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RAJDHANI INSTITUTE OF     TECHNOLOGY                APresentation of Practical Training                on           Unix /...
History Of UNIX & Linux   1957: Bell Labs found they needed an operating system          which at the time was running va...
Shell•   Program that interacts with kernel•   Bridge between kernel and the user•   Command interpreter•   User can type ...
Linux Shellls                     whoami                                                                                  ...
Linux File Types    Normal         -   Normal file  Directories      d   Normal directory   Hard link       - Symbolic lin...
Some of Linux Commands(1)   echo       man         help      info       ls   cat        tac         cp        mv ...
Basic CommandsCommands•   su         switch user•   passwd     change password•   useradd    create new user account•   us...
Some of Linux Commands(3) Create   Partitions and Filesystem fdisk, mke2fs, mkfs.* Maintain   the Integrity of Filesyste...
‘vi’ Powerful Text Editor                   • Insert Text Insert   Mode    • Delete  n+dd (Delete)                      ...
All LINUX commands start with the name of the command and  can be followed by options and arguments.                      ...
Some of the basic commands you should                                              learn are the ones that help you naviga...
cp : copy one file to anotherrm : remove a fileman : ask for the manual (or help) of a command     e.g. man cd ask for the...
PermissionCommand• chmod                      change file mode, add or remove                             permission• chow...
Process ManagementCommands• kill             Stop a program. The program is          specified by process ID.• killall    ...
Foreground and Background• Running job has two modes, “foreground” and “background”• If program is running as “background”...
Foreground and Background•    To run programs in background mode, use “&”    [nomura@ssc-1]$ command &• To get background ...
Why Use Linux?•   Costs less•   Stable•   Reliable•   Extremely powerful
The Advantage of Linux•   Low purchase cost•   Open Source Software (OSS)•   UNIX heritage•   Multi User•   Scalability•  ...
The Disadvantage of Linux • Steep learning curve • Hardware support • End-user applications
Presentation  for  RHCE in linux
Presentation  for  RHCE in linux
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Presentation for RHCE in linux

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Presentation for RHCE in linux

  1. 1. RAJDHANI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY APresentation of Practical Training on Unix /Linux system Presented By : KULDEEP SHARMA B.TECH(IT)
  2. 2. History Of UNIX & Linux 1957: Bell Labs found they needed an operating system which at the time was running various batch jobs. 1965: Bell Labs create Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) 1969: Summer 1969 UNIX was developed by AT&T 1975: Sixth edition of UNIX released May 1975 1985: GNU project started 1991: Linux is introduced by Linus Benedict Torvalds who was a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki 1993: NetBSD & FreeBSD released 1994: Red Hat Linux is introduced
  3. 3. Shell• Program that interacts with kernel• Bridge between kernel and the user• Command interpreter• User can type command and the command is conveyed to the kernel and it will be executed Softsmith Infotech
  4. 4. Linux Shellls whoami pwd Shell interprets the command and Bash, Tcsh, Zsh request service from kernel Similar to DOS but DOS has only one set of interface while Linux can select Kernel different shell – Bourne Again shell (Bash), TC shell (Tcsh), Z shell (Zsh) Different shell has similar but different functionality Bash is the default for Linux Graphical user interface of Linux is in fact an application program work on the shell
  5. 5. Linux File Types Normal - Normal file Directories d Normal directory Hard link - Symbolic link l Shortcut to a file or directory Socket s Pass data between 2 process Named pipe p Like sockets, user can’t work directly withCharacter device c Processes character hw communication Block device b Major & minor numbers for controling dev.
  6. 6. Some of Linux Commands(1) echo  man  help  info  ls cat  tac  cp  mv  rm cd  touch  pwd  mkdir  rmdir clear  alias  less  date  logout exit  reboot  halt
  7. 7. Basic CommandsCommands• su switch user• passwd change password• useradd create new user account• userdel delete user account• mount mount file system• umount unmount file system• df show disk space usage• shutdown reboot or turn off machine
  8. 8. Some of Linux Commands(3) Create Partitions and Filesystem fdisk, mke2fs, mkfs.* Maintain the Integrity of Filesystem e2fsck, fsck.*, du, df Filesystem Mounting & Umounting mount, umount, /etc/fstab
  9. 9. ‘vi’ Powerful Text Editor • Insert Text Insert Mode • Delete  n+dd (Delete) • dd • yy  n+yy (Copy) •p (paste) Normal Mode •P (Paste) •/ (Search) •w • q! • v (Visual) (Text Selection) Command Mode •q •r • wq = x • s///
  10. 10. All LINUX commands start with the name of the command and can be followed by options and arguments. Linux text-based interface command to show the content of current directoryThe prompt $ shows that bashshell is using command to show the content of current directory with option -al
  11. 11. Some of the basic commands you should learn are the ones that help you navigateCommands: the file system./ (root directory)/root – home directory of the user rootpwd – you can see your home directorydf – to see disk space availablecd – to change to different directory or to go back to home dir.. - move to parent directoryls – list the contents of a directory; Options: -l (more info) -a (displays hidden files) -t (sort by time) -r (oldest first)Example: ls –ltr : display an long list of files that are sorted by time, display the oldest ones first
  12. 12. cp : copy one file to anotherrm : remove a fileman : ask for the manual (or help) of a command e.g. man cd ask for the manual of the command cdcat : to show the content of a text file e.g. cat abc.txt show the content of abc.txtwhoami : to show the username of the current user Directory is denoted by a / (slash) character Executable program by a * Hidden file preceded by a . (dot)
  13. 13. PermissionCommand• chmod change file mode, add or remove permission• chown change owner of the fileExample) chmod a+w filename add writable permission to all users chmod o-x filename remove executable permission from others chmod a+x Gives permission to the usser to execute a file• u: user (owner), g: group,o: others a: all
  14. 14. Process ManagementCommands• kill Stop a program. The program is specified by process ID.• killall Stop a program. The program is specified by command name.• ps Show process status• top Show system usage statistics
  15. 15. Foreground and Background• Running job has two modes, “foreground” and “background”• If program is running as “background”, the program keeps running even after your session was closed• If program is running as “foreground”, Ctrl-C stop program Ctrl-Z let program background
  16. 16. Foreground and Background• To run programs in background mode, use “&” [nomura@ssc-1]$ command &• To get background job back into foreground mode, use “fg” command. [nomura@ssc-1]$ fg
  17. 17. Why Use Linux?• Costs less• Stable• Reliable• Extremely powerful
  18. 18. The Advantage of Linux• Low purchase cost• Open Source Software (OSS)• UNIX heritage• Multi User• Scalability• Vendor support• Reliable uptime• Security• Logging System• …
  19. 19. The Disadvantage of Linux • Steep learning curve • Hardware support • End-user applications

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