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  • 1. L2B Linux First Course S ession2 Please visit our Facebook Group
  • 2. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course Session Outlines:  Linux principles  Bash Basics  Users, Groups and Permissions  Introduction to Bash Scripts
  • 3. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Linux Principles  Every thing is a file including hardware  Small, single-purpose programs  Ability to chain programs together to perform complex tasks  Avoid captive user interfaces  Configuration data stored in text
  • 4. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Shell or bash is an interface between the user and the kernel  Accepts the commands that a user enters, interprets these commands, and passes them to the kernel
  • 5. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Command format: command [option] [argument]  Option • Preceded by - if single character • Preceded by - - if more than one character  Arguments are file names or other data needed by the command
  • 6. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Full Path • Begins with a forward slash • Ends with the file location  Relative path • Begins with your location • Ends with the file location
  • 7. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  .. refers to the parent directory  . refers to the current directory  Directory names is case sensitive  Names may be up to 255 character  You can use all characters except the forward-slash
  • 8. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Clear : • Clear the terminal  Cal • Display the calendar of current year  cal year • Display calendar of this year  cal month • Display calendar of this month  Date • Display current date
  • 9. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  eject cdrom  pwd  cd • cd ~ • cd path • cd .. • cd ../.. • cd . • cd -
  • 10. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  ls • ls -l • ls -d • ls -h • ls -a • ls -t • ls -r • ls -R  dir  tree not installed by default in Ubuntu
  • 11. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Touch • If you touched a file which exists you changes it's modification time  cat & more  nano file_name
  • 12. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  mkdir • mkdir -p  cp • cp -r • cp -R • cp -i • cp -f
  • 13. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  rm • rm -r rm -R  rmdir • rmdir -p  Hint: • To remove a directory which you exists in, move to its parent directory or any other directory.
  • 14. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  cal  Switching between users • su • su - • sudo  Changing password • passwd [user_name]
  • 15. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Adding users • adduser <user_name> • useradd <user_name>  Removing users • userdel <user_name>
  • 16. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Getting help • command --help • whatis <command> • man <command> • info <command>
  • 17. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Getting help • --help: – Most commands have the options --help – It prints a usage statement and list of options and what they do – [ any_thing ] >>> It is optional – ...... >>> It is list of that thing – < any_thing > >>> It is not optioinal – { x,y,z } >>> At least one of the these things – Options separated by | >>> one of them can be used “or"
  • 18. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Getting help • whatis – Short description about the command – Update it's database daily » makewhatis as root
  • 19. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Getting help • man -f • man -k & apropos • man -w • manpath
  • 20. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Getting help • man page format and how to use it • man [chapter_number] command • man sections/chapters 1- user commands 2- system calls / functions provided by the kernel 3- Library calls 4- special files 5- configuration files formats 6- games 7- packages 8- administrative commands
  • 21. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Getting help • info pages – More details than man – Like a web site – Divided into nodes (*) – Try >>> (info ls)
  • 22. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  Type Tab to complete command lines  Type Tab to command name  For an argument, it will complete a file name  Examples: • $ xte<Tab> • $ xterm • $ ls myf<Tab> • $ ls myfile.txt
  • 23. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics  echo command  file command  Virtual consoles
  • 24. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics Exercise  What man option you will use to search the description of every manual page for a keyword.  What man option you will use to search the entire text (all of the page) of every manual page.
  • 25. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics Exercise  What is the option added to “ls” command to display long list results.  What is the option added to “ls” command to display long list results with human-readable descriptions.
  • 26. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Bash Basics Exercise  Given the following: foo -x | -y [-abcde] FILENAME Which one is right? • foo -x -y -a file.txt • foo • foo -y -abc file1.txt file2.txt • foo -abc file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt
  • 27. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Users, Groups and permissions  Every user is assigned a unique User ID (UID)  UID 0 identifies root  Users' names and UIDs are stored in /etc/passwd  Users are assigned to groups  Each group is assigned a unique Group ID (gid)  GIDs are stored in /etc/group
  • 28. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Users, Groups and permissions  Every file is owned by a UID and a GID  Permission Types: •r •w •X  To display permissions of a file use ls -l file
  • 29. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Users, Groups and permissions  To change access modes:  chmod [-R] mode file  Where mode is:  u,g or o for user, group and other  + or - for grant or deny  r, w or x for read, write and execute  Examples: • ugo+r: Grant read access to all • o-wx: Deny write and execute to others
  • 30. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Users, Groups and permissions  To change access modes: • chmod [-R] mode file  Where mode is: • u,g or o for user, group and other • + or - for grant or deny • r, w or x for read, write and execute  Examples: • ugo+r: Grant read access to all • o-wx: Deny write and execute to others
  • 31. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Users, Groups and permissions  Uses a three-digit mode number  first digit specifies owner's permissions  second digit specifies group permissions  third digit represents others' permissions  Permissions are calculated by adding: • 4 (for read) • 2 (for write) • 1 (for execute)  Example: • chmod 640 myfile
  • 32. L2B First Linux Course L2B Linux course  Introduction to Bash Scripts  What is a script?  sc extension recommended  Steps to create a script • Step 1: Use such as vi or nano to create a text file containing commands: – #!/bin/bash – Comments start with a # – Write your commands. • Step 2: Make the script executable: – $ chmod u+x myscript.sh • Step 3: To execute the new script: – Use relative path or full path
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