Flying animalsActually all of the animals I am goingto talk about either glide or powered fight.
All about flying animals!?A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion,either by powered flight or by gliding. Flying and glidinganimals have evolved separately many times, withoutany single ancestor. Flight has evolved at least fourtimes, in the insects, pterosaurs, birds, and bats.Gliding has evolved on many more occasions. Usuallythe development is to aid canopy animals in gettingfrom tree to tree, although there are other possibilities.Gliding, in particular, has evolvedamong rainforest animals, especially in the rainforestsin Asia (most especially Borneo)
Invertebrates: Arthropods Gliding ants (gliding). The flightless workers of these insects have secondarily gained some capacity to move through the air. Gliding has evolved independently in a number of arboreal ant species from the groups Cephalotini, Pseudomyrmecinae, and Formicinae(mostly Camponotus). All arboreal dolichoderines and non- cephalotine myrmicines except Daceton armigerum do not glide. Living in the rainforest canopy like many other gliders, gliding ants use their gliding to return to the trunk of the tree they live on should they fall or be knocked off a branch.
Continuation Gliding was first discovered for Cephalotes atreus in the Peruvian rainforest. Cephalotes atreus can make 180 degree turns, and locate the trunk using visual cues, succeeding in landing 80% of the time. Unique among gliding animals, Cephalotini and Pseudomyrmecinae ants glide abdomen first, the Forminicae however glide in the more conventional head first manner. The following page has some good videos of gliding ants. 
Oh! Then how about spiders!!! Spiders (parachuting). The young of some species of spiders travel through the air by using silk draglines to catch the wind, as may some smaller species of adult spider, such themoney spider family. This behavior is commonly known as "ballooning". Ballooning spiders make up part of the aeroplankton.
And last one of all Molluscs Flying squid (gliding). Several oceanic squids, such as the Pacific flying squid, will leap out of the water to escape predators, an adaptation similar to that of flying fish. Smaller squids will fly in shoals, and have been observed to cover distances as long as 50 meters. Small fins towards the back of the mantle do not produce much lift, but do help stabilize the motion of flight. They exit the water by expelling water out of their funnel, indeed some squid have been observed to continue jetting water while airborne possibly providing thrust even after leaving the water. This may make flying squid the only animals with jet-propelled aerial locomotion. Where the trees are tall and widely spaced
Now lets go to Vertebrates: Fish There are over 50 species of flying fish belonging to the family Exocoetidae The largest flying fish can reach lengths of 45 cm, but most species measure less than 30 cm in length. They can be divided into two-winged varieties and four-winged varieties. Before the fish leaves the water it increases its speed to around 30 body lengths per second and as it breaks the surface and is freed from the drag of the water it can be traveling at around 60 km/h.The glides are usually up to 30–50 metres in length, but some have been observed soaring for hundreds of metres using the updraft on the leading edges of waves. The fish can also make a series of glides, each time dipping the tail into the water to produce forward thrust. The longest recorded series of glides, with the fish only periodically dipping its tail in the water, was for 45 seconds .
More Fish!!! Halfbeaks (gliding). A group related to the Exocoetidae, one or two hemirhamphid species possess enlarged pectoral fins and show true gliding flight rather than simple leaps. Freshwater butterfly fish (possibly gliding). It can move through the air several times the length of its body. While it does this, the fish flaps its large pectoral fins, giving it its common name. However, it is debated whether the freshwater butterfly fish can truly glide, Saidel et al. (2004) argue that it cannot. Freshwater hatchet fish (possibly flying). There are 9 species of freshwater hatchet fish split among 3 genera. Freshwater hatchetfish have an extremely large sternal region that is fitted with a large amount of muscle that allows it to flap its pectoral fins. They can move in a straight line over a few meters to escape predators
Now on to Amphibians Rhacophoridae flying frogs. Gliding has evolved independently in two families of tree frogs, the Old World Rhacophoridae and the New World Hylidae. Within each lineage there are a range of gliding abilities from non-gliding, to parachuting, to full gliding.. For example, the Malayan flying frog glides using the membranes between the toes of its limbs, and small membranes located at the heel, the base of the leg, and the forearm. Some of the frogs are quite accomplished gliders, for example, the Chinese gliding frog Polypedates dennysi can maneuver in the air, making two kinds of turn, either rolling into the turn or yawing into the turn (a crabbed turn). Hylidae flying frogs.The other frog family that contains gliders.
Draco lizardThere are 28 species of lizard of the genus Draco, found in Sri Lanka, India, and Southeast Asia. They live in trees, feeding on tree ants, but nest on the forest floor. They can glide for up to 60 m and over this distance they lose only 10 m in height. Unusually, their patagium is supported on elongated ribs rather than the more common situation among gliding vertebrates of having the patagium attached to the limbs. When extended, the ribs form a semicircle on either side the lizards body and can be folded to the body like a folding fan.
Gliding Lacertids and Ptychozoon (gliding geckos) Gliding Lacertids (gliding). There are two species of gliding lacertid, of the genus Holaspis. Found in Africa. They have fringed toes and tail sides and can flatten their bodies for gliding/parachuting. There are six species of gliding gecko, of the genus Ptychozoon, from Southeast Asia. These lizards have small flaps of skin along their limbs, torso, tail, and head that catch the air and enable them to glide.
Chrysopelea snake Five species of snake from Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and India. The paradise tree snake of southern Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines, and Sulawesi is the most capable glider of those snakes studied. It glides by stretching out its body sideways and opening its ribs so the belly is concave, and by making lateral slithering movements. It can remarkably glide up to 100 m and make 90 degree turns. Follow this link for videos of gliding snakes.
Flying phalangers or wrist-winged gliders. Flying phalangers or wrist-winged gliders gliding possbliy found in Australia, and New Guinea. The gliding membranes are hardly noticeable until they jump. On jumping, the animal extends all four legs and stretches the loose but muscularly controlled folds of skin. The subfamily contains seven species. Of the six species in the genus Petaurus, the Sugar glider and the Biak Glider are the most common species.
Petauroides volans The only species of the genus Petauroidae of the family Pseudocheiridae. This Marsupial is found in Australia, and was originally classed with the flying phalangers, but is now recognized as separate. Its flying membrane only extends to the elbow, rather than to the wrist as in Petaurinae.
Feather-tailed possums This family of Marsupials contains two genera, each with one species. The Feather-tail Glider found in Australia is the size of a very small mouse and is the smallest mammalian glider. The Feather-tail Possum is found in New Guinea, but does not glide. Both species have a stiff-haired feather-like tail.
Flying squirrel There are 43 species divided between 14 genera of flying squirrel. Flying squirrels are found almost worldwide in tropical (Southeast Asia, India, and Sri Lanka), temperate, and even Arctic environments. They tend to be nocturnal. When a flying squirrel wishes to cross to a tree that is further away than the distance possible by jumping, it extends the cartilage spur on its elbow or wrist. This opens out the flap of furry skin that stretches from its wrist to its ankle. It glides spread- eagle and with its tail fluffed out like a parachute, and grips the tree with its claws when it lands. Flying squirrels have been reported to glide over 200 m.
Flying lemurs There are two species of flying lemur. This is not a lemur, which is a primate, but molecular evidence suggests that colugos are a sister group to primates; however, some mammologists suggest they are a sister group to bats. Found in Southeast Asia, the colugo is probably the mammal most adapted for gliding, with a patagium that is as large as geometrically possible. They can glide as far as 70 m with minimal loss of height.
Sifaka Sifaka and possibly some other primates (possible limited gliding/parachuting) . A number of primates have been suggested to have adaptations that allow limited gliding and/or parachuting: sifakas, indris, galagos and saki monkeys. Most notably, the sifaka, a type of lemur, has thick hairs on its forearms that have been argued to provide drag, and a small membrane under its arms that has been suggested to provide lift by having aerofoil properties.
CatsIf they fall, cats spread their bodies to maximize drag, a very limited form of parachuting. Cats have an innate righting reflex that allows them to rotate their bodies so they fall feet first. Some other animals may show similar very limited parachuting. There are also anecdotal accounts of less limited parachuting, or even semi-gliding, in palm civets
Thank you for listening for my presentation, I hope you liked it.Created by:Habiba bishery Younes 5gn