Chapter 3: Earth-Sun Relationships and Solar Energy Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L...
3.1 Solar System and Beyond <ul><li>Galaxy: enormous cluster of stars, dust, and gases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our sun is o...
3.1 Solar System and Beyond <ul><li>Solar System </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity: attractive force one body has on another </li>...
3.1 Solar System and Beyond <ul><li>Our solar system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites (earth’s moons) </li></ul></ul><ul><...
3.1 Solar System and Beyond <ul><li>The Planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial: 4 closest to the sun </li></ul></ul><ul...
Comparison of the Planets
3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Sun and its Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermonuclear fusion powers the sun </li></ul></...
3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Solar wind: directed toward the magnetic poles. </li></ul><ul><li>This forms an aurora </...
Aurora Borealis
3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Sunspots: intensity of solar winds </li></ul><ul><li>Next cycle should peak around the ye...
3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Solar Energy and Atmospheric Dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>energy emitted from the sun i...
3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Movements of Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galactic movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rot...
3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth turns eastward  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countercl...
Circle of Illumination
3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly elliptical orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clo...
3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Plane of the ecliptic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth is titled at 23.5 degrees.  </li></ul><...
3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>Insolation: Solar radiation received by Earth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main ...
3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>Direct rays at 23.5 o  N </li></ul><ul><li>Direct rays at equator </li></ul>
3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>The Seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer Solstice (~ June 21) in N. hemisp...
3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>The Seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter Solstice (~ Dec. 21) in N. hemisp...
The Seasons (Focus on Solstices)
The Seasons (Focus on Equinox)
Duration of daylight for certain Latitudes
3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>Sun’s declination: Latitude at which the sun is directly overhead </li></u...
3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>Variations of Insolation with Latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Zone...
Ancient Civilizations (Mayan Pyramid)
Physical Geography End of Chapter 3: Earth-Sun Relationships and Solar Energy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

3

522

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
522
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
17
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Insert Figure 3.1
  • Insert Figure 3.2
  • Insert Figure 3.3
  • Insert Figure 3.3
  • Insert Table 3.1
  • Insert Figure 3.4
  • Insert Figure 3.5 and 3.6
  • Insert Table 3.7
  • Insert Figure 3.8
  • Insert Figure 3.9
  • Insert Figure 3.10
  • Insert Figure 3.11
  • Insert Table 3.12
  • Insert Figure 3.13
  • Insert Figure 3.14
  • Insert Figure 3.15
  • Insert Figure 3.15 and 3.16
  • Insert Figure 3.17
  • Insert Figure 3.18
  • Insert Table 3.2
  • Insert Figure 3.19
  • Insert Figure 3.20
  • Insert Table 3.2
  • 3

    1. 1. Chapter 3: Earth-Sun Relationships and Solar Energy Physical Geography Ninth Edition Robert E. Gabler James. F. Petersen L. Michael Trapasso Dorothy Sack
    2. 2. 3.1 Solar System and Beyond <ul><li>Galaxy: enormous cluster of stars, dust, and gases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our sun is one of billions of stars within the Milky way Galaxy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other than the sun, our nearest star is 4.2 light years away </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. 3.1 Solar System and Beyond <ul><li>Solar System </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity: attractive force one body has on another </li></ul><ul><li>Mass: the greater the mass, the greater the gravitational pull. </li></ul><ul><li>Planet: celestial body in orbit of the sun, with sufficient gravitational attraction to overcome rigid forces and remain nearly spherical. </li></ul>
    4. 4. 3.1 Solar System and Beyond <ul><li>Our solar system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellites (earth’s moons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous asteroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comet: head (collection of solid fragments held together by ice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteors: small stonelike, or metallic bodies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meteorite: meteor that survives the fall through our sky. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 3.1 Solar System and Beyond <ul><li>The Planets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial: 4 closest to the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid surfaces </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas Planets: 4 furthest from sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Huge balls of gas and liquid </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Comparison of the Planets
    7. 7. 3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Sun and its Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermonuclear fusion powers the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 hydrogen atoms fuse together to form 1 helium atom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corona </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. 3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Solar wind: directed toward the magnetic poles. </li></ul><ul><li>This forms an aurora </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern lights (Aurora Borealis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern lights (Aurora Australis) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Aurora Borealis
    10. 10. 3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Sunspots: intensity of solar winds </li></ul><ul><li>Next cycle should peak around the year 2012. </li></ul>
    11. 11. 3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Solar Energy and Atmospheric Dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>energy emitted from the sun is in the form of Electromagnetic energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortwave (SW) radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longwave (LW) radiation: energy that may have been emitted from earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar constant </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. 3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Movements of Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galactic movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revolution </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth turns eastward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterclockwise spin on its axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 hours per rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed is fastest at the equator. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Circle of Illumination
    15. 15. 3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly elliptical orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closest to sun near Jan. 3 rd (perihelion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furthest from sun around July 4 th (aphelion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This has minimal affect on the energy receipt on earth </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 3.2 The Earth-Sun System <ul><li>Plane of the ecliptic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth is titled at 23.5 degrees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>angle of inclination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parallelism: Earth’s axis remains parallel to its former position. </li></ul><ul><li>These positions change slowly over time (Milankovitch cycles) </li></ul>
    17. 17. 3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>Insolation: Solar radiation received by Earth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main source of energy on our planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal variations in temperature due primarily to fluctuations in insolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oblique rays </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. 3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>Direct rays at 23.5 o N </li></ul><ul><li>Direct rays at equator </li></ul>
    19. 19. 3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>The Seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer Solstice (~ June 21) in N. hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct rays at 23.5 o N (Tropic of Cancer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern hemisphere receives more energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 hours of sunlight (Arctic Circle to North Pole) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longest day of the year in N. hem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shortest day of the year in S. hem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autumnal Equinox in (~ Sept. 22) N. hem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct rays at equator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 hours of daylight everywhere </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. 3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>The Seasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter Solstice (~ Dec. 21) in N. hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct rays at 23.5 o S (Tropic of Capricorn) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern hemisphere receives more energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 hours of sunlight (Antarctic Circle to South Pole) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shortest day of the year in N. hem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longest day of the year in S. hem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vernal Equinox in (~ March 20) N. hem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct rays at equator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 hours of daylight everywhere </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. The Seasons (Focus on Solstices)
    22. 22. The Seasons (Focus on Equinox)
    23. 23. Duration of daylight for certain Latitudes
    24. 24. 3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>Sun’s declination: Latitude at which the sun is directly overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Analemma: Shows the sun’s declination throughout the year. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the declination on Oct 10 th ? </li></ul>
    25. 25. 3.3 Sun Angle, Duration, and Insolation <ul><li>Variations of Insolation with Latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical Zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle latitude zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar zones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which zone(s) would have the least annual variation? </li></ul>
    26. 26. Ancient Civilizations (Mayan Pyramid)
    27. 27. Physical Geography End of Chapter 3: Earth-Sun Relationships and Solar Energy
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×