L2B Second Linux Course



Session4



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L2B Second Linux Course
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      Session outlines:
        Text Processing Tools
        Text Processi...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course




               Text Processing Tools
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Extracting Text
        cat
            • One or more files
         le...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Extracting Text
        head
            • First 10 lines only
         ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Extracting Text
        cut
            •   Display specific columns
   ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Extracting Text
        Grep
            •   Display lines where a patte...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Tools for Analyzing Text
        wc
            •   Counts words, lines,...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Tools for Analyzing Text
        sort
            •   Sort text and orig...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Tools for Analyzing Text
        diff and patch
            • diff foo.c...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Tools for Analyzing Text
        aspell
            • Interactively spel...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Tools for Manipulating Text




                     tr and sed
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Tools for Manipulating Text
        Tr
            • Converts characters...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     sed (stream editor)
        search/replace operations on a stream of tex...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     sed Examples
        sed 's/dog/cat/i' pets
        sed 's/dog/cat/g' p...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Characters for Complex Searches
       ^ represents beginning of line
  ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course




                        VIM
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     VIM Advantages:
       Speed: Do more with fewer keystrokes
       Simp...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Three main modes:
        Command Mode (default): Move cursor,
         ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course

     First steps with vim
         vim filename(command mode)
         Insert...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Command Mode
       Right Arrow moves right one character
       5, Rig...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Command Mode
       As in less
            • /, n, N
         As in sed...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Command Mode
       Line
            • cc
            • dd
            •...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Command Mode
       Word
            • cw
            • dw
            •...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Command Mode
       Sentence behind
            • c(
            • d(
  ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Command Mode
       Paragraph below
            • c}
            • d}
  ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course

     Command Mode
       v starts character-oriented highlighting
       V st...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Command Mode
       Ctrl-w, s splits the screen horizontally
       Ctr...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course

     Configuring vi and vim
       :set
            •   :set number
          ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Configuring vi and vim
       :help
       :help something
       :set...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course




                      Basic System
                   Configuration Tools
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course

     Introduction
        Network interfaces are named sequentially:
         ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Graphical Network Configuration
       system-config-network
       Sys...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Example Of Dynamic Configuration
        DEVICE=ethX
        HWADDR=0:0...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Example Of Static Configuration
        DEVICE=ethX
        HWADDR=0:02...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Network Configuration Files and Other
      Global Network Settings
     ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course

     DNS configuration
       Server address is specified by dhcp or in
      ...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Setting the System's Date and Time
       GUI:
            • system-conf...
L2B Second Linux Course
L2B Linux course


     Scripting
       Taking input with positional parameters
            •  ...
L2B L2B Second Linux
                       Course Second Linux
L2B Linux course
                       Course
     Scrip...
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Session4

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Session4

  1. 1. L2B Second Linux Course Session4 Please visit our Facebook Group
  2. 2. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Session outlines:  Text Processing Tools  Text Processing Tools Exercises  VIM  VIM Exercises  Basic System Configuration Tools
  3. 3. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course Text Processing Tools
  4. 4. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Extracting Text  cat • One or more files  less • Easy to read • /text • n/N • v open an editor • Used by man command to present man pages
  5. 5. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Extracting Text  head • First 10 lines only • -n change number of lines  tail • Last 10 lines only • -n change number of lines • -f monitoring the file
  6. 6. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Extracting Text  cut • Display specific columns • -d column delimiter • -f number of field • -c cut by characters – cut -c2-5 /usr/share/dict/words
  7. 7. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Extracting Text  Grep • Display lines where a pattern is matched • -i case-insensitively • -n print line numbers of matches • -v print lines not containing pattern • -AX include the X lines after each match • -Bx include the X lines before each match
  8. 8. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Tools for Analyzing Text  wc • Counts words, lines, bytes and characters • -l only line count • -w only word count • -c only byte count • -m character count (not displayed)
  9. 9. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Tools for Analyzing Text  sort • Sort text and original file is not changed • -r reverse (descending) sort • -n numeric sort • -u (unique) removes duplicate lines • -t c field separator • -k X which field • uniq & uniq -c
  10. 10. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Tools for Analyzing Text  diff and patch • diff foo.conf-broken foo.conf-works • -u better for patchfiles • Patching – diff -u foo.conf-broken foo.conf-works > foo.patch – patch -b foo.conf-broken foo.patch
  11. 11. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Tools for Analyzing Text  aspell • Interactively spell-check files: – aspell check letter.txt • Non-interactively list mis-spelled words in – Only reads data from standard input – aspell list < letter.txt
  12. 12. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Tools for Manipulating Text tr and sed
  13. 13. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Tools for Manipulating Text  Tr • Converts characters in one set to corresponding characters in another set • Only reads data from STDIN • tr 'a-z' 'A-Z' < lowercase.txt
  14. 14. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  sed (stream editor)  search/replace operations on a stream of text  Normally does not alter source file  -i to alter source file  -i.bak to back-up and alter source file
  15. 15. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  sed Examples  sed 's/dog/cat/i' pets  sed 's/dog/cat/g' pets  sed '1,50s/dog/cat/g' pets  sed '/digby/,/duncan/s/dog/cat/g' pets  sed -e 's/dog/cat/' -e 's/hi/lo/' pets
  16. 16. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Characters for Complex Searches  ^ represents beginning of line  $ represents end of line  Character classes as in bash: • [abc], [^abc] • [[:upper:]], [^[:upper:]]  Used by: grep, sed, less, others
  17. 17. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course VIM
  18. 18. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  VIM Advantages:  Speed: Do more with fewer keystrokes  Simplicity: No dependence on mouse/GUI  Availability: Included with most Unix-like OSes  Disadvantages  Difficulty: Steeper learning curve than simpler editors
  19. 19. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Three main modes:  Command Mode (default): Move cursor, cut/paste text  Insert Mode: Modify text  Exit Mode: Save, quit, etc
  20. 20. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  First steps with vim  vim filename(command mode)  Insert mode • I at the cursor • A append to end of line • I insert at beginning of line • o insert new a line (below) • O insert new line (above)  Exit mode • :w writes (saves) the file to disk • :wq writes and quits • :q! quits, even if changes are lost
  21. 21. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Command Mode  Right Arrow moves right one character  5, Right Arrow moves right five characters  Arrow Keys, h, j, k, l (the same as arrows)  w, b Move by word  ), ( Move by sentence  }, { Move by paragraph  xG Jump to line x  gg Jump to the first line G Jump to the last line
  22. 22. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Command Mode  As in less • /, n, N  As in sed  The selected line only • :1,5s/cat/dog/  All of the entire file • :%s/cat/dog/gi
  23. 23. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Command Mode  Line • cc • dd • yy  Letter • cl • dl • yl
  24. 24. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Command Mode  Word • cw • dw • yw  Sentence ahead • c) • d) • y)
  25. 25. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Command Mode  Sentence behind • c( • d( • y(  Paragraph above • c{ • d{ • y{
  26. 26. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Command Mode  Paragraph below • c} • d} • y} u undo  Ctrl-r redo  U undo all changes to the last modified line
  27. 27. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Command Mode  v starts character-oriented highlighting  V starts line-oriented highlighting  Visual keys used with movement keys: • w, ), }, arrows  Highlighted text can be • Deleted • Yanked • Changed • Filtered • search/replaced, etc.
  28. 28. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Command Mode  Ctrl-w, s splits the screen horizontally  Ctrl-w, v splits the screen vertically  Ctrl-w, Arrow moves between windows  Ctrl-w twice, Arrow moves between windows  To search for help inside vim convert to the exit mode and ask for help by running the following • :help
  29. 29. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Configuring vi and vim  :set • :set number • :set all • :set number (:se nu) • :set nonumber (:se nonu) • :set ignorecase (:se ic) • :set noignorecase (:se noic) • :set showmatch (:se sm) • :set noshowmatch(:se nosm) • :set autoindent • :set noautoindent
  30. 30. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Configuring vi and vim  :help  :help something  :set • :set textwidth=3 • :set textwidth=0 • :set wrapmargin=10 • :set wrapmargin=0  ~/.vimrc  vimtutor
  31. 31. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course Basic System Configuration Tools
  32. 32. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Introduction  Network interfaces are named sequentially: eth0, eth1, etc  Multiple addresses can be assigned to a device with aliases  Aliases are labeled eth0:1, eth0:2, etc.  Aliases are treated like separate interfaces  View interface configuration with : ifconfig [ethX]  Enable interface with ifup ethX  Disable interface with ifdown ethX
  33. 33. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Graphical Network Configuration  system-config-network  System > Administration > Network  Network Configuration Files For Devices  /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethX  Complete list of options in /usr/share/doc/initscripts-*/sysconfig.txt
  34. 34. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Example Of Dynamic Configuration  DEVICE=ethX  HWADDR=0:02:8A:A6:30:45  BOOTPROTO=dhcp  ONBOOT=yes  Type=Ethernet
  35. 35. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Example Of Static Configuration  DEVICE=ethX  HWADDR=0:02:8A:A6:30:45  IPADDR=192.168.0.254  NETMASK=255.255.255.0  GATEWAY=192.168.2.254  ONBOOT=yes  Type=Ethernet
  36. 36. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Network Configuration Files and Other Global Network Settings  /etc/sysconfig/network • NETWORKING=yes • HOSTNAME=server1.example.com • GATEWAY=192.168.2.254
  37. 37. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  DNS configuration  Server address is specified by dhcp or in /etc/resolv.conf • nameserver 192.168.0.254 • nameserver 192.168.1.254
  38. 38. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Setting the System's Date and Time  GUI: • system-config-date • System->Administration->Date & Time  CLI: date [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]] • date 01011330 • Date 010113302007.05 • Date 12312359 • Date 123123592007 • Date 01010101.01
  39. 39. L2B Second Linux Course L2B Linux course  Scripting  Taking input with positional parameters • $1 • $2 • $3 • $4, etc. • $* • $#
  40. 40. L2B L2B Second Linux Course Second Linux L2B Linux course Course  Scripting  Taking input with the read command • read x • read -p "Enter a filename: " file
  41. 41. For More info Please Visit Our Facebook Group

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