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1. 研究背景及動機

350 年前,歐登堡(Henry Oldenburg) 建立的學術...
Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (IMSc) 是印度一家重要的研究機構,

Consider this for instance: Recently Infochange reporte...
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  1. 1. 緒論 ��.1研究背景及動機 ��.2研究目的 ��.3研究方法 ��.4研究範圍與限制 ��.5名詞解釋 1. 研究背景及動機 350 年前,歐登堡(Henry Oldenburg) 建立的學術傳播系統,已陷入危機,即使最富裕的圖書館 也不可能購置所有的學術文獻。 1665 年,歐登堡創建英語世界第一個學術期刊 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 樹立同儕評閱(peer-to-peer)的方法。 出版社要求作者轉讓著作權之後,才願意在學刊發表其論文。 付費才能取得網際網路的學術文獻,本身就是荒謬的事。為了影響力而不是收入,作者才寫 作。10/90 gap, 祗有 3% 的研究內容與開發中國家有關 學刊價格上漲,形成圖書館學的期刊危機。過去三十年來,美國的學刊價格上漲幅度是物價的 六倍,健康保險的二倍半。在化學和物理學領域的期刊,1975 年的平均售價是 79 美元,2005 年的平均售價漲為 1,880 美元。 Library budgets, open access, and the future of scholarly communication: Transformations in academic publishing / by David W. Lewis, C&RL News, May 2008, Vol. 69, No. 5, 同一時間,圖書館的預算並沒有等比例上揚。據估計,全球有 23,700 種同儕評閱學刊,每年刊 登 160 萬篇論文,總值約 500 億美元左右。 Activities, costs and funding flows in the scholarly communications system in the UK : Report commissioned by the Research Information Network (RIN) : Full Report / Research Information Network in association with Publishing Research Consortium(PRL), Society of College, National and University Libraries(SCONUL), Research Libraries UK(RLUK). -- 88 p. -- May 2008,
  2. 2. Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (IMSc) 是印度一家重要的研究機構, Consider this for instance: Recently Infochange reported that that total annual budget for one of the premier scientific institutes in India, the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (IMSc), is currently around Rs 13.3 crore, of which Rs 2.55 crore is spent subscribing to academic journals. "Around 55% of this Rs 2.55 crore is paid to the two largest publishing companies — Reed-Elsevier and Springer — for the privilege of receiving a selection of the journals that they publish." In other words, Infochange pointed out, "more than 10% of the total budget for IMSc (more than the entire budget for faculty salaries) is paid directly to these two multi-national companies." We should add that while for the developing world this is a historic problem (and comparable to the problems it faces in providing researchers with labs) for the West it is a relatively new problem — although as we say, one that means even the wealthiest institutions in the world are now struggling to cope. What we learn from all this is that the scholarly communication system created by Oldenburg was now broken, and the future development of science compromised as a result. "Knowledge for all," By Nick Gill, InfoChange India News & Features development news India - Knowledge for all, June 23, 2008, ��.1研究目的 ��.2研究方法 ��.3研究範圍與限制 ��.4名詞解釋