.出版年、經銷年 Date of publication, distribution, etc.
preceding punctuation: comma (,)
-- the date of publication, distribution, release, issuing, etc. of the item being described, as given on that
item, or as supplied when not given on the item.
-- the date is given after the name of the publisher, distributor, etc., to which is relates.
-- when the date applies to both or all publishers, distributors, etc., it is given after the last name.
(3)許多年代(Multiple dates )
1) Publication date
-- the document in the hand is first issued by the publisher in that physical format (not the first
2) Copyright date
-- legal claim for intellectual content; when was the material in this document filed for legal protection
3) Publication date/ Copyright date together
-- if the date is the same, use the publication date
-- if the date is different, transcribe both dates (publication date first)
-- if there are multiple copyright dates, record the most recent one
-- if the copyright is renewed, record the original date
-- if the copyright date appears only, describe that date
4) Printing date
--also called as date of manufacture
-- can assume that date of first printing
-- is probable date of publication
-- use printing date if that is the only date (date of least priority)
5) Uncertain dates
-- if the probable date known [1969?]
-- if the approximate date known [ca. 1960]
-- if the decade known [197-]
-- if the probable decade known [197-?]
-- if the century known [19--]
-- if the century unsure [19--?]
例如: 260 London : |b Methuen, |c 1977.
260 London : |b Educational Records, |c 1973 ; |a Beckenham : |b Edward Patterson [distributor], |
260 New York : |b Williams, |c [1945?]
260 London : |b EMI, |c 1962 [i.e.1971]
7. Place of manufacture
-- the place whether the item is manufactured as named on the item.
--all elements are all enclosed in one set of parentheses,
-- the first parenthesis being preceded, and the second followed, by a space ( )
-- each subsequent place of manufacture is preceded by a space, semi-colon, space.
8. Name of manufacturer
-- the name of the manufacturer is preceded by a space, colon, space ( : )
9. Date of manufacture
(1)定義: the date of manufacture of the item being described, as given on that item
-- the date of manufacture is preceded by a comma, space (, )
例如: 260 [S.l.] : |b [s.n.], |c 1974 |e(Manchester : |f Unity Press)
260 London : |b Chapman and Hall, |c 1876 |e (London : |f Mercury)
260 Harmondsworth : |b Penguin, |c1949 |g (1963 printing)
四、稽核項 Area 5:Physical description [MARC Field 300]
1)extent of item [subfield |a]
2)other physical details [subfield |b ]
3)dimensions [subfield |c]
4)accompanying material [subfield |e]
-- The name of the specific type of material to which the item belongs, and an indication of the number
of pieces in an item, the number of constituent parts (e.g., pages, volumes, sound discs, film reels, etc.)
of an item, etc., consisting of one physical entity, and, for items with a playing time, the duration of the
-- According to ISBD(G), the specialized ISBDs include lists of terms of specific material designations
recommended by the IFLA’s Working Group.
-- National bibliographic agencies will determine the exact terms which are acceptable to their needs
1.標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation
point, space, dash, space(. -- ) or start a new paragraph
2.著錄來源 Source of information:
-- the whole publication
-- Record as either pages or leaves
-- Give the last numbered page/leaf of each numbered sequence
例如: 327 p.
xii, 327 p.
-- Disregard unnumbered sequences (2.5B3) unless such a sequence constitutes the whole or a
substantial part, or referred to in a note
-- Record the estimated number or counted number in square bracket when recording the unnumbered
pages(2.5B3), count and record the page in bracket if less than 100
例如:  p.
, 155 p.
-- record to the nearest 50 if more than 100
例如: ca. 250 p.
8, vii, ca. 300, 73 p.
-- if the number printed on the last page is not the total number of pages, leave uncorrected unless it
gives a completely false impression (2.5B4)
例如: 48 [i.e. 96] p.
-- if the volume has complicated paging
例如:1 v. (various paging)
1 v. (looseleaf)
3 v. (876 p.)
-- if the paging is duplicated (e.g., parallel texts), give both pagings and make a note (2.5B13)
例如: xii, 35, 35 p.
Note: opposite pages bear duplicated numbering
(1)Plates: illustrative material with or without text
-- give pages or leaves of plates at the end of sequence of pagination
-- plates (may/not numbered)
-- own numeric sequence
例如: 300 240 p., 32 p. of plates : |b ill.
300 240 p., 8 leaves of plates : |b ill.
-- always include ill. for plates
-- give the number system which is predominant if the volume contains both leaves and pages
例如: 3 v.
v. (for incomplete publication)
-- Give the continuously paged numbers and preliminary pages of the first volume (2.5B20)
例如: 2 v. (xx, 880 p.)
-- Give alternatively for individually paged set
例如: 2 v. (xvi, 329 p. ; xx, 412 p.)
4.其他稽核細節 Other physical detail
(1)標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation space, colon, space ( : )
Illustration (ill.): intentional inclusion for information drawings, charts,
-- tables are not considered as ill.
-- if the ill. are all of one or more of the following, give the order of : coats of arms, facsimiles, forms,
genealogical table, maps, music, plan, portraits, sample
例如: ill., map, ports.
ill. (some col.)
ISBD preceding punctuation : space, semi-colon, space ( ; )
-- the linear measurements of an item, and/or, in the case of items which require equipment for their
use, dimensions relevant to the use of the item
-- measure the height of publication in centimeter.
-- Measure the binding
例如: 323 p. : |b ill. ; |c 23 cm.
-- round to the highest centimeter
6.附件 Accompanying material statement
(1)標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation
space, plus sign, space ( + )
-- a brief description of any material accompanying the main part(s) of the item being described, and
intended to be used with it
例如: 200 p. : |b ill. ; |c 21 cm. + |e 2 computer disks.
271 p. : b ill. ; |c 21 cm. + |e 1 atlas.
200 p. : |b ill. ; |c 24 cm. + |e 1 user’s manual (20 p. : ill. ; 18 cm.)
-- Or give this element in one of the following ways: make a separate entry , or describe accompanying
material in a note (area 7)
-- describe accompanying material at the multilevel description (see 13.6)
五、集叢項 Area 6: Series
[MARC Field 4XX or 8XX]
1) title proper of series (subfield |a)
2) parallel titles of series
3) other title information of series
4) statements of responsibility relating to series
5) number of part/section (subfield |n)
6) ISSN of series(subfield |x)
7) numbering within series(subfield |v)
8) sub series(subfield |p)
9)more than one series statement,
1.標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation
--is preceded by a point, space, dash, space (. -- ).
--Each series statement is enclosed in parentheses in card catalog
2. 著錄來源 Source of information
(1)series title page
(2) monograph title page
(4)rest of the publication
(1)Title proper of series
-- transcribe the title proper of the series as instructed in 1.1B
--if different forms of the title proper appear, choose the title given in the order of the prescribed
sources for the series.
--Give the other form in the note area
例如: (Britain advances ; 10)
440 0 Britain advances ; |v 10
例如: (Educational progress series ; no. 3)
440 0 Educational progress series ; |v no. 3
(2)Parallel title of series
ISBD preceding punctuation
space, equals sigh, space ( = )
例如: . – (Modern cinema = Cinema moderne)
440 0 Modern cinema = Cinema moderne
(3) Other title information of series
ISBD preceding punctuation
space, colon, space ( : )
-- give other title information only if it provides valuable information identifying the series
例如: (English linguistics, 1500-1750 : a collection of facsimile reprints)
440 0 English linguistics, 1500-1750 : a collection of facsimile reprints
(4) Statement of responsibility relating to series:
ISBD preceding punctuation:
--is preceded by a space, diagonal slash, space ( / ).
--Each subsequent statement is preceded by a space, semi-colon, space ( ; ).
--transcribe statements of responsibility appearing in conjunction with the series title only if they are
considered to be necessary
例如: 440 0 Research monographs / Institute of Economic Affairs
(5) International Standard Serial Number of series
ISBD preceding punctuation
comma, space (, )
-- give the ISSN of a series if it appears
-- give ISSN in standard manner. ISSN followed by a space.
例如:. – (Western Canada series report, ISSN 0317-3127)
440 0 Western Canada series report, |x 0317-3127
(6) Numbering within series
ISBD preceding punctuation
space, semi-colon, space ( ; )
--Give the numbering of the item within the series in the terms given in the item. --Change roman
numerals to arabic numbers.
例如:. – (Russian titles for the specialist, ISSN 0305-3741 ; no. 78)
440 0 Russian titles for the specialist, |x 0305-3741 ; |v no. 78
-- if the parts of a multipart item are separately numbered within a series, give the first and the last
-- Otherwise, give all the number(1.6G2)
例如: (Advances in comparative and environmental physiology ; 23, 24)
440 0 Advances in comparative and environmental physiology ; |v 23, 24
ISBD preceding punctuation
point, space (. )
--describe the chief designation of a sub-series as found on the item. The designation consists of an
enumeration (or letter or other symbolic indication) and/or a title
例如: 440 0 Commonwealth and international library. |p Problems and progress in development
(8)Parallel title of sub-series
Other information of sub-series
Statements of responsibility relating to sub-series
ISSN of sub-series
例如: 440 0 World films. |p Series major, |x 0075-3114
Numbering within sub-series
例如: 440 0 Science. |p Physics ; |v TSP
(9) Series vs. Phrases:
-- if the phrase is essentially an unnumbered statement of the name of the body, reject it as a series.
--Give the phrase as a quoted note if the name is not given in the bibliographic record
例如: “An American Psychological Association publication”
-- if the phrase is essentially a numbered statement of the name, initialism, or part of the name of the
body from which it emanated and that body is not a commercial publisher, record as series statement
例如: 440 0 Buckinghamshire Record Society ; |v no.21
-- if the phrase is essentially a numbered/unnumbered statement of the commercial publisher, reject it
as a series. Give the phrases as a quoted note if not recorded in the bibliographic record
例如: “DAW Books no. 123”
-- do not treat as a series a combination of letters or letters and numbers that cannot be associated with
a series title if there is evidence that the combination is assigned for control purposes. Record the
information as a quoted note.
例如: “UC-13” “SP-MN”
六、附註項 Area 7: Notes
-- contains any descriptive information which has not been given in other areas of the description but
which is considered to be of importance.
-- Notes amplify the formal description and can deal with any aspects of an item.
2. 標點符號 ISBD preceding punctuation:
precede each note by a full stop, space, dash, space (. -- ),or start a new paragraph for each.
3.著錄來源 Source of information:
1.7B1. Nature, scope, or artistic form
1.7B2. Language of item and/or translation or adaptation
1.7B3. Source of title proper
1.7B4. Variations in title
1.7B5. Parallel titles and other title information
1.7B6. Statements of responsibility
1.7B7. Edition and history
1.7B9. Publication, distribution, etc.
1.7B10. Physical description
1.7B11. Accompanying material
1.7B16. Other formats
1.7B20. Copy being described, library’s holdings, and restrictions on use
1.7B21. “With” notes
5.著錄次序 Order of notes(1.7A3):
-- apply the order of description of areas
-- use prescribed punctuation for each area except substitute a full stop for a full stop, space, dash,
例如: Adaptation of: The Great Wall of China.
-- give quotations in quotation marks with indication of its source, unless that source is in the chief
source of information
例如: “A textbook for 6th grade students”—Pref.
7. Formal notes:
例如: Revision of: 2nd ed., 1973.
Adaptation of: Kipps / by H.G. Wells.
8. Informal Notes:
--make a note brief and clear
(1)Nature, scope or artistic form
例如: 500 Two plays.
(2)Language of the item and/or translation or adaptation
例如: 546 Text in Russian.
546 In English, French and German.
500 Translation of selection from:
(3) Source of title proper [MARC field 500]
例如: 500 Cover title.
500 Title from caption.
500 Title from cover.
(4)Variations in title
例如: 500 Cover title: The fair American.
500 Alternative title: Alexandria, Virginia metropolitan area.
500 Original title: King Richard II.
500 Added t.p. in English: Echo.
500 Previously published as: The book of American rankings
(5) Parallel titles and other title information
-- give the title in another language and other title not recorded in the title and statement of
responsibility area if they are to be important
例如: 500 Parallel title in Japanese: Nihon
500 Title on container: The four seasons.
500 At head of title: Popular culture.
500 American ed. published as: Different drummers
(6) Statement of responsibility
--make notes on persons or bodies connected with a work, or significant persons or bodies connected
with previous editions.
例如: 500 “Also attributed to Jonathan Swift”—Introd.
550 Issued by: School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University.
550 Formulated by: Office for Descriptive Cataloging Policy, Library of Congress.
(7) Edition and history
例如: 500 “Based on a series of six broadcast talks broadcast by the BBC”—T.p. verso.
500 “Portion of this book appeared originally in the New Yorker in different form”—T.p. verso.
500 Previous ed. of: Harmondsworth : Penguin, 1950.
500 “College edition”—Cover.
500 “Now revised and updated”—Cover.
500 2nd ed. contains “no additions, no deletions and no corrections” from the 1st ed.
(8) Publication, distribution, etc.
--make notes on publication, distribution, et., details that are not included in the area 4.
例如:500 “Privately printed.”
500 “May 1, 1968.”
500 Updated with quarterly supplements.
500 Published simultaneously in Tokyo.
500 Originally published: London, 1854.
500 Originally published: New York : Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962.
(9) Physical description
-- make notes on important physical details not included in area 5.
例如: 500 Opposite pages bear duplicate numbering.
500 One folded map in pocket.
500 Grade 3 braille.
500 Facsim. on lining papers.
500 Published in large print.
例如: 500 Slides in pocket.
500 Recording mounted on front lining paper.
例如: 500 Originally issued in series: Environmental science series.
500 “A Borzoi book”—T.p. verso.
500 “A Keith Jennison Book.”
500 “A Twentieth Century Fund report.”
500 “Early American collection
例如: 502 Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Toronto, 1974.
502 Thesis (M.A.)--University College, London, 1969.
--note on the intended audience or intellectual level
例如: 500 For 9-12 years olds.
500 Undergraduate text.
(14) Other formats
例如: 530 Issued also as computer file.
530 Issued also as video recording.
(15) Summary (MARC field 520)
--give a brief objective summary of the content
例如: 520 Summary: Kate and Ben follow their rabbit into a haunted house and discover the source of
the house’s ghostly sound.
(16) Contents [MARC field 500, 504, or 505]
例如: 504 Bibliography: p. 859-910.
504 Includes bibliographies (p. 215-223) and index.
504 Includes bibliographical references (p. 175-200).
505 Hail, hail, the gang’s all here – Jigsaw—Fuzz.
--give important numbers borne by the item other than ISBN
例如: 500 Supt.of Docs. no.: HE20.8216:11.
500 “Oceana book number 297-18”—T.p. verso.
(18)Copy being described, library’s holdings, and restriction on use
例如: Library has v. 1, 3-5, and 7.
七、標準號碼項 Area 8: Standard Number and Terms of Availability Area
--developed from the book numbering system started in the UK (in 1967)
-- to identify one title or edition of a title from one specific publisher by number for inventory control
--allows access point
ISBD preceding punctuation:
full stop, space, dash, space (. -- ) or start a new paragraph
precede each repetition of this area by a full stop, space, dash, space. (. -- )
enclose a qualification to the ISSN or terms of availability in parenthesis
2.著錄來源 Source of information:
--do not enclose any information in brackets in this area
3.ISBN: the four parts
(1) group identifier
(2) publisher identifier
(3) title identifier
(4) check digit
-- (always 10 digits in length)
例如: ISBN 0-8247-8493-6
--give the one that applies to the item
-- optionally, give more than one number and add a qualification
-- give a number for a complete set before the number for the part
例如: 020 0379005506 (set).
020 0379005514 (v. 1)
020 0435916602 (pbk.)
020 038708262 (U.S.)
020 1563088576 (pbk.)
245 10 Wynar's introduction to cataloging and classification
246 30 Introduction to cataloging and classification
250 9th ed. /|bArlene G. Taylor ; with the assistance of David
260 Englewood, Colo. :|bLibraries Unlimited,|c2000
300 xv, 552 p. :|bill. ;|c24 cm
440 0 Library and information science text series
504 Includes bibliographical references (p. 511-530) and index
款目(Entry):指目錄中某一編目物件的記錄。( A record of an item in a catalogue)。檢索款目即
檢索點(Access Point) :指書目記錄中用以查尋及辨識的名稱、用詞及代碼等。(A name, term,
code, etc., under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified)
標目(Heading): 指目錄款目中作為檢索點而置於目片頂端的名稱、字句或片語。(A name,
word, or phrase placed at the head of a catalogue entry to provide an access point.)
AACR2R, Part II. Headings, Uniform titles, and References
1. access points for main and added entries (chapter 21)
2. rules for name headings (chapter 22-24): persons, geographic names, corporate bodies
3. uniform titles (chapter 25)
4. references (chapter 26)
1.Access Points (AACR2r)
A name, term, code, etc., under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified
包括: names of person (author, editor, compiler, translator, illustrator, other related person)；names of
corporate bodies (society, institution, association)； names of places；titles；names of series；
subject: subject headings, classification codes
Cutter: entry is the registry of a book in the catalogue
AACR2r: entry is a record of an item in a catalogue
3. Main Entry
Cutter and 1908 Joint Code: defined as the full or principal entry (called as main entry card; unit card)
AACR2r: main entry is the complete catalogue record of an item, presented in form by which the entity
is to be uniformly identified and cited
An entry, additional to the main entry, by which an item is represented in a catalogue or secondary
A name, word, or phrase placed at the head of a catalogue entry to provide an access point
-- is needed to create catalogue entries (as main entry heading)
-- is a work’s standardized access point
-- refers to identifying the work by means of a standardized uniform title or name-title access points
What is an author?
Author, in the narrow sense, is the person who writes a book; in a wider sense, it may be applied to him
who is the cause of the book’s existence by putting together the writings of several authors. (usually
called the editor, more properly to be called the collector). Bodies of men(societies, cities, legislative
bodies, countries) are to be considered the authors of their memoirs, transactions, journals, debates,
The writer of a book, as distinguished from translator, editor, etc.
By extension, an artist, composer, photographer, cartographer, etc.
In the broader sense, the maker of the work or the person or body immediately responsible for its
existence. Thus a person who collects and puts together the writings of several authors (compiler or
editor) may be said to be the authors of a collection. Corporate bodies may be considered the authors of
publications issued in their name or by their authority
By author is meant the person or corporate body chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual
or artistic contents of a work. Thus composers, artists, photographers, etc., are the authors of the works
they create; chess players are authors of their recorded games; etc. The term “author” also embraces an
editor or compiler who has primary responsibility for the content of a work, e.g., the compiler of a
Author see Personal author
--The person chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work.
--An organization of group of persons that is identified by a particular name and that acts, or may act,
as an entity. Typical examples of corporate bodies are association, institutions, business firms,
nonprofit enterprises, governments, government agencies, religious bodies, local churches, and
三、檢索點的選擇(AACR2R Chapter 21)
(一)主要款目的類型 Types of main entry
Personal name main entry:
-- single personal author
-- multiple authors
-- mixed responsibility
Corporate body main entry:
Title main entry:
Rule 21.1A. Works of personal authorship
Choice of main entry based on the conditions of authorship:
-- works with a single authorship
-- works for unknown or uncertain authorship
-- works of shared responsibility (collaboration between two or more persons or corporate bodies
performing the same kind of activity in the creation of the content)
-- collections and works produced under editorial direction
-- works of mixed responsibility (collaborations between two or more by performing different kinds of
activities; modifications or adaptations of other works or new works where individual make different
Rule 21.4A. Works of a single personal authorship
-- enter a work by one personal author under the heading for that person(21.4A1) whether named in the
item being catalogued or not.
Rule 21.4C. Works erroneously or fictitiously attributed to a person or corporate body.
-- enter under the actual personal author
-- or under title if the actual personal author is not known.
-- make an added entry under the heading for the person to whom the authorship is attributed, unless
he/she is not a real person. Make an added entry under title.
例如: The hums of Pooh / by Winnie the Pooh
(Written by A.A.Milne)
ME: under the heading for Milne
AE: Hums of Pooh
Rule 21.5 Works of unknown or uncertain authorship
-- enter under the probable personal author. If reference sources indicate that a person is the probable
author of such a work, enter the heading for that person or body. And make added entries under title.
-- enter under the characterizing word of phrase of authorship: if the name of a personal author is
unknown and in the chief source of information of the item being catalogued the only indication of
authorship is the appearance of a characterizing work or phrase.
-- make an added entry under title.
例如: Memoir of Bowman Hendry … / by a Physician.
AE: Memoir of Bowman Hendry
Rule 21.6 Works of shared responsibility
a) works produced by the collaboration of two or more persons
b) works for which different persons have prepared separate contributions
c) works consisting of an exchange between two or more persons (e.g., correspondence, debates)
d) works falling into one of more of the categories given in 21.1B2 that emanate from two or more
corporate bodies if the principal responsibility is attributed, enter under the heading for that person or
Rule 21.6B Make added entries under the heading for other persons involved if there are nor more than
-- if the principal responsibility is not indicated, enter under the heading for the one named first. Make
added entries under the heading for the others.
Rule 21.6D. Shared pseudonyms
-- if two or more persons collaborate and use a single pseudonym, use the pseudonym as the heading
for a work produced by their collaboration.
例如: Deadly weapon / Wade Miller
(Wade Miller is the joint pseudonym of Bill Miller and Bob Wade)
ME: Miller, Wade
--refer to the pseudonym from their names (see 26.2C1).
--If headings for one or more of the persons are also established in the catalogue, refer also from the
pseudonym to those headings.
例如: reference to the pseudonym from Bill Miller (see)
reference from the pseudonym to the heading for Bob Wade (see also)
Rule 21.8 Works of mixed responsibility
-- refer to activities of writing, adapting, illustrating, editing, arranging, translating, e.g., adaptations,
translations, musical arrangements
Rule 21.10 Adaptations of texts
-- enter a paraphrase, rewriting, adaptation for children, or version in a different literary form(e.g.,
novelization, dramatization) under the heading for the adapter.
-- enter under the title if the name of the adapter is unknown
-- make a name-title added entry for the original.
-- enter under the heading for the original work in case of doubt whether a work is an adaptation
Rule 21.11A Illustrated texts
-- enter under the heading to the text
-- make added entries under the heading for the illustrator if appropriate under the provision of
21.30K2. (if the illustrator’s name is given prominence; illustrations more than half; considered as an
important feature of the work)
Rule 21.11B Illustrations published separately
-- enter the heading for the artist.
-- make a name-title added entry for the work(s) illustrated if there are not more than three.
Rule 21.12 Revisions of texts
-- (revised, enlarged, updated)
Rule 21.12A. Original author considered responsible
-- enter under the heading for the original author if the original author is named in a statement of
responsibility, or the original author is named in the title proper and no other person is named in a
statement of responsibility or other title information.
-- make added entry under the heading for the reviser.
-- enter an abridgment of work under the heading for the original author.
-- make added entry under the heading for abridger.
Rule 21.12B. Original author no longer considered responsible
-- enter under the heading for the reviser or under title, if the wording of the chief source of information
indicated that the original author is no longer considered responsible for the work.
-- make a name-title added entry under the heading for the original author and title. Make added entry
under the title.
Rule 21.14A. Translations
-- enter main entry under the heading appropriate to the original.
-- make an added entry under the heading for the translator if appropriate under the provisions of
a) the translation is in verse
b) the translation is important in its own right
c) the work has been translated into the same language more than once
d) the working of the chief source of information of the item being catalogued implies that the
translator is the author
e) the main entry heading may be difficult for catalogue users to find (e.g., as with many oriental and
Rule 21.15. Texts published with biographical /critical material
-- if a work consisting of a work or works by a writer accompanied by (or interwoven with)
biographical or critical material by another person is presented in the chief source of information of the
item being cataloged as a biographical/critical work, enter it as such (see 21.1-21.7).
-- make an added entry under the heading appropriate to the work or works included.
例如: Life and letters of Mrs. Jason Lee … / by Theressa Gay
ME: the heading for Gay
AE: heading for Lee
-- if the biographer/critic is represented as editor, compiler, etc., enter under the heading appropriate to
-- make an added entry under the heading for the biographer/critic.
例如: Life and letters of Catharine M. Sedgwick / edited by Mary E. Dewey
ME: under the heading for Sedgwick
AE: heading for Dewey
Rule 21.24. Collaboration between artist and writer
-- enter under the heading for the one who is named first in the chief source of information unless the
other’s name is given greater prominence.
-- make an added entry under the heading for the other one.
Rule 21.25. Reports of interviews or exchanges
-- enter the heading under the participant: if a report is essentially confined to the words of the
person(s) interviewed or of the participants in an exchange (other than the reporter), enter under the
principal participant, participant named first in the chief source of information, or enter under title as
instructed in 21.6.
-- make an added entry under the heading for the reporter if he/she is named prominently.
例如: My wartime experiences in Singapore / Mamoru Shinozaki ; interviewed by Lim Yoon Lin
ME: under heading for Shinozaki
AE: heading for Lin AE: title
-- enter under the heading for the reporter if a report is to a considerable extent in the words of the
-- make added entries under the headings for the other persons involved.
Rule 21.1C. Title main entry
Enter under the title proper, or, when appropriate uniform title :
-- if the personal authorship is unknown (see 21.5) or diffuse (see 21.6C2), or
-- if the work does not emanate from a corporate body(see 21.1B)
-- if the work is a collection or works by different persons and bodies (see 21.7)
-- if the work emanates from a corporate body but does not fall into any of the categories given in
21.1B2 and is not of personal authorship
-- if the work is accepted as sacred scripture by a religious group (see 21.37)
-- if a work is of unknown or uncertain personal authorship or if it emanates from a body that lacks a
-- if such a work has been attributed to one or more persons or bodies, either in editions of the work or
in reference sources, make added entries under the heading for these persons or bodies
Rule 21.6C2. Title main entry (continued…)
-- if responsibility is shared among more than three persons or bodies and principal responsibility is not
attributed to any one
-- make an added entry under the heading for the first person or body name named prominently in the
item being catalogued
例如: Texas country / Willie Nelson … [et al.]
ME: under title
AE: under the heading for Nelson
Rule 21.7. Collections of works by different persons or bodies
a) collections of independent works by different persons or bodies
b) collections consisting of extracts from independent works by different person or bodies
c) works consisting partly or independent works and partly of contributions by different persons or
Rule 21.7B. Enter under title: with collective title
-- enter a work under the title if it has a collective title.
-- make added entries under the heading for the compilers/editors if there are not more than three and
例如:The Hamish Hamilton book of giants / edited by William Mayne
ME: under the title
AE: the heading for Mayne
Rule 21.7C. Without collective title
-- enter under the heading to the first work named in the chief source of information if the item lacks a
-- make added entries for editors/compilers and for the other works.
例如:In praise of older woman / Stephen Vizinczey. Feramontov/ Desmond Cory.
ME: under the heading for Vizinczey
AE (name-title): under heading for Cory
Rule 21.1C1. Enter a work under its title proper or, when appropriate, uniform title:
-- if it emanates from a corporate body but does not fall into any of the categories given in 21.1B2 and
is not of personal authorship
-- make added entries under the headings for prominently name corporate bodies as instructed in
Rule 21.29-21.30. Added entries
Access points not chosen as the main entry:
-- Collaborators (up to three), if there are more than three, make added entry under the one name first
-- Writers (prominently named) if the main entry is under the heading for another person or a corporate
--Editors and compilers(prominently named)
--Translators (certain cases only)
--Illustrators (certain cases only)
-- Other related persons or bodies (e.g., a museum where the exhibition is held)
Rule 21.28B1. Related works (e.g., continuations and sequels, supplement, indexes, etc.)
Rule 21.30L. Series
Rule 21.30J. Added entries: titles
-- make an added entry under the title proper of every item entered under a personal heading, a
corporate heading, or a uniform title unless:
a) the title proper is essentially the same as the main entry heading or a reference to that heading
b) the title proper has been composed by the cataloguer
c) in a catalogue in which name-title and subject entries are interfiled, the title proper is identical to a
subject heading assigned to the work or a direct reference to that subject headings
d) a conventionalized uniform title has been used as the uniform title for a musical work (see 25.25-35)
-- make an added entry for any version of the title (e.g., cover, caption, running title) if considered
Rule 21.1B. Entry under corporate body
- enter a work emanating from one or more corporate bodies under the
heading for the appropriate body (see 21.4B, 21.5B) if it falls into one
or more of the following categories:
a) those of an administrative nature dealing with the corporate body itself
or its internal policies, procedure, finances, and/or operations or its
officers, staff, and/or membership (e.g., directories) or it resources
(e.g., catalogues, inventories)
b) some legal, governmental, and religious works of the following types:
decrees of the chief executive that have the force of law (see 21.31)
court rules (see 21.34)
treaties, etc. (see 21.34)
court decisions (see 21.36)
religious laws(e.g., canon law)
liturgical works(see 21.39)
c) those that record the collective thought of the body (e.g., reports of commissions, committees, etc.
official statements of position on external policies)
d) those that report the collective activity of a conference (e.g., proceedings, collected papers), of an
expedition (e.g., result of exploration, investigation). Or of an event(e.g., an exhibition, fair, festival).
The conference, expedition, or event is prominently named in the item being catalogued
e) those that result from the collective activity of a performing group as a whole where the
responsibility of the group goes beyond that of mere performance, execution, etc.
Publications resulting from such activity include sound recordings, films, video recordings, and written
records of performances.
f) cartographic materials emanating from a corporate body other than a body that is merely responsible
for their publication or distribution.
In case of doubt about whether a work falls into one or more of these categories, treat it as if it does
--in some cases of shared responsibility and mixed responsibility, enter such a work under the headings
for the corporate body named first.
--make added entries as instructed in 21.29-21.30.
Rule 21.4D1. Official communications
-- enter a work that falls into one of the following categories under the
corporate heading for the official.
a) an official communication from ahead of state, head of government, or head
of an international body e.g., a message to a legislature, a proclamation, etc.
b) an official communication from a pope, patriarch, bishop, etc. (e.g., an order, pastoral letter, etc.)
--make an added entry under the personal heading for the person.
例如:New York City at war : emergency services : report / by F.H. La Guardia, mayor.
ME: under the corporate heading for La Guardia as mayor
AE: under the personal heading for La Guardia
Rule 21.4D1. Official communications (continued…)
-- enter a communication that merely accompanies and transmits a documents under the heading for the
document that it accompanies.
-- make an added entry under corporate heading for the transmitting official.
-- enter a collection of official communications of more than one holder of one of the offices listed in a)
and b) above under the heading for the office. Make an added entry under the heading for a compiler
-- enter all other works of such a person under the personal heading.
四、人名標目 Headings for persons
(一)個人名稱的選擇 Choice of Name
1. Rigid approach (Pre-AACR):
-- heading based on the person’s real name or official name
例如: Clemens, Samuel Langhorne (not Twain, Mark)
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
2. Relaxed approach (AACR):
-- heading based on author’s name as it appears in the author’s books
(1) AACR (1967):
-- heading based on Paris principle, modified rigid approach
-- allowed only one personal name’s heading
-- based on commonly known name in the author’s work in his/her own language
(2) AACR2 (1978):
-- heading based on predominant form, but allowed multiple headings for the same person in limited
(3) AACR2r (1988):
-- some major changes: allows multiple headings for the same person
Rule 22.2B2 Separate bibliographic identity
-- if a person has established two or more bibliographic identities, as indicated by the fact that works of
one type appear under one pseudonym and works of other types appear other pseudonyms or the
person’s real name, choose, as the basis for the heading for each group of works, the name by which
works in that group are identified. Make references to connect the names.
例如:Day Lewis, C (Cecil)
Rule 22.2B3 Contemporary authors
-- if contemporary author uses more than one pseudonym or his/her real name and one of more
pseudonyms, use, as the basis for the heading for each work, the name appearing in it. And make
references to connect the names. (see 26.2C 26.2D)
-- if, different names appear in different editions of the same work or two or more names appear in one
edition, choose, for all editions, the name most frequently used in editions of the work. If that cannot be
determined readily, choose the name appearing in the latest available edition of the work. Make name-
title references from the other name or names. (see 26.2B1)
(pseudonyms used by the same person, Ed McBain)
Search also under: Hunter, Evan
The rising tide / M.J. Farrell
(the later edition published under the name Molly Keane)
Use Molly Keane as a heading
The rising tide
Search under: Keane, Molly
-- determine commonly known name from the chief source of information of works by that person
issued in his or her language.
-- If the person works in nonverbal context (e.g., a painter, a sculptor) or is not known primarily as an
author, determine the name by which he or she is commonly known from reference sources issued in
his or her language or country of residence or activity. (22.1B)
-- in general, choose, as the basis of the headings for a person the name by which he or she is
commonly known. This may be the person’s real name, pseudonyms, title of nobility, nickname,
initials, or other appellation. Treat a roman numeral associated with given name as part of that name.
例如: William Shakespeare
Jimmy Carter (not James Earl Carter)
H.D. (not Hilda Doolittle)
-- include any titles of nobility or terms of honour or words or phrases that commonly appear in
association with the name. Includes diacritical marks and hyphens
例如: Sister Mary Joseph
(三)不同名稱的選擇 Choice among Different Names
1. Predominant Name:
-- if the person is known by several names (22.2A1):
choose the name by which the person is clearly most commonly known, if there is one.
-- Otherwise, choose…according to the following order of preference:
a) the name that appears most frequently in the person’s work,
b) the name that appears most frequently in reference sources,
c) the latest name
2. Pseudonyms (22.2B)
-- if the person is known by pseudonyms, enter under the pseudonyms
--make reference from the real name (if known) to the pseudonym
3.Change of Name(22.2C)
-- enter under the latest name (except the earlier name is better known)
(四)同一名稱不同形式的選擇 Choice among Different Forms of the Same
1. Spelling (22.3D):
The same name may be spelled in more than one way, and a decision should be made. The basis for
choice is official orthography or predominant spelling
a) choose the form most commonly found
b) make reference from the other forms
c) if no form predominates, choose the latest form
d) choose the fuller or fullest form in case of doubt
3. Choice among different languages (22.3B)
-- if the person’s name appear in different language forms,
a) choose the form corresponding to language of most of the works.
b) in case of doubt, choose the form most commonly found in reference source of the person’s country
or residence or activity
4. Names in vernacular and Greek or Latin forms
-- choose the form most commonly found in reference sources
5. Names written in the roman alphabet and established in an English form
-- choose the English form of name for a person entered under given name if the person’s name is well
established in English form in reference sources.
(五)款目要素 Entry Element
General rule: Select the entry element based on (22.4):
Authoritative alphabetical lists (Who’s Who type sources) in his/her language or country of residence
2. Entry under Surname (22.5)
例如: Hemingway, Ernest
3. Name in Compound Surnames (22.5C)
-- consisting two or more proper names under the preferred or established form if known
例如: Lloyd George, David
refer from elements of compound surnames not chosen as the entry element
George, David Lloyd
Search under: Lloyd George, David
4. Entry under Hyphenated Surnames (22.5C3)
Enter under the first element
5. Entry under Compound Surnames. Married Woman(22.5C5)
Enter under the husband’s surname first
Enter the first element of the compound surname (in Czech, French, Hungarian, Italian, or Spanish)
6. Entry under Surname with separately written prefixes (22.5D)
-- enter under the element most commonly used as entry element in reference sources in the person’s
language or country of residence or activity
例如:De la Mare, Walter
De Morgan, Augustus
7. Entry under Title of Nobility (22.6A1)
-- Enter under the proper name in the title of nobility by personal name in direct order and the term of
rank in the vernacular.
例如: Byron, George Gordon Byron, Baron
8. Entry under Given Name (22.8)
-- Enter a name that does not include a surname and that is borne by a person who is not identified by a
title of nobility under the part of the name
-- under which the person is listed in reference sources.
-- Precede such associated words or phrases by a comma.
例如: Vinci, Leonado da
Search under: Leonado, da Vinci
9. Entry under Initials, Letters, or Numerals (22.10A)
-- Include any words or phrases associated with.
-- In case of initials or letters, make a name-title reference from an inverted form beginning with the
last letter for each item catalogued.
By Avon River
Search under: H.D.
10. Entry under Phrases (22.11A)
-- Enter in direct order a name that consists of a phrase or appellation that does not contain a forename
-- Make a references from the forename followed by the initial word(s)
Search under: Dr. X
Search under: Poor Richard
11. Entry under Phrase naming another work (22.11D)
-- Enter a characterizing word or phrase or a phrase naming another work by a person, in direct order.
-- Omit initial article
-- Refer, when appropriated, for the title of the other work in the from
例如: Author of A monstrous good lounge
A Monstrous good lounge, Author of
Search under: Author of A monstrous good lounge
12. Additions to Names (22.12-22.16)
(1)Titles of nobility
Diana, Prince of Wales
Add British terms of honour (Sir, Dame, Lord, or Lady) commonly
appears with the name in the person’s work
Hepworth, Barbara, Dame
Add Saint after the name of a Christian saint Teresa, of Avila, Saint
(3) Add the word or phrase associated with the surname
Search under: Seuss, Dr.
(4) Add to the name of the person with the highest royal status within a state or people, a phrase
consisting of a person’s title and the name of the state or people in English
例如:Elizabeth I, Queen of England
(五)獨特性標目的原則 Principle of Unique Heading
1. Add the dates (rule 22.17)
例如: Smith, John, 1924-
Smith, John, b. 1825
2. Use fuller forms of the name (rule22.18)
例如: Smith, Russell E. (Russell Eugene)
Smith, Russell E. (Russell Edgar)
3. Use of distinguishing terms (rule 22.19)
例如: Smith, John, soldier
Smith, John, captain
(一)名稱的選擇 Choice of Name (Rule 24.1)
1. commonly known
2. name change
-- a new heading is established to be used in cataloging works issued by the body under that name
(二)名稱形式的選擇 Choice of Form
1. principle of uniform heading
2. fullness of name (rule 24.2-24.3)
3. conventional form in common use
4. spelling (rule 24.2C)
5. language( rule 24.3)
6. modifications (rule 24.4-24.11)
(三)款目要素的選擇(Choice of entry element)
1. enter under its own name
例如:University of Pennsylvania
2.subordinate and related bodies (rule 24.12-24.13)
--entered under its own name, with the exception of six types of subordinate and related bodies (rule
例如:University of Illinois. Library.
Electrochemical Society. Electronics Division.
3.direct or indirect subheading (rule 24.14)
(1) Direct subheading
例如:American Library Association. Reference Tools Advisory Committee.
Hierarchy: American Library Association
Reference and Adult Services Division
Reference Tools Advisory Committee.
(2) Indirect subheading
例如:American Library Association. Reference and Adult Services Division. History Section.
Bibliography and Indexes Committee.
Hierarchy: American Library Association.
Reference and Adult Services Division.
Bibliography and Indexes Committee.
1. Conference congresses, meetings, etc. (rule 24,7)
name of conference (number if any : date : place or institution)
2. Governments and government bodies (rule 24.3E, 24.6, 24.17-24.26)
例如:United States (not United States of America)
-- adding the name of larger place and/or a type-of-jurisdiction qualifier
Veracruz (Mexico : State)
3. Government officials (rule 24.20)
(1) Heading for government. Title of the office
例如: Chicago(Ill.). Mayor
(2) Heading for government. Title of the office (inclusive years of the reign : name of person in brief
例如:United States. President (1961-1963 : Kennedy)
例如: Catholic Church. Pope (1978- : John Paul II)
1. Individual uniform titles:
-- are used to bring together in the catalog different manifestations of a work that has been issued under
more than one title and to distinguish between different works that have been issued under identical
2. Collective uniform titles
-- are used to provide a common access point for editions of an individual's complete works and for
works consisting of selections of an individual's works that lack a distinctive title of their own.
1. Individual uniform titles for works created after 1500 (general)
(1) Works issued with variant titles (except revised editions)
--create a uniform title for the work based on the best known version or, lacking that, on the earliest
edition. If the different versions are published simultaneously in the same language use the title of the
U.S. edition as the uniform title. (Cf. AACR2 25.3)
(2) Works issued with variant titles (revised editions
-- If a revised edition of a work is issued in the same language with a different title do not use a
uniform title for the work being cataloged. Instead, make an added entry for the earlier version, either
author/uniform title or uniform title as appropriate. (Cf. AACR2 25.2B)
-- Make a uniform title in the original language for translations. Add the language of the
translation (Cf. 25.5C1).
(4) Works issued simultaneously with titles in more than one language
-- These are not considered translations since an original language cannot be determined. If a
work in this category is entered under a corporate body, use as a uniform title the title in the
language in which the corporate body is established. [Cf. AACR2 25.3C2]
2. Individual uniform titles for works created before 1500 (general)
-- Uniform titles for these works are generally created in the original language by which they
are identified in modern sources. However, for Greek titles, an English or Latin uniform title is
sometimes preferred. For anonymous works written neither in Greek nor in roman script use
an established English title if there is one. See AACR2 25.4 for guidance in specific cases.
3. Collective uniform titles for works by a single person
-- Use uniform title "Works" and add date of publication. To distinguish between editions of
complete works issued in the same year add the name of the publisher after the date [AACR2
--"Use the collective title 'Selections' for items consisting of three or more works in various
forms, or in one form if the person created works in one form only, and for items consisting of
extracts, etc. from the works of one person" [AACR2 25.9]
-- Add date of publication. To distinguish between editions published in the same year add the
name of the publisher after the date
4. Special rules for the Bible (rule 25.17-25.18A)
Bible. [O.T. or N.T.]. [individual book or group of books]. [language]. [version]. [year].
e.g. Bible. N.T. Luke. English. New English. 1965
2.See also reference
personal name headings(rule 26.2)
2.see also reference
names of corporate bodies and geographic names (rule 26.3)
1. see reference
2. see also reference
3. explanatory reference
(四) uniform title (rule 26.4)
1. see reference
2. see also reference
1.中國圖書館學會分類編目委員會。中國編目規則。修訂二版。臺北市: 中國圖書館學會，民 89
家圖書館，民 89 年。
3.陳和琴，吳琉璃，江琇瑛編著。圖書分類編目。臺北縣: 空大，民 85 年。
4.陳和琴等著。資訊組織。臺北縣蘆洲市：國立空中大學，民 92 年。
5.Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. 2nd ed. 2002 Revision. Chicago :American Library Association,
6.Chan, Lois M. Cataloging and Classification: An Introduction.. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.
6.Descriptive Cataloging Tutorial <http://www-class.unl.edu/curr921b/1sld006.htm>
7.MARC 21 format for bibliographic data
8.Maxwell, Robert & Margaret Maxwell. Maxwell’s Handbook for AACR2R: Explaining and
illustrating the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and 1993 amendments. Chicago: American Library
9.Piepenburg, Scott. More easy MARC: format integration: a simplified guide to creating catalog
records for library automation systems incorporating for integration. Castle Rock, Colo.: F and W
10.Taylor, Arlene G.. Wynar’s Introduction to cataloging and classification. 9th ed. Englewood, Colo. :
Libraries Unlimited, 2002.
1 Lois Mai Chan. Cataloging and classification: 1n introduction. 2nd ed. New York : McGraw-Hill,