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# Seasons Challenge

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### Seasons Challenge

1. 1. Seasons Challenge Created By: Allison Claroni, Jessica Geiger, Kasey Hemeon, Rayna Peirce, and Katie Donnelly Moran
2. 2. Diagrams
3. 3. Our Solar System
4. 4. Earth’s Seasons <ul><li>The reasons for Earth’s Seasons </li></ul><ul><li>The 23.5 ° tilt of the axis </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution around the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Seasons are not the same across Earth because the Sun’s rays hit the surface at different angles and intensities </li></ul>
5. 5. The Sun’s Path Across the Sky The Sun is not at the same height in the sky over the year. This is due to the elliptical orbit of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the axis.
6. 6. Latitude Lines This diagram shows the approximate temperature of the Earth’s latitude lines in different months. The darker the color the colder the temperature. It can be concluded that it is warmer (summer) in the Northern Hemisphere (north of the equator) in the months May to August. However in that same time frame, the Southern Hemisphere is experiencing their coolest temperatures. Since, the Earth is tilted this can show that the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun in the months May to August.
7. 7. Solar Noon <ul><li>Solar noon is the time during the day that is exactly in the middle of the number </li></ul><ul><li>Can be determined by calculating the length of daylight for that day and divide by two </li></ul><ul><li>When the Sun is at its highest point in the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Not always ‘clock’ noon </li></ul><ul><li>Your shadow will be at its shortest at this time </li></ul><ul><li>This time varies throughout the year </li></ul>
8. 8. Solar Intensity <ul><li>Means the brightness of the Sun's rays because intensity is how scientist express brightness </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation emitted from the sun is about 8% ultra-violet, 44% visible light, and 48% infrared (see graph on the following slide) </li></ul><ul><li>Solar intensity is fairly constant on any given day of a year </li></ul><ul><li>A diagram of solar intensity would look like a squared off &quot;U&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Main influence is the length of atmosphere in which the sun's rays must travel to get to Earth </li></ul><ul><li>During the equinoxes at noon, on the Equator, the sun is directly overhead and the Sun's rays hit the earth at a sharper angle and do not have to travel as far through the atmosphere to get to Earth.  However further from the equator sunlight must travel a longer distance through the atmosphere to the ground </li></ul><ul><li>A major factor is geographical location; altitude/elevation </li></ul><ul><li>ROUGHLY~ on the equator in midsummer... in the morning: sunlight must travel through 283 miles of air... while at noon sunlight must only travel through 10 miles of air before reaching the Earth (*that's not factoring in altitude*) </li></ul><ul><li>Value of solar beam radiation outside The Earth's atmosphere (the solar constant is I0) I0 = 1.37 ± 0.02kW/m2 </li></ul>
9. 9. Solar Intensity Graph Two Main Factors; 1) length of atmosphere in which the Sun's rays must travel to get to Earth 2) Altitude or elevation
10. 10. Solar Intensity Diagrams
11. 11. Angles of the Sun
12. 12. Season Facts Go to seasons chart
13. 13. Winter <ul><li>In the Northern Hemisphere, winter starts when Earth’s axis is pointing directly away from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>In the Northern Hemisphere, winter starts on Dec. 21 or 22 </li></ul><ul><li>Winter is also known as the Winter Solstice </li></ul><ul><li>Days become much shorter and nights become much longer </li></ul><ul><li>The weather is much colder and it snows </li></ul><ul><li>The Southern Hemisphere is experiencing Summer </li></ul>
14. 14. Spring <ul><li>Neither the Northern or Southern Hemisphere receives direct sunlight on this special day </li></ul><ul><li>The first day of spring in the Northern Hemisphere is March 21 or 22 </li></ul><ul><li>The first day of spring is also known as the Vernal Equinox </li></ul><ul><li>The weather is much warmer than it was in the winter and it rains more frequently, especially in April </li></ul><ul><li>The Southern Hemisphere is experiencing autumn </li></ul>
15. 15. Summer <ul><li>In the Northern Hemisphere, summer starts when Earth’s axis is pointing directly towards the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>The first day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere is June 21 or 22 </li></ul><ul><li>The first day of summer is also known as the Summer Solstice </li></ul><ul><li>The weather is very hot and people often go to places outdoors like beaches to cool off and relax </li></ul><ul><li>The Southern Hemisphere is experiencing winter </li></ul>
16. 16. Autumn <ul><li>Neither the Northern or Southern Hemisphere receives direct sunlight on this special day </li></ul><ul><li>The first day of fall in the Northern Hemisphere is September 22 or 23 </li></ul><ul><li>The first day of autumn is also known as the Autumnal Equinox </li></ul><ul><li>It’s much windier, but fall is one of the most beautiful months when the leaves on the trees change colors </li></ul><ul><li>The Southern Hemisphere is experiencing spring </li></ul>
17. 17. Comparing the Seasons (referring to the Northern Hemisphere) Winter Spring Summer Autumn Official Name Winter Solstice Vernal Equinox Summer Solstice Autumnal Equinox Line of Latitude Receiving the Most Direct Sunlight Tropic of Capricorn Equator Tropic of Cancer Equator Hemisphere Receiving the Most Direct Sunlight Northern Hemisphere Neither Southern Hemisphere Neither Starting Date December 21 or 22 March 21 or 22 June 21 or 22 September 22 or 23
18. 18. Earth Reference Map
19. 19. Glossary (page 1) Analemma:   A graduated scale in the shape of a figure eight, indicating the sun's declination and the equation of time for every day of the year and usually found on sundials and globes.  Autumnal Equinox : time of the year (September 22nd-23rd) at the end of summer when day and night are of equal length; beginning of autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.   Axis : imaginary vertical line through the center of a body around which the body rotate, spins   Declination: the angular distance of a heavenly body from the celestial equator, measured on the great circle passing through the celestial pole and the body.   Equinox : the time when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator, making night and day of approximately equal length all over the earth. Geosynchronous orbit : orbit in which a satellite’s rate of evolution exactly matches the Earth's rate of rotation Globe : spherical, or round, model of the world.   Hemisphere : northern or southern half of the Earth. International dateline : line located along the 180th meridian; where the line is crossed going west, one day is added; when it is crossed going east, one day is subtracted.
20. 20. Glossary (page 2) Overhead Sun: when the Sun is directly overhead a certain place on Earth. At this time, the Earth's surface and the midday Sun form a 90 degree angle. This line of latitude receiving &quot;overhead sun&quot; is also known as the line of latitude that receives the most direct sunlight. Summer Solstice : time of year at the end of spring when there is the most amount of daylight and least amount of dark in a day; the solstice which takes place on June 21st-22nd that marks the beginning or summer in the northern hemisphere. Tangential Force: a force which acts on a moving  body in the direction of a tangent to the path of the body, its effect being to increase or diminish the  velocity; -- is distinguished from a normal force, which acts at right angles to the tangent and changes the direction of the motion without changing the velocity.   Velocity: the time rate of change of position of a body in a specified direction. Vernal equinox : time of year (March 21st-22nd) at end of winter when day and night are of equal length; beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere.   Winter Solstice : time of year at the end of fall when there is the least amount of daylight and most amount of dark in a day; the solstice that takes place on December 21st-22nd that marks the beginning of winter in the northern hemisphere.