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Exploring Cultural Heritage and Value creation - A Case Study of DR’s Cultural Heritage Project


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Written by Tobias Golodnoff / Miriam Lerkenfeld …

Written by Tobias Golodnoff / Miriam Lerkenfeld

The objective of the research is to give a theoretical understanding of the value created when digitising a cultural heritage.

This research is grounded in a case study of the Danish Broadcasting Corporation’s Cultural Heritage Project. The project deals with the digitisation of an analogue radio and television collection of more than 500.000 hours of content, and with the work being done after digitisation ensuring archive content in collaboration with other public cultural institutions and the research community becomes available to the public. The project group is an inter-organisational team combining expertise from many places within the organisation.

When establishing a project of this kind, some aspects have significance on the value creation. Findings are, that flexibility is key, and hence, the use of resources within the budget should not be too specific, because it is unpredictable where cost can be cut, or where extra resources will be needed. Also, a scanning process is essential for defining the objectives of future tasks, and focus should not be to solve one problem, but exploring challenges that can be useful for different scenarios.

In addition, findings are that collaboration is a good tool for diffusing digitised cultural heritage, and these collaborations should have a variable, decentralised structure, in order to facilitate different needs and objectives. Another emphasis should be put on the openness towards collaboration partners, so shared value can be created and utilised - benefiting not just the organisations, but society in general. Conclusively, the overall goal when digitising the cultural heritage is always to make it accessible for the users. The conclusion leads to four principle guidelines which are: use is value, transparent boxes, open source collective, flexible frameworks, and project economy.

Finally, a vision is presented, a society where public service is substituted for public resources, constructing a all-encompassing cultural production system with fluid borders and autonomous projects based on a set of clearly defined objectives.

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  • 1. A case study of dr’s cultural heritage project Exploring cultural heritage and value creation Master ThesisThe IT-University of CopenhagenMaster Thesis, August, 2011Written by:Tobias GolodnoffE-Business10.07.1973 – tobiasgMiriam Lerkenfeld SmithDigital Design & Communication14.04.1982 – mlsmSupervisor: Leif Block Rasmussen
  • 2. Thank you and much respect Authors StatementLeif Block Rasmussen, Supervisor and This thesis is based on a joint effortAssociated professor at Department of and an equal partnership. We haveInformatics, CBS and Ebuss at the IT- delegated responsibilities along theUniversity of Copenhagen. way, but in the writing process, weFor being an excellent supervisor, let the chapters and sections circularinspriring us. Helping us in right between us. Naturally, we follow thedirection, discussing our findings IT University examination rules andand prioritising us when we needed divides the article as follows:guidance. Abstract: Miriam & Tobias. IntroducingPeter Looms, co-supervisor and the thesis and its objectives: Miriam &External associate professor at the IT- Tobias: Ontology of the project: Tobias.University of Copenhagen. For the early Scentific aproach and descriptiondiscussion, and support. methods: Miriam. The network inMads Bødker, Adjunkt at Department of relation to DR’s Cultural HeritageInformatics, CBS and Ebuss at the IT- Project: Tobias. The processes of theUniversity of Copenhagen. And Simeon project: Miriam. An analysis of DR’sKeates, Associate Professor at the IT- Cultural Heritage Project - Part one:University of Denmark. For inspirational From An analysis of DR’s Culturaltalks. Heritage Project to Diffusion: Tobias. Part two: From Diffusion to the endChristina Paludan Sheikh. For helping of the chapter: Miriam. Conclusions:us with excellent inputs and academic Miriam & Tobias. Guiding Principles:guidance on the thesis. And for being Miriam & Tobiasthe most wonderful mother and wife! I Thoughts and reflections: Miriam &could not have done it without all your Tobiassupport and trust – I love you! - Tobias The thesis consists of approximatelyAt the Danish Broadcasting 86 normal pages that is 198,104Corporation. Nicolai Porsbo, former characters and 11 figures.Head of New Media at, MeretheEchardt, former vice director og DR This thesis is licensed under a CreativeMedier and Jonas Iversen, vice director Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-of DR Medier for supporting us while ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-the idea about the thesis was growing SA 3.0). Read moreand making it possible.The fantastic team at DR who workswith the Cultural Heritage Project forbeing such a wonderful and inspirering Contact informationgroup of people and doing an excellent We love talking about the project,job. getting inspiration and making new connections. Do not hesitate to contactAnd off course our amazing families if you need a additioal information orand beautiful friends… are interested in collaborating. Miriam Lerkenfeld, twitter @lerkenfeld Tobias Golodnoff, twitter @tgolodnoff Read more at or
  • 3. AbstractThe objective of the research is to give a theoretical understanding of the valuecreated when digitising a cultural heritage.This research is grounded in a case study of the Danish BroadcastingCorporation’s Cultural Heritage Project. The project deals with the digitisationof an analogue radio and television collection of more than 500.000 hours ofcontent, and with the work being done after digitisation ensuring archive contentin collaboration with other public cultural institutions and the research communitybecomes available to the public. The project group is an inter-organisational teamcombining expertise from many places within the organisation.When establishing a project of this kind, some aspects have significance on thevalue creation. Findings are, that flexibility is key, and hence, the use of resourceswithin the budget should not be too specific, because it is unpredictable wherecost can be cut, or where extra resources will be needed. Also, a scanning processis essential for defining the objectives of future tasks, and focus should not beto solve one problem, but exploring challenges that can be useful for differentscenarios.In addition, findings are that collaboration is a good tool for diffusing digitisedcultural heritage, and these collaborations should have a variable, decentralisedstructure, in order to facilitate different needs and objectives. Another emphasisshould be put on the openness towards collaboration partners, so shared valuecan be created and utilised - benefiting not just the organisations, but societyin general. Conclusively, the overall goal when digitising the cultural heritage isalways to make it accessible for the users. The conclusion leads to four principleguidelines which are: use is value, transparent boxes, open source collective,flexible frameworks, and project economy.Finally, a vision is presented, a society where public service is substituted for publicresources, constructing a all-encompassing cultural production system with fluidborders and autonomous projects based on a set of clearly defined objectives.KeywordsDigitisation, Digitising, Digitization, Digitizing, Cultural Heritage, Heritage,Strategy, Innovation, Value, Value creation, Network, Research, Technology,Danish Broadcasting Corporation, DR, DR’s Cultural Heritage Project, PublicService, Data, Information, Knowledge, Knowledge Sharing. Resources, Process,Optimisation, Optimization, Use = Value, Use is Value, Transparent Boxes,Flexible Resources, Open Source Collective,Digitalisering, Kulturarv, DR’sKulturarvsprojekt, Værdi, Netværk, Strategi, Data, Information, Viden, brug = værdi,brug er lig værdi, Dansk Kulturarv, LARM, Europeana, EUscreen, FIAT/IFTA,Memnon 3
  • 4. index4
  • 5. Abstract 3Keywords 3Introducing the thesis and its objective 9 and Description ofOntology of the Methods questions 21 20project 10 11 research & Working Working questions 21 Delimitations 22Political Background Criticala reflection upon the method 22 Case studies – Realism as a Scientific Approach 22The case – DR’s Cultural Heritage Project 13The Danish Broadcasting Corporation and the Cultural Heritage Project 13 Project Design – Switching Between Empirical Data and Theory 23 FigurE 1 – PROJECT DESIGN 23 Theoretical foundation 24Historical outline 13 Empirical Data and Role as a Participant Observer 24The DR departments related to the project Definitions 2514objective of the project 14TheThe financial framework 16The cultural heritage content in DR 16 The Networks inThe Public Service Obligations and Value 19 relation to DR’sThe archives 16Scientific Approach Cultural Heritage 5
  • 6. Project 26FigurE 2 – the network OF DR’S CULTURAL PROJECT 27 Value Chain Analysis by Michael Porter 35 Preparation, Inbound logistics 36 No selection in the preparation process 36 Digitisation of the content 36 Securing, Outbound logistics 36Cultural production, digitisation and Two copies of the digitised content 36 Collaboration, Marketing & Sales 36technicalDansk Kulturarv 29 29 development Dissemination, Services 36The Collaboration Reflection upon the process 36 An Analysis of DR’sMemnon 29The Research-Educational Network 29The Research Project LARM 29The Politicalthe Danish Ministry of Culture 30 Global Network 30The Danish Government &The European Union 30FIAT/IFTA 30 Cultural Heritage Project 38 andChanging the Conditions of the Project via the Network – A short study of Copy-Dan and IPR 33The Interaction Between the Networks 33The processes of Max Boisot – Data, Informationthe project 34 Cultural Knowledge in the Information-space 39 Figure 4 – THE AGENT-IN-THE-WORLD 39 Data, Information & Knowledge in the Case Study 40 Figure 5 – THE INFORMATION SPACE 40The digitization workflow in DR’s The Social Learning Curve in InformationHeritage Project PROJECT 35Figure 3 – VALUE CHAIN OF DR’S CULTURAL 35 Space The1metadata project 41 Scanning – 4The Overall Process of Digitising, Preserving, Disseminating, and Collaborating 35 Problem-solving – The Film Pilot 43 Abstraction – archiving for future use 446
  • 7. for DR’s CulturalDiffusion – The Collaboration of Dansk Kulturarv 44Absorption – LARM Research Project 45Impacting – the Creation of the Online Archive Bonanza 45Figure 6 – Bonanza’s first month 45The value of knowledge creation 47The Market Value of Digitising CulturalHeritage 47VALUE 47FigurE 7 – THE PARADOX OF Heritage project 52 Thoughts and reflections 55FIGURe: 8: VALUE OF CULTURAL HERITAGEFIGURe: 9: KNOWLEDGE, SOURCE: BOISOT. 48 References 55FIGURe: 10: ACCESS TO AND USE OF CULTURAL HERITAGE 48The Cultural Production Value 49Public Service Value of Digital CulturalHeritage in Society 49The Value and I-space 49Conclusions 50Guiding Principles for Exploring the Digitisation of Cultural Heritage and Creating Value 51A brief introduction to guiding principles 52 11 - STRATEGIC GUIDELINES 52FIGUREGuiding principles 7
  • 8. Two young boys are kneeling on the rug in front of the TV, while their little sister is examing the program by touching the screen. California, USA, November 23, 1953 Photographer: Ed Clark -Source: Life Magazine September 26, 19608
  • 9. Introducing the thesis and its objectiveCopenhagen, August 2011 also comme il faut within the Danish First and foremost the essential criteria Broadcasting Corporation and how the for justifying investing in new servicesYou are reading the master’s thesis project considers value. and solutions is that the project canwritten by Miriam Lerkenfeld and Tobias This exploration of the term value, enrich the existing environment and theGolodnoff. It is a study of digitisation we envision to drive to a better public. This is to make sure that the finaland valorisation of the Danish understanding of the possibilities of products that will enrich the users andBroadcasting Corporation’s cultural cultural heritage, when meeting the support an understanding of our sharedheritage which is the archive containing demand in the Public-service contract history and cultural heritage and therebycontent dating from 1896 to 2005. of 2011-2014: expand the overall level of knowledge and future success in society.We are both employees in DR as ”DR skal blandt andet afwell as master’s students at the IT- kulturarvmæssige hensyn bevare Conclusively, the knowledge we haveUniversity of Copenhagen. Both of us sine programarkiver. DR skal fremme acquired in our work with the thesis,have been working on DR’s Cultural digitaliseringen af programarkiverne for has given us new ideas regarding howHeritage Project. Hence it seems like bl.a. på denne måde at give borgerne one can ensure a better and less costlya natural thing to examine the project adgang til sine programarkiver, production for the prerequisites foras a case study and make this the dog med de begrænsninger, der future use. This, we hope, will inspirefoundation of our thesis, and try to følger af lovgivning mv., herunder us and others to create more and bettergrasp possibilities and challenges at ophavsretsloven. DR skal aktivt arbejde products and services for disseminatinghand. We would also like to dive into for i videst muligt omfang at kunne gøre the valuable archive content. Contentthe project on a theoretic note; a luxury DR’s programarkiver tilgængelige for DR and others hold, be it in exhibitions,we don’t have in our day-to-day work. befolkningen og forskermiljøerne.” audiovisual programs, research at - DR’s Public Service-kontrakt for 2011- libraries and in the state’s archives, orThe objective of DR’s Cultural Heritage 2014 in the digital domain, where the contentProject has been and still is maximising can engage the users in new ways.the digitisation output of the granted In English:budget of 75 million DKK. Preferably in “DR must preserve its archives duea manner that supports value creation to cultural heritage considerations. We sincerely hope you will enjoyfor the end users. But first and foremost DR shall promote the digitisation reading the report.within the traditional value chain of of programme archives in order tothe project, with a focus on creating provide access to the citizens, under All the best,a margin, which will allow more of the the limitations imposed by legislation, Miriam Lerkenfeld & Tobias Golodnoffarchive to be digitised. etcetera, including copyright laws. DR must work actively to ensure accessSince the project began in 2007, and availability of the programmesignificant results have been archives in its fullest extent for both toaccomplished. Some of the the public and research community. “.accomplishments have been fostering - DR’s Public Service Contract for 2011new learning, inspiring the network – 2014around the project to optimiseworkflows and use of their content, There are numerous opportunities inbut it has also had a role in changing connecting existing collections, newhow public service is perceived. One content and technologies, which todayof the key activities is the development have the potential to create synergiesnew processes and standards for and explore a contemporary approachdigitisation, dissemination and to public service. We are envisioningcollaboration that has created value for this and are trying to facilitate valuethe institution, but also its collaborators. creation as a process with theAdditionally, a new way of structuring participation of DR, the users andprojects has been developed both terms of cultural heritage, but 9
  • 10. 1CHApTER Ontology of the project So, what is the ontology of the study? Fundamentally, it can take many forms, and in this case it is interesting to define cultural heritage’s role in society as well as in DR, and understand its characteristics and purpose. The outcome will be the ability to choose the right tools and methods for analysing the case. Unfolding the ontology also suits the purpose of understanding how the internal organisation will benefit from the digital cultural heritage, which differs from the political, but also how they both are creators and users of a generated value. When we use the term “value” we have an explorative way of using it. Generally, we believe it as a description of an object or phenomenon’s potential for creating or utilising its elementary conditions, but it can also be value in the neoclassical economic sense.10
  • 11. Political was that cultural heritage was also ”The Culture Heritage must be alive, Ministry of Science, in collaboration, bridging the gap between different and therefore it must digital and our prioritised four projects, which in total cultural institutions such as libraries, focus is to make the Danish culture were supported with 21 million DKK; archives, museums, and public services history and natural history accessible among the most important projectsBackground broadcasters, on an international scale- via/on the internet. A culture heritage was the establishment of the Heritage -because the materials seem more that is alive creates a common Agency of Denmark in 2002, and a DKK valuable when they were contextualised framework within the society and 75 mill grant to the Danish Broadcasting by materials from other sources. ensure that coming generations are Corporation in 2007. aware of our history. Without thisDuring the end of the 20th century and Naturally, another point was the awareness the common sense of The grant was central for the Danishthe beginning of the 21st there has diffusion of cultural heritage. Since, responsibility and the basis to have Broadcasting Corporation becausebeen an increased political interest in digitised content is easier to spread, a a varied view of the development of it resulted in the establishment of adigitising cultural heritage, not only on digitisation of cultural heritage made society will crumble.” project - DR’s Cultural Heritage Projectthe national agenda, but also trans- it geographically independent and - Per Stig Møller, The Danish Minister of – that was solely dedicated to digitisingnationally. Institutions such as the EU multipliable. Therefore, the digitisation Culture: April 2010 and disseminating the cultural heritagehave emphasised the significance of was found attractive, because it from the public broadcasters archives.cultural heritage in society as well. became feasible to disseminate digitally Because of the importance of cultural rather than in its original form. Also, it heritage, the government set up a“If one word should encompass and is a more flexible format for preparing committee in 2006, whose purposesummarise the vision of the Comité des the content to be consumed through was to explore cultural heritage. TheSages, it would be “access”. When it future new media channels, which final physical product was the reportcomes to our common cultural heritage, potential and use currently cannot be ‘Digitalisering af Kulturarven’ publishedthere is no bigger challenge; there comprehended. by the Danish Ministry of Culture inis no more urgent question than to 2009. The report suggested that theresecure the access of current and future The task of creating cultural products should be an increased focus ongenerations to this heritage. Access for and preserving them seem more preserving Danish cultural heritage.the largest population, both European relevant than ever. However, theand non-European. And access to one task could not be given solely to a A national digitisation would serve oneof the richest cultural heritages in the commercial market. The reason is that it purpose. It would secure and preserveworld, a universal common good” such an essential good for a democracy the national heritage, and it could- European Commission: 2011: 9 that it should be undertaken by the also be used in the digital domain to state. In most countries the digitisation generate national value by enrichingThe access to cultural heritage was of cultural heritage was made the public by making the digital culturalofficially prioritised on the political mandatory for cultural institutions, and heritage accessible. The rapportagenda. Ideologically, it was also libraries, archives and public service outlined three scenarios for futurebecoming a political solution for broadcasters became key players in digitisation and development if thesustaining national culture and the process. In 2011, the European assigned budget would be: no funding,cohesiveness in a globalised world, Commission formulated some DKK 300 or DKK 500 mill over a ten-where local culture was challenged suggestions for the actors that could be year period (Digitising of the Culturalby technology development. A topic drivers in digitising cultural heritage: Heritage: 2009).theorists like Manuel Castells alsodiscuss: ”We are of the opinion that the public Because of the international financial sector has the primary responsibility for crisis the report was not finished until “Research has shown that audiences making our cultural heritage accessible 2009 and the digitising budged of DKKare more sensitive to content that is and preserving it for future generations. 300 mill or DKK 500 was not granted.specific to their culture (Miller 2007). This responsibility for and control over Consequently, the political prioritySo, while there is a layer of global Europe’s heritage cannot be left to of digitising cultural heritage was onculture in all media industries, most one or a few market players, although hold, and given this, the use of culturalcultural products are local rather than we strongly encourage the idea of heritage has yet to be defined bothglobal. Indeed, a study by Tubella bringing more private investments and politically and practically.(2004) has shown decisive importance companies into the digitisation arenaof television in constructing a national through a fair and balanced partnership” As cultural heritage has and still playsidentity under the conditions of cultural - European Commission: 2011: 4 a significant role in society, the Danishdomination by another nation (…)” government has, since the 1990s, been- Castells: 2009:124 In Denmark, the digitisation of cultural funding different initiatives with the heritage is significant part of the political purpose of supporting the developmentThe intentions behind political focus agenda. It is the same argument as of a digital cultural heritage. Theon digital cultural heritage were heard internationally: there is an urgent political wish is still present, and inmany. However, preservation and need for preserving and disseminating 2010 smaller grants were allocated toaccessibility seem to be the dominating the Danish cultural heritage. In 2010 the specified projects within the culturalobjectives. A more general approach Minister of Culture stated: sector. The Ministry of Culture and the 11
  • 12. Sony VP-1210 U-Matic videocassette player. Photographer: Grant Hutchinson -Source: Flickr, Open source license12
  • 13. The case – when digitising cultural heritage, and (Internal Memo DR ØU: Appendix 1: subsequently, how this is distributed Historical outline 01.11.2007). into organisation and network, thus society. However, the case has a quite Finally, in 2007, the politicalDR’s Cultural complex structure, which requires an in At the same time, digitisation of the negotiations resulted in a DKK 75 mill depth description. national heritage was was debated funding for DR to digitalise its archive. intensely in the Ministry of Culture. The money was given as a one-time All the larger cultural institutions, the funding in order for DR to start theHeritage Heritage Agency of Denmark and digitisation and preservation process. The Danish Broadcasting the Ministry Of Culture were keen on The ministerial aspiration was to secure using new technology to preserve the funds from the fiscal budget, through Corporation and the collections and to enrich the Danes the yearly-agreed Finanslov (theProject with access to the cultural heritage. But national budget), hoping the Ministry of Cultural Heritage Project despite the national focus on digital Culture could secure new funds for a cultural heritage and the need for a series of activities. The funds should be digitisation of the broadcast archives, used for a national mass digitisation of DR’s Cultural Heritage Project is a part DR--together with TV2 and the State cultural heritage.DR’s Cultural Heritage Project is an of the Danish Broadcasting Corporation and University Library - lost an earlierinteresting case, because it is the only (DR), which is the home organization agreed upon budget post of DKK 80 In relation to the grant of DKK 75 mill,project among the Danish cultural of the project. DR is an independent, mill, when the Media Agreement of the government decided to constituteinstitutions that receives substantial license-financed public institution, and 2011-2014 was decided. (Mediepolitisk DR’s obligations in terms of culturalfunding with the single purpose of Denmark’s largest media corporation aftale 2011-2014). heritage in the Media Agreementdigitising the Danish cultural heritage. ( The company is organized in for 2007-2010. It was consideredAdditionally, the project has a unique seven divisions, which all have different In 2005, while DR continued the a necessity to digitise Danishstructure for a project in a public responsibilities from corporate and work of obtaining funding to digitise Broadcasting Corporation’s entireorganisation, because it is politically strategic, to production and supportive. the archives, there was still a wish archive. However, the funding receivedobliged to collaborate autonomously for optimising the digital production only covered 25% of the expectedwith external partners outside the The workforce is dedicated to creating facilities and making better use of the economic needs, primarily to ensuretraditional organisation of DR. public-service content for the six content. The wish for a digitisation of that the most perishable parts of the national TV-channels, the ten radio the archives had increased with the archive were not lost.An aspect that makes the project an channels, (where three are FM-based establishment of DR-Byen’s digitalinteresting case is its ability to innovate and seven are DAB-channels) and the production system, even though the A more concrete prerequisite was thatand its openness toward external website The website is the cultural institutions did not receive DR should also increase its offerings topartners, that has made the project largest content website in Denmark, additional funding for digitising in the the public by developing new conceptsinternationally recognised for fostering and it is currently undergoing a first round. and programmes; and by doing this,sustainable innovation, e.g., processes revitalisation, and it plays a vital role in increase its market share. It was alsofor digitising and collaborating. By doing disseminating digital cultural heritage, a A workgroup in DR produced the articulated that there was a needthis the project has been pushing the role that will be discussed later on. internal report called ‘Plan for for a functioning archive with user-external environment both on a national Digitalisering af DR’s Kulturarv’ (Plan friendly interface and the possibilityscale, but also on an international In the beginning of the 21th century DR for the Digitisation of DR’s Cultural of self-service when requesting morescale. was building its new headquarters and Heritage) in august 2005. The report popular content (Internal Memo DR re-organising both the spatial locations analysed and seized the challenge of ØU: Appendix 1: 01.11.2007). In sum,The expectation of the project is that and organisational set-up. digitalising the content of DR’s physical it was the focus on the digitisation ofit should be creating value for society archives. One of the conclusions was the part of the archive that containedby making cultural content accessible. The purpose of creating a new that DR’s archives were challenged, programmes along with the creationThis value of cultural heritage is, headquarters, DR-Byen (DR-City), and that they would deteriorate if of specific products like programmes,however, yet to be defined. This is was to bring all of DR’s employees nothing was done to preserve it, and a services, etc. In conclusion, thiskey issue when discussing cultural in the Copenhagen area together, substantial part would be lost by 2015. became the commission for DR’sheritage, because there is no universal whereas they formerly had been It also estimated that the total cost of Cultural Heritage Project.concrete description of what the value scattered around town at more than 20 digitising the whole archive would beactually is, instead the general focus different addresses. In DR-Byen every DKK 284 mill.has primarily been simply the digitising production facility would be connectedand dissemination of cultural heritage. and online, and the physical state of the DR articulated that the main objectiveHowever we have an assumption to archive would therefore not serve the of the Cultural Heritage Project was towhat the value could be, and what we editorial teams in the same favourable ensure DR’s archive content againstprimarily think of when using it on a way. Consequently, the relocation of crumbling in order to make use of thembroad scale, which will be examined DR also began to impact the need for in future productions. Furthermore, thethroughout the thesis. digitising the program archives in order need for making the cultural heritage for DR to become a high-tech media accessible was also touched upon,The case then serves the purpose corporation. constituting the need for pilot projectsof exploring how value is created such as 13
  • 14. The DR departments related tothe projectDR JPS - Jura, Politik & DR Bånd & Film DR TU Innovation This ideology was, and is, still sharedStrategi The objective of the project by DR and the political establishment, Carriers and Film Innovation and Development but now also formulated in Public Service agreement for 2011-2014. ItLaw, Policy & Strategy DR Bånd & Film (B&F) is organized DR’s Cultural Heritage Project has, states that: as a part of the A&R. It has existed for since its start, been working closely Today, DR’s Cultural Heritage ProjectDR JPS is the department of DR’s legal, more than fifty years and helps produce with DR’s departments of technical is a digitising and innovation project “DR must preserve its programmepolicy, and strategy advisers which, and run programs on modern technical development and innovation. The whose purpose it is to digitise the archives for reasons of culturalas part of the General Director’s staff, equipment. The department is highly department’s focus is on on technology- Danish cultural heritage, in this case heritage. DR must promote theis concerned with strategy within DR. specialized and acts as the digitising supported innovation in the digitisation the Danish Broadcasting Corporation’s digitising of its program archives and inThe department supports the project unit and consultant in the digitisation process, and the external cooperation programme archive, and actively to this way make them accessible to theprimarily in two areas: communication of the archive. At the beginning of within the project. make the archive content available for public, observing/respecting the legalwith the Ministry of Culture, where the the DR’s Cultural Heritage project the public and research community. Key limitations in force, e.g. the interlectualdepartment oversees and handles the the department normally handled This is work in progress, so to ensure objective is to give the public access to property rights law. DR must worklegal framework; and legal counselling, digitisation tasks on demand, but during optimum use of resources, both the cultural heritage by: activeily to make DR’s programwhen the project is involved in the early years of the project they have in digitising & preserving, but also archives widely available to the publicdissemination and collaboration participated and shared knowledge mediation, TU Innovation has lead and • Digitising DR’s TV and radio and research environment.”projects. within the field which has changed the developed the Culture Heritage Archive broadcasts and to work actively - DK’s Public Service Contract 2011- digitisation process to facilitate a much Open System called CHAOS. The to create visible value for the 2014: 15The department handled the negotiation more industrialized process. platform uses open-source principles publicof Arkivpakke 1&2, which are used as about contributing communities, and • Avoid the selection of the This means that DR is now obligedthe legal foundation for creating online DR’s Cultural Heritage Project has archive and work to secure and to not only the digitisation andaccess to the content and broadcasting contracted with a number of external digitise all the unique archive, preservation of archives but DR mustit in TV or radio. This will be explained partners, primarily from the cultural so DR’s share of the overall also has to engage actively in thefurther, when organisation Copy-Dan isdescribed. DR TU IT Infrastruktur / community and they are all contributing in developing the system. The common safeguarding of the heritage for the future is secured dissemination of the digital content – creating value for the public and the Produktionsystemer use, ensure low cost operation and further development of the system’s The project is inter-organisational, research environment. The obligation does not demand full access, but Infrastructure and Production core. where colleagues from different areas acknowledges that the dissemination systems of DR are working together in order to has to be viewed within the legalDR Arkiv & Research digitise and disseminate the cultural framework DR operates under. The The departments of Infrastructure and heritage. The project is in contact with reasoning for not specifying full access Production Systems has collaborated every element of the process from is that the project has some challengesArchive and Research with the project and put a great deal of carriers, the metadata or descriptions of in terms of intellectual property rights, effort into securing the preservation and the content, the digitisation, storage and which result in some legal restrictions ofDR Arkiv & Research (A&R) consists usability once the digital content has distribution technologies, intellectual how the project can use the content.of DR’s archives and library. The been produced. property rights, as well as managingdepartment operates the library, and and disseminating the content. It is a Furthermore, DR’s Cultural Heritage“owns” the physical program archive Infrastructure has led the expansion of unique constellation in DR because has made it an objective to act onof all the historic DR productions. the filing capacity, in order to prepare it spans the entire value chain from and exploit the newest knowledgeEmployees have access to everything the Mediearkiv for the extensive amount handling the earlier hard-to-use content and technologies that support afrom TV-programs, radio broadcasts, of new data files which is constantly through the digitalisation process, to maximisation of the outcome. Insightssound-effects and photographs, as well expanding. And the Production systems production of new content, which is are mostly gathered through theas books, newspapers, journals and department has worked on securing seen or used by new users. engagement in external collaborationsmagazines. A&R does research in DR’s the interest of DR’s original archive- and networks with other broadcasterscollection for internal use, and facilitates metadata in order to ensure that the The success criteria of the project is and audiovisual archives, which arethe people working in the production. data files are organized correctly in one now determined by the management faced with similar challenges in relationFurthermore, A&R sells its services to place with the correct metadata. Both to be the project’s ability to take full to digitisation, technological and marketpeople outside DR. tasks have been finalised with success. advantage of the funding, being development. In reality this has resulted digitising as much content as possible in a clear focus on documentingIn terms of the Cultural Heritage at a DR specified and authorised file and communicating new insight andproject, A&R specifically process the quality. Furthermore, collaborating knowledge in the field of digitisation,preparation and transportation of with other national cultural archives technology development, and culturaltapes to the external partner Memnon to increase the synergy between well as random testing and quality the collections, and by thus addingassurance of digital files. value for the users, was a criterion ofThey participate and share knowledge success. This is what is referred to asin the development of optimised ‘use equals value’, meaning that themetadata workflows and are users utilisation of the content is theresponsible for the practical part of value. One could even argue that thehandling the files in the Mediearkivet digitisation is the means to that end.(media archive).14
  • 15. Another set of 1/2” video tape reels containing high school industrial arts course material from the early 1980s. These tapes were part of a large collection of instructional videos obtained from the Calgary Catholic Board of Education as they were purging outdated media formats. Photographer: Grant Hutchinson -Source: Flickr, Open source license15
  • 16. Dissemination and Collaboration was calculated in 2007. It was decided Another source of error is doubles, The news archive was consideredThe financial framework that the project would cover the cost where the same content is saved on to be of great importance because tasks of the first LTO data-tape to store the two or more carriers. Experts have archival footage traditionally was and The costs of disseminating and digital content, because an expansion estimated that in the radio archive, still is extremely valuable for the newsIn DR, the process of digitisation and collaborating are established in order of DR’s main system Mediearkivet was there is significant overlap in parts production team.dissemination has been running since to work across the cultural sector. not expected or covered in any of the of the radio collection that is boththe funds were granted in 2007. It was The goal is to create additional value approved budgets in DR. The cost of stored on 1/4-inch reel tape from thedecided in the earlier stages that the when combining the content from DR running Mediearkivet: updating software production archive and on DAT tapeobjective for the project should be to: with other collections of art, pictures and exchanging hardware and the from broadcast archive. or books, etcetera, in order to give LTO-tapes when they become obsolete • Maximise the output of the better access to and contextualisation is covered in DR’s technical yearly digitisation of cultural heritage. Furthermore, the budget. • Collaborate with external, collaboration helps enrich the content The archives mainly cultural, partners to by provided new or better metadata, The cultural create value for DR’s users along with the development of a new media assets management that Digitalisation and preservation ofTo secure a successful project process, supports online archiving and cross- DR’s archive content have alwaysa set of rules for the use of the funds organisational collaboration. The been with the purpose of enriching heritagewas decided by the board of directors EU has emphasised this matter in a the public. Some parts of the contentof DR in 2007. These rules have led to digitisation report stating that: DR’s Cultural Heritage Project aims toa division of the budget in three areas: digitise have been outside the reach “Cultural institutions add considerable of the public for a long period of time. content in DR 1. Administration 9 % amounts of information to digitised Content, which has been stored in 2. Digitisation & Preservation 79 % objects (metadata), describing for aged physical formats, is therefore only 3. Dissemination and example the author, the provenance consumable for a small exclusive group Collaboration 12 % and age of the work, giving contextual of manufacturers. Today, technology information, as well as technical has changed our production capabilitiesA budget structure and financial information on the formats used and Part of the digitization task is an and enabled a previously unthinkableallocation was accepted by the Ministry characteristics allowing search engines ongoing examination of the content, degree of dissemination and usability.of Culture. The three areas all cover to locate the object. This metadata is in order to ensure that as much of Because of the technology, DR is nowdifferent sets of tasks and objectives. essential to provide the user with a the unique radio, television and film able to exploit the cultural heritage in a useful background to the work, and materials are being preserved as new extensive degree. also to allow search-engines such possible. The collections is believedAdministration tasks as Europeana to locate the digitised to hold about 478,000 hours of radio, The importance of making culturalThe administration budget is used by objects relevant in the context of a 68,000 hours of TV and 17,500 hours of heritage accessible has previously beenthe project management team to ensure specific search.” film. Film was used in the early years as highlighted. This has since been anthat the funds spent on the other budget -European Commission: 2011: 33 the broadcast medium and was used as essential part of the political argumentposts are in line with the given set of the primary part of content in the news that the content should be activated.rules and the project agreement with production up to the mid-eighties.the Ministry of Culture. In addition to The archive is a series of producedthe managerial task, the administration Project Costs, Not Running Cost The archive volume is believed to be programs and production materialswork also covers the needed research The overall project budget has been 563,500 hours in total. It does not hold that can be divided into smaller sub-and documentation tasks. approved by the Ministry of Culture and a complete collection of what DR has collections from various departments is handled under another regulation broadcasted since its establishment and external sources. One of the than DR’s overall four years financial in 1925. The volume is estimated collections is ‘Politikens Film’-journals;Digitisation & Preservation tasks agreement. This means that funding and holds some uncertainty, because they were showed in the cinemas asThe digitisation budget holds the largest does not have to be spent within a metadata or descriptions from DR’s a form of news from the world beforesum of money. It covers the complex yearly given timeframe – giving the archive do not contain the information television became the news media.task of digitalising or converting the project a flexibility that is crucial for about the duration for many of thecontent from the physical carriers to optimising the spending related to the collections. The most complete collection is thethe needed digital file formats, and digitisation work. television news, which is more or lessafterwards preserving them. The volume has been estimated by complete. It consists of 16mm films As a result of this flexible economy counting the 35-kilometers of shelves with all the content pieces from theThe budget also covers some technical the project is not allowed to hold fixed of materials, grouping them into mid-fifties to the mid-eighties. DR doeshardware and development, because cost, so if activities require a running sub-collections and then--based on not have a copy of the anchormanthere has been a need for expanding investment, it must be approved by comprehensive sampling--calculating introducing the news, because thethe storage in order for DR to handle the board of directors and then the the expected duration of each group actual broadcast was not recorded,the new tasks related to preserving the cost is transferred to other areas in the of materials. An error of five minutes but from 1984 and on the productionarchive material digitally. DR organisation. To illustrate: what is per carrier for the television part would flow changed and a copy of the aired considered a project cost and running change the collection with around 5600 news broadcast are from this time on cost in the project, the storage cost hours, or just over eight percent of its stored on U-Matic; a digital videotape. volume.16
  • 17. FOrmats within the DR ARCHIVeU-Matic HB LB SP 1D1.800 Hours 1.275 Hours1”C digital beta 1”B DVC probetacam13.500 Hours 10.880 HOURS 5.400 Hours 3.319 HOURS32.639 HOURSSource: DR’s Culteral Heritage project & the legacy report17
  • 18. Typical American family gathered around TV, which displays John F. Kennedy’s face, to watch debate between Kennedy & Richard Nixon during presidential election. -Source: Life Magazine September 26, 196018
  • 19. The Public legitimised in terms of frequency because cultural heritage today has It is only a tool for measuring public cultural institutions operate scarcity, its justification lies in its become a general public concern, something abstract, and it will only within. Value is therefore a cornerstone superiority to the market as a means however, the definition, of what it be approximation in order to explain in digitising the cultural heritage, of providing all citizens, whatever actually is, are numerous. One way the reality of cultural heritage that represented by the phrase “Use equalsService their wealth or geographical location, the Danish Government defines its cannot fully be grasped. Historically value”. The phrase establishes a strong equal access to a wide range of high importance is as being essential for the definition of value has always been dedication to ensuring that the users quality entertainment, information and the value of giving citizens a cultural difficult to calculate when the objects are the ones benefiting from the value. education, and as a means of ensuring foundation and a national identity in a analysed did not fit into neoclassical This mindset is key throughout theObligations that the aim of the programme producer globalised world. economic way of describing the world. process, from digitisation to the actual is the satisfaction of a range of consuming of the cultural heritage. audience tastes rather than only those “Regeringen vil fortsat arbejde for Manuel Castells is trying to defy this tastes that show the largest profit.” at styrke og udvikle det frie danske traditional thinking about value:and Value - Garnham: 1986:12-13 kulturliv i de kommende år. Det gælder såvel i forhold til at udvikle kunstens “The old question of industrial Hence, in order to be successful as internationalisering og kunstens rolle society – indeed, the cornerstone of a public service broadcaster, DR has som formidler af danske demokratiske classical political economy – namely, to balance its obligations as a public værdier som i forhold til at sikre “what is value?,” has no definiteWhen analysing the objective of the service institution set by the politicians, kendskabet til kulturarven og den answer in the global network society.project, it is important to emphasize with the user demands and market værdi, som ligger i at virke på et stærkt Value is what is processed in everythe context that DR operates in. The mechanisms. DR Cultural Heritage kulturelt fundament. Kulturarven har predominant network at every time inimportance of making cultural heritage Project inherits this challenging væsentlig betydning for danskernes every space according to the hierarchyaccessible has previously been foundation, and furthermore there are identitetsfølelse i en globaliseret programmed in the network by thehighlighted, but currently an essential added complexities by its obligation verden, og kunst og kultur får i disse år actors upon the network. Capitalismpart of the political argument is that the to collaborate with external projects en stigende betydning. Regeringen vil has not disappeared. Indeed, it iscontent should be activated and used and partners with different sets of derfor fortsætte arbejdet med formidling more pervasive than ever. But it isby the public. As previously touched objectives. However, the common af den danske kulturarv nationalt og not, against a common ideologicalupon, the role as a public service goal is still to supply society with internationalt.” perception, the only game in the globalbroadcaster, as well as a producer of quality information that increases the - Mulighedernes samfund, town.”culture have been widely discussed. knowledge of the population, and Regeringsgrundlag 2007 - Castells: 2009: 29Nevertheless, use is crucial, as Castell this separates public service fromargues: commercial approach to the market. As In political terms, this means that Max Boisot argues that the notions Goodman argues: identity and culture has value, of “in the beginning was the market”“Moreover, the range of investment especially when we are discussing do not convincingly answer many ofof these global multimedia business “This emphasis on quality and democratic value. Also, this value society’s questions because informationnetworks increases with new excellence connects public service is considered to be proportionally and data are not free commodities inpossibilities of interactive, multi-modal media to the notion of “merit goods.” important with increased globalisation, society. He argues, the ability in agentscommunication, particularly the Internet Often used in connection with the thus, the need for disseminating cultural to create a codification and abstractionand wireless communication networks. performing and fine arts, merit goods heritage should not only be national, and thereby transform and createIn this case, the programming of refer to products that the market would but also international. knowledge from data and informationthe networks is less about content not produce but should be made is at the core of value creation. Whenthan about format. The Internet only available because they do people The goal of DR’s Heritage Project is to this has happened he argues can abecomes profitable if people use it, good.” create value by distributing the Danish diffusion of knowledge happen whichand people would use it less if it lost its - Goodman: 2004: 26 cultural heritage. But, how is the public would be a market vaporization of afundamental features: interactivity and service value constructed? A good product or a service. A process that’sunfettered communication, regardless This creates a natural question about way to observe value is to assume happening in what he defines as theof how surveilled it is.” the foundation of the Cultural Heritage that value is flows of information in Information Space. (Boisot et al: 2007)- Castells: 2009: 421 Project: is cultural heritage merit society that the public translates into goods? The answer is in this case, knowledge by consuming it. One This brings us closer to the value ofIn Denmark the political framework yes. Given that cultural heritage is cannot measure the value or the cultural heritage. Larger actors infor public service broadcasting is knowledge about society, it is not a consumption, but it can be assumed networks adjacent to DR’s Culturalarticulated in the law ‘Radio- og scarcity good, one can share it without that the information is accessible and Heritage project are acknowledgingFjernsynsloven’ and Medieforliget, having less. disseminated in order to be used. the value of the archives and culturalwhich is negotiated between DR When digitising the cultural heritage the heritage, making room for definitionand the politicians every fourth year. The cultural heritage can therefore have technology makes us able to measure of value based on other criteria thanNicholas Garnhams analysis of public value for everyone in the society, what the use of the available content, thus economics. The abstract value ofservice in the article ‘Public Service prevents it from being shared will in this making us able to determine value by cultural heritage is the reason thatversus the market’ sets a clear outline case be the availability or accessibility. measuring the use. Hence, there is today it is being prioritised in theof the reality DR manoeuvres in. Cultural heritage is an abstract an interesting and close relationship political budgets and the different phenomenon that makes it difficult to between cultural heritage, value and framework agreements, which the“For the truth is that while the public grasp, hence, also to commercialise. use.regulation of broadcasting has been This creates an interesting issue, 19
  • 20. 2CHApTER Scientific Approach and Description of Methods20
  • 21. research Project exploit the digitisation of defined as different networks around Cultural Heritage so digitisation the project, that relates to both local Working questions creates value within the organisation and global actors. Their interactions, and in society? fusions and environments create 1. What is DR’s Cultural Heritage& Working society. The networks and society are Project? This is a brief description We have chosen the word ‘how’ in able to create and absorb value within of the case and the foundation for order to create explorative approach, a given context, hence always been establishing the project in 2007, where an explanation of DR’s Cultural dynamic entities that change over time. which have already been presentedquestions Heritage Project could be given with It should be emphasised that there is a 2. Which networks is the project the purpose of connecting previous relationship between the digital cultural involved in, and what are the events to the current phenomenon, and heritage and the society, because they characteristics of the key players? through this examine the case. The are related and influence each other. 3. What activities is the project approach of asking how is one of the involved in, and how are theyThe objective of this thesis is to give preferred methods for case studies. As This means that society and culture creating value? Through a valuea theoretical understanding of the Yin explains: is made of processes, which are chain analysis we will try tovalue created when digitising cultural constantly changing and affecting each describe the different workflows,heritage, but also the more pragmatic “In contrast, “how” and “why” questions other. An assumption--which is the the production and output of theaspects such as how one can facilitate are more explanatory and likely to lead foundation of the project--given that Cultural Heritage Projectinnovation and change the conditions to the use of case studies, histories, work within the project has the ability to 4. How are data, information, andof a project by interacting with different and experiments as the preferred change society. Additionally, we want to knowledge constructed in theadjacent networks. research methods. This is because emphasise ‘the value of communication’ different networks, and how does such questions deal with operational as a hypothesis, leaning towards a this effect what Boisot calls theIn fact, the final product will be links needing to be traced over time, Castells argument that is: information-space? This is anconclusions on the value creation rather than mere frequencies and analysis of the knowledge andand utilisation and a set of strategic incidence.” “The common culture of the global value of the project, how is itguidelines that is developed for the -Yin:2009:9 network society is a culture of created and how can we explorethesis, but can be used as general protocols of communication enabling the process of sharing andguidelines that are for digitising When we observe the operational communication between different absorbing value.cultural heritage. Furthermore, we links in the project, the different cultures on the basis not of shared 5. What are the guiding principle forpresent reflections upon how value is players in the research question values but of the sharing of the value of creating and sharing value, whencreated for the Danish Broadcasting should be explained. We have chosen communication.” digitising cultural heritage?Corporation and in society. to highlight three key players; the - Castells: 2009: 38 Danish Broadcasting CorporationWhen discussing digital cultural (DR), DR’s Cultural Heritage Project, The hypothesis puts great importanceheritage the key focus will be the and Society. We will not explore the in the value of being able todigitised audiovisual content from DR’s question ‘why’, however, because the communicate by establishing commonarchives dating 2005 and back to 1896, Danish Broadcasting Corporation and codes for interacting. However, creatingsince this was the physical object that the Danish government have already shared value is not a necessary goal.resulted in the grant of DKK 75 mill to defined this, and answer to ‘why’ is In relation to cultural heritage this isDR. The grant was only given because already handled in prerequisites that quite important, because it gives anthe archive was and still is considered initiated the project. objective to diffuse cultural heritageto be highly valuable, not only for DR, with an emphasis on communication,but for society. DR’s Cultural Heritage Project, in this and not the establishment of a shared also referred to as ‘the project’, which value that could be viewed in this caseFocusing on the added value that DR’s is a small organisation within DR, as nationalism or cultural domination.Cultural Heritage Project is creating, responsible for the actual processes Instead the digital technology opensthe processes in the project and the and activities. If you compare DRs towards sharing culture, betweennetwork seems like key elements in organisation to the project, DR is the the masses but also between thethe analysis. Also, we try to explain established organisation that sets the subcultures, thus not making anyhow generated value can and should framework for digitising cultural heritage selection in which content is morebe distributed in the organisation, the by initiating the project. However, the important than the, and society. In this case the two players are quite different, onerelation between value and knowledge being a major media corporation and Based on the research question, theis established, but also a modulation of bureaucracy with many objectives, the case’s entities should be explored,value; meaning is not only value in the other the project itself, a temporary making room for sub-questions. Theterms of neoclassical economics. The project with concrete goals – to digitise function of these is to explore thecase study is based on the research and disseminate the archive content research question by answering thequestion: within DR. sub-questions, subsequently the sub- questions cover.How can the Danish Broadcasting Another aspect or type of player is theCorporation’s Cultural Heritage society. The society will in this case be 21
  • 22. no longer a part of the project activities. analysis tomorrow (Jespersen: 2004). primarily be research documents from cases? Does it have bearing on anyBoundaries The project therefore contributes to the A condition that will shape our work Danish and European institutions, but other cases?” concept development and strategy, but process, because our thesis is written also more political and legislative texts - Olivier: 2009: 98 other departments are responsible for over time, at some point we have to such as the media agreements.Additionally, we need delimitations the actual design and dissemination. decide on a reality, which has already Olivier makes an argument that ato establish the field in which we However, the project still has a changed as soon as we try to describe The purpose of using the documents case study is in danger of becomingare operating, constituting some consultant role and feels ownership of in on paper. Although, time is changing combined with practical work is to too specified, making it hard to drawnatural borders. Despite the fact, we the actual products it has participated in the reality, the outcome will still have try to grasp the causal relationships conclusions valid in other scenarios.are operating with an open system, developing. value tomorrow, much will be the same between the digital cultural heritage, the For that reason the thesis is focusinggrasping everything is an impossible and the results of our analyses and networks around it and the value that is on how a digitisation can create addedtask. Since it is a socio-economic field Following the discussion of the guiding principles should still have being created. value, putting an emphasis on thewe are operating in, all the knowledge interaction between the users and DR guiding value and provide insights. process and not the specific project.we can obtain is contextual, the goal is the public service definition. The Hopefully, the product of the thesis willis then to strive toward ‘justified true thesis will not analyse the public service Critical realism describes that reality Case studies – a reflection be knowledge, hence, useful researchbelief’, because the absolute truth term, but it is used as a reference and consists of three domains – the that can be applied to practical work.cannot be reached (Jespersen: 2004: a framework for the decisions in the empirical domain, the actual domain, upon the method In our case study five components160). Therefore, we are using the project. and the real domain (Jespersen: in designing the research have, forlimitation to examine the field and come 2004:148-149). On the empirical that reason, been key: Taking ancloser to an understanding of the reality, Lastly, the analysis is focusing on domain data is experienced, and all the The case study purpose is not to control approach inspired by Robert Yin casebut the conclusion will be limited by it the processes and network, which data is accessible for the observer. The behavioural, events etc. the objective study design and methods. Thesebeing based on “all other things being doesn’t give us the opportunity to two other levels exist independently is to examine contemporary events. components are:equal”-principle. describe human resources and lead of the observer, the second being the This prioritisation of ‘what is’ fit into management in detail even though they actual domain containing events and the philosophy of the critical realism 1. a study’s questionsIn fact, this means the thesis will not are influencing the project on a daily experience, and finally, the third being (Yin:2009:8). Still, we want to elaborate 2. its propositions, if anygive a description of all agents related basis. Instead we focus on the team’s the real domain where these events why the case study approach has been 3. its unit(s) of analysisto the case. Neither will we be dealing results, making their work the key in our and experiences are supplemented by taken, and the arguments for taken 4. the logic linking the data to thewith the political and legal environment, analysis. mechanisms. Both the actual and the this approach. A definition of the case propositionsalthough areas such as Intellectual real domain existst independently of the study is therefore needed, and we have 5. the criteria for interpreting theProperty Rights and political priorities observer, hence the observer cannot decided to use Schramm definition: findings Critical(IPR) are briefly touched upon. In grasp them (Jespersen: 2007: 148). (Yin: 2009: 27)relation to the agents the interactions Consequently, we can only aim for “The essence of a case study, thebetween them will only be described, grasping how the world is taken to be. central tendency among all types of The study’s question has already beenif the interaction serves a considerable case study, is that it tries to illuminate presented, as well as the propositions Realism asemphasis for the case study. The critical realism is useful when we a decision or a set of decisions: why described in the introductory chapter. can observe an anomaly or something they were taken, how they were The units we are analysing are primarilyThe interactions between the public, unexpected: in this case the funding implemented, and with what result.” a limited part of the network aroundDR and the project will be quite for digitising from the politicians are - Schramm, 1971, quoted by Yin: 2009: project, the value chain activities and a Scientificsuperficial. The public and its demands observable in the empirical domain. 17 process and finally the areas whereand ways of influencing the project are However, the mechanism and events the project can create value. Theonly briefly discussed beause it would on the other domains are far more So far, many have studied the logic linking the proposition will berequire large analysis and quantitative interesting to observe. It is not the cultural heritages impact on society, to use different models for collecting Approachresearch to understand the relation. actual funding that is interesting to digitisation and value creation, and a and explaining the various data, butThis is something the department of analyse, it is the relationships being study combining the areas have also also to look for patterns, in order toDR Medieforskning is working with on a made and the mechanisms that been explored. On the other hand give some guidelines for how an idealregular basis with significant resources shape the outcome of the political an analysis of the individual projects process could be. We are operating inand thus covering this sufficiently. prioritisation. handling everything from digitisation a trans-disciplinary field with financial, This thesis is based in critical realism, to dissemination have rarely been sociological and abstract linkagesAdditionally, the project has not which is a philosophy of science that Key is that the perception of reality examined in detail. DR Cultural creating difficulties for grasping theexplored the user interaction in a prioritizes ontology (i.e. the study of decides the method that should be Heritage has within the last couple actual value of transactions and assets.substantial way, making it hard for being or existence) over epistemology used to grasp reality. In this case we of years experienced an increasingthe case to explore the interaction (i.e. study of the way knowledge is are looking at a trans-disciplinary field, interest for the project, because it made Finally, we will have some criteria forbetween the project as a public service obtained) in the sense that, for critical which affects the approach to acquiring results that previously haven’t been interpreting the findings. In this caseobject and the users being the Danes. realists, the way the world is should new knowledge. The approach we seen. This made us strive towards a these will be finding and highlightingAlthough, the goal of the project is guide the way knowledge of it can be are using is quite pragmatic, because case study that could give insights to activities and principles for the projectto focus more on the users being the obtained (Fleetwood: 2007). In this we have been working on the project other projects, although: to operate after. Based on the findingspublic in the future, it is still quite new case we are operating with an open ourselves, the real expert insight will these should give reason to assumein this field. Should an analysis be system, which is constantly changing. be firsthand experience. Interpreted by “The challenge of a case study is to that they create added value for a givenmade, the product Bonanza initiated by Given this dynamic nature, the ontology us as both informants and researchers. obtain knowledge that is useful and organisation and/or society.DR’s Cultural Heritage Project would will change over time, and therefore To balance the pragmatic approach not merely interesting. Who saysprobably be more interesting. Bonanza the conclusion today will not be the more qualitative data is needed from information obtained from a few casesis now part of DR’s online offerings and same, if we decided to make a similar other sources, and in this thesis this will has been any bearing on any other22
  • 23. The description of the actual domain development of guiding principles for the project, but also when trying to ”Sometimes a single case study isProject Design – Switching will be the relation between the project creating value, when digitising cultural grasp the reality we are analysing. The enough to be significant. A study of a single case of how a criminal broke into and the rest of the internal network in heritage, will be inspired by David objective of the design is then to beBetween Empirical Data and DR, but also between the project and Oliver and Johan Roos’ method of able to identify patterns, in this case a hitherto trusted cipher is enough to impact on future computing practice. A external actors. This will be a very basic making the former. patterns creating value, but also to getTheory mapping of the networks adjacent to a sense of how the value is distributed single-case study is also sufficient to prove a theory of the form X sometimes the project, which serves the purpose In theory, the process has been more within the surrounding networks and of grasping patterns, and increasing iterative as shown in figure 1, however, creates new events and experiences. works or X cause Y.”In order to obtain valid knowledge focus on digitising cultural heritage or the structure of the report needed to Hopefully, this will create a single, but – Olivier: 2009: 103different approaches can be made that technology changing the groundwork create a natural order when presenting significant case study.are either inductive, deductive or as this of the media industry and give an ideacase study adductive. Induction as a of the context in which the projectmethod begins with studying empirical, whereas the deduction starts withapproaching the theory. In this case Furthermore a Value Chain is beingstudy the chosen scientific approachis to use adduction, which gives us the used to map the activities of the project, consequently, this won’t be an in-depth FigurE 1 – PROJECT DESIGNflexibility of shifting between empiricaldata and theory, creating a method analysis, but more a description of the process from taking the tapes off the Source: Golodnoff & Lerkenfeldwhere empirical data and theory shelves to disseminate the content.constantly are weighting each other.This is good tool in examining the case. Finally, we are exploring the realBecause the field we are observing is domain in our analysis. Boisot’s Descriptiveboth complex and dynamic switching distinction between; data, information,between the theory and empirical data and knowledge will be used, in order tohelps us obtain new understandings understand how knowledge is createdand knowledge. in the Information-space (I-space). The I-space is the conceptual frameworkThe project will explore the three where organisations, institutions, Network descriptiondomains of critical realism in order and cultures can be transformed byto understand how one can exploit new information and communicationthe Digital Cultural Heritage to create technologies. The centre of this will bevalue in society. First, on an empirical the digitisation of the cultural heritage,domain, we will try and describe the and the value creation by switchingoutline of DR’s Cultural Heritage between the different elements; data, Value chainProject. In this case we can define information, and knowledge. descriptionthe empirical data as being physicalartefacts before they are contextualised Looking at Boisot’s theory, one could EMPIRICALor conceptualised. Specific data argue, that it has the same levels as the DOMAIN CASTELLS, PORTERis, among others, the tapes in the critical realism. The different levels ofarchive from before 2005. No matter experiencing the study subject can behow it is articulated, these are a looked upon as what Boisot describesphysical phenomenon and possible to as data, information and knowledge. ACTUAL study &observe. The data varies, the dynamic Through the data we collect, we put DOMAIN BOISOT, CASTELLS, A.O. Analysischaracteristics of the cultural heritage together information about the case,has makes it hard to handle as big data and finally we hope to be able to attainwith a lot of common characteristics, new knowledge about the culturaland the constant increase of the volume heritage project. Although, Boisot doesposes new technological challenges not examine how personal creativityfor the institutions responsible for the is related to creating knowledge ordigital preservation. the sociological aspects, his theory is still a good way for us to grasp the REAL conclusions & Guiding principlesThe empirical domain is described phenomenon and its value, which is the DOMAINby using documents such as the objective of this case study. BOISOT, CASTELLS, A.O.Public Service-contract and first handknowledge about the project, internal Conclusively, we will sum up the mostmemos as well as some descriptions important discoveries in our analysisfrom other sources. and use them to create a guiding principle, which can be used when Thoughs & ReflectionsOn the actual domain, we will try and trying to create value in the processcover the basic events and behaviours. of digitising cultural heritage. The 23
  • 24. governing agreement between the However, in this case, the role as the case the best, but the theories thatTheoretical foundation government and the public-service an observer is not a complete term highlighted relevant aspects of the institutions within the media sector in for our method. As employees, we case and forced us to think in different Denmark. In the 2007-2011 agreement have participated in many of the core ways than we would do in our dailyIn trying to understand and answering the funding for the beginning of discussions about the strategies for work. We envision that the conclusionsthe research question we are using digitisation of DR’s archives is given. the project, deliverables or contractual can be used for future work, wheredifferent theories. The value chain Along with the outline of the political matters. These issues, decisions, new empirical studies can be madeanalysis made by Michael Porter wish that has become part of DR’s and elements have affected the field for acquiring insights into the aspectsexplores competitive advantages when Cultural Heritage Projects objectives. of study and development within the found to be crucial.optimising activities in the value chains. project, making it hard to argue thePorter’s theory is used to understand In the agreement for 2011-2014 it is case that we have been taking thethe basics of the most costly part of stated that the content of the archives role of an observer with the purpose ofthe project digitisation workflow. We should be made available in the widest doing research.consider Porter to be a part of the possible way.neoclassical economical paradigm, a This challenges the role of theframework that we are trying to argue DR’s Public service-kontrakt for 2011- researcher because, some might argueagainst in this thesis, that value is not 2014. The contract is based upon the that it is problematic both be part ofonly scarcity and utilisation. However, Mediepolitisk aftale for 2011-2014 and the field study and maintain ability towe will use Porter’s theory, not to specifies DR’s public service objectives perform a good social science practice.analyse competitive advantages, but during this period. In this agreement Additionally, it can be problematic for usto get a method for structuring the the accessibility of the archives for the to be critical when examining the fielddescription of the project activities. users is stressed and it is stated that of study, a fact that we are aware of. DR is to work actively in order to secure Trade-offs between opportunities andOur other theoretical framework, which this. problems one must consider becauseis the foundation of the analysis, is in some circumstances this method canbased in a different paradigm. Our Internal memos in DR regarding the be the only way of gaining access to thearguments place us in a paradigm strategy, the principles, objectives, needed case study material.with a broader definition of value and focus and progress of the project. - Yin: 2009: 113value creation; given that we do not Classified internal documents, thatclassify value as equal to an increase have been presented to the Financial In short, the danger of beingin income, for instance consider Board and the Board of Directors in informants ourselves is the risk ofknowledge to have value. The theories order to discuss project details and get being too influenced, and henceare however not in our specific authorisation for dispositions. not objective enough. Nonetheless,research field, but they share the same being a participant observer has greatperspective as us. Value has more Official documents from a variety of advantages. As Olivier explains:numerous forms, and can be measured relevant source as EU, and EU fundedfrom other approaches such as social project as Presto Space & Presto “The roles a researcher plays duringand psychological. We argue that center, Europeana and EuScreen. And a case study may range from thatCastell, Boisot, Oliver, and Roos agree FIAT/IFTA. of a participant observer to totallythat value is not just in a neoclassical unobtrusive observer. The benefit ofsense, it something more abstract than Lectures and presentations from being a participant observer is that itthat. various national and international allows you to gather information that conferences. would not otherwise be possible.” - Olivier: 2009: 101Empirical Data and Role as a Participant observation. Both analysts are part of the project management Furthermore, we are using informationParticipant Observer team and have, as part of their professional role in DR’s Cultural based on others’ interpretation of data, which could be somewhat problematic. Heritage Project, engaged in the work It can be beneficial if the interpreterThe study has used many different within most of the projects in the case holds greater knowledge for thesources in order to describe the study. interpretation. On the other hand itcase. The case being DR’s Cultural can be difficult to get the most relevantHeritage Project and the many projects, One of the key sources of information interpretation of the data, seen incollaborators and networks it engages in this case study is the participant terms of the research, for our particularin. observations. As a participatory field of study. For this reason we have observer, one participates or engages chosen sources that are either expertsThe empirical data that are used in the with the field of study and becomes within the field or represent publiccase study include: part of the field. This gives the observer organisations, institutions, business etc. access to otherwise unavailableMedia political agreements for 2007- information and knowledge about When selecting the theories, the goal2011 & 2011-2014. The overall the focus of study (Yin: 2009: 112). has not been to find the one that suited24
  • 25. DefinitionsVALUE a term used to describe, CULTURAL HERITAGE Public service term we use when Digitisation process of converting Division describes what in DR is known DivisionValue is Cultural heritage is the (national) Public services is a Digitisation is theunderstand and access how, when, and legacy of physical and digital artefacts addressing the service provided to the content from the carriers into a as a “Direktør område” It is the largestwhy something is contributing positively and intangible attributes of a group the citizens by the government, either file-based format that can be handled unit type within DR. DR holds sevento a given thing, product, individual, of people or a society, which are directly through the public sector by the digital archives, so that it can be of these. The Directors of these aresituation, process, society etc. inherited through the society constant or by financing private provision of stored on a server. This process, used all part of the Board of Directors. A reproduction. services. We address public services by DR’s Cultural Heritage Project, is Division has typically between 400-450We use the term in an explorative as television, museums, libraries, often referred to as retro-digitisation, employees.way, analysing both the asset within A very concrete definition of cultural schools etc. Organisations and services which means the digitisation ofan object or henomenon which has heritage has been made by the Ministry secure a given level of access and analogue content. DR and the projectthe potential of creating or utilising of Culture in 2009: availability to a good that the state have, since the beginning, definedelementary conditions, but it can also defines as being necessary for society digitisation as a synonym for retro- Internal Memobe value in a neoclassical economic “Kulturarv kan være et flygtig begreb, to give access to. Hence, the reason digitisation, and/or digital conversion. Used as a broad term in this thesissense, measure in quantitative men kulturarven er også helt fysisk og for making public service is to ensure covering internal and classifieddefinitions such as price, ratings, etc. konkret, i form a arkiver, bogsamlinger, equality and a broader spectrum of Although, some of the content consists documents that are presented in this pladesamlinger, kunstsamlinger, offerings than a commercial market of digital files, these will originally thesis. Primarily from memos presented filmsamlinger, museumssamlinger og would do, due to lack of financial have been produced in a format that to the Financial Board on the meetings meget mere. Kulturarven er således possibilities in serving the areas. the current production system cannot of Economic Affairs (ØU) or for theUSEterm is being applied to describe ikke blot fysisk til stede, men har recognise or handle technically. Board of Directors (DM). The purposeThe som helt konkret fysisk materialer et of the memos is to get authorisation oftwo kinds of use. One type of use overvældende omfang.” DR’s Cultural Heritage Project is objectives and or focus when DR or its collaborators are - Digitalisering af Kulturarven: 2009: 7 Mediaagreement made by the agreements therefore obliged to push the retro-using content in order to create new Are the digitisation as well as converting The internal documents are onlyproducts and services or knowledge Which translated means: government and DR, TV2 and other digitalised material into usable formats. displayed as quotes in this thesis.that can lead to development of new “The cultural heritage can be an elusive Media enterprises who specifies the Should one wish to see the documents,product or service. Products and concept, but cultural heritage is also deliverables within the sector. It is made authors can be asked for permission.service could be objects such as radio- very physical and concrete, in form of every four years In Danish it referred to .and tv-programmes, online services, archives, libraries, record collections, as: Mediepolitisk aftale. Items used as synonym for theapplications or exhibitions, and other art collections, movie collections, Primarilyinstallations displaying content. museum collections, and more. Our DR’s Cultural Project. Can also be cultural heritage is not only physically an organisational structure related toThe other is when DR’s users are present, it also as a very concrete and DR’sPublic service kontrakt Public service kontrakt solving often smaller defined objectives.using the content. This can be either physically overwhelming scale” DR’sthrough the viewing of broadcast The contract that specifies DR’sofferings, or online. It can be through In DR, all materials of the programme deliverables in regards to the MediaDR’s productions or in collaboration archive, which have been broadcasted Agreement. Projectused as synonym for thewith other partners. It can be more or prior to 2005 and are unique and are Primarilyless interactive. Through broadcast considered DR’s part of the Cultural DR’s Cultural Project. Can also beofferings, in exhibitions on locations, on Heritage. After 2005 materials have to an organisational structure related todemand, or in more interactive ways as be selected by the archive or an editor Content solving often smaller defined objectives.Bonanza’s voting system or the LARM- to be preserved. The selection criteria Content is any audio-visual materials;projects, tagging and metadata applying are cultural value, uniqueness, etc. programs, shows, music, raw footage,features. in relation to DR’s own re-use of the or sounds. Content is considered either materials on their own platforms. non-digital or digital. The digitised Department non-digital content is a part of DR’s A type of organisational construct inDanish Broadcasting The national obligation for preserving the (new) audio-visual cultural heritage Cultural Heritage collection, given this the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, is the only content it is responsible for typically between 6 and 80 people.Corporation’s users media-Users are the payers of the - Statens Mediesamling – has, since 1987, been a part of The State and digitising and preserving.license fee. In Denmark, more or less University Library’s responsibility.everyone is obliged to pay the fee, Unitbecause it is mandatory if a citizen hasa household with either a television, a Carrier Is used as a common description of An organisational term used to define a team, workgroup or, a computer, or a device that can the videotapes, audiotapes or otheraccess the internet such as a smart physical “containers” for Carriers contain content that one can watch, use, or digitise. A carrier could be a: DAT, Betacam and a U-MATIC, in general, it is tapes or cassettes. 25
  • 26. 3CHApTER The Networks in relation to DR’s Cultural Heritage Project26
  • 27. After describing the internal process market, subsequently, the network hasof the project, the external network a vast impact on local culture. Castell FigurE 2 – the network OF DR’S CULTURAL PROJECTis relevant, because not only does it argues;create the framework of the project, Source: Golodnoff & Lerkenfeldit also produces and obtains value “Although capital and production arein relation to DR’s Cultural Heritage globalized, the content of media isProject. It also serves the purpose to customized to local cultures and toclarify relations between actors, and the diversity of segmented audiences.give an understanding of the project’s So, in ways that are typical oflarge network. It is evident that network other industries, globalization andinfluences the project, but the network diversification work hand in hand. Inis also subject to change due to fact, the two processes are intertwined:activities initiated by the project. only global networks can master the The political, resources of global media production,Castells highlights the connection but their ability to conquer marketbetween the different networks as an shares depends on the adaptationimportant aspect in understanding thedomain the project operates within. of their content to the taste of local audiences. Capital is global; identities The research- global“Global financial networks and globalmultimedia networks are intimately are local or national.” - Castells: 2009: 72 educational network networknetworked, and this particular network Overall, there is some predominantholds extraordinary network power, global structure, however, the localnetworking power, and network-making and national cultures are shapingpower. Because this meta-network of the identity of the population andfinance and media is itself dependenton other major networks, such as the are therefore of great importance for sustaining the cohesiveness in society. The cultural production,political network, the cultural production One reason for this is that population isnetwork (which encompasses all responsible for electing governments,kinds of cultural artifacts, not just and this makes an essentialcommunication products), the militarynetwork, the global criminal network, connection between the cultural production institutions and politics. digitizationand the decisive global networkof production and application ofscience, technology, and knowledge The essential connection is created through continuous events, for instance situations such as elections, where the & technologymanagement.”- Castells: 2009: 426 public chooses their representatives for the society as a whole. networkThe internal structures of the The research-educational networknetworks are central; nevertheless, has the same ability to embrace boththe interaction between the different the local and global networks, andnetworks is just as significant. As it also plays a vital role in creatingCastells argues, the domains in which knowledge and creating value forthe networks are operating have society. Unlike, the cultural productiondifferent power-structures that are challenges with legal restrictions, theconstantly changing the conditions output is knowledge that, per definitionunder which the project exists. When is less tangible than, for instance TV-mapping the most influential actors in programmes or digital service, thusthe network, three key networks can be more difficult to commercialise.identified: The last network, representing a • The cultural production, more political domain, is interesting digitization & technology because it centrally regulates the two network other networks. Although, the political • The political, global network network operates with a national • The research-educational economy, they are highly integrated in network trans-national institutions such as the European Union.The first network, cultural productiondigitisation & technology development,is oriented towards the media and 27
  • 28. Television broadcast on election night. New York, NY, US -Source: Life Magazine November 1952. Photo taken by Al Fenn.28
  • 29. Cultural The Research- Heritage Project has been to support The University of Copenhagen, domestic cultural cooperation and Roskilde University, The University ensure that the value of the individual of Southern Denmark, Aalborg collections is optimised for public University, The Royal School of Libraryproduction, Educational use. The collaboration is organised and Information Science, The State around the network, Danish Cultural and University Library, The Danish Heritage, and also the domain www. Research Network, Kolding School of DR owns the domain Design, The Museum of Media, anddigitisation Network and runs the project secretariat for the The Danish Broadcasting Corporation. co-operation. In the beginning of 2010 the consortium received a grant of DKK 25 milland technical from the national fund of research Memnon The research-educational network is infrastructures. Within three years like the other networks regulated by LARM will build a new technical politics and the primary funding for the infrastructure for research, whichdevelopment Memnon is a Belgian company that activities in this network is from the will give researchers access to more digitises physical formats, so content government through different public than one million hours of radio from can be preserved and become institutions. the archives of the State Library – a available on digital platforms. Memnon significant portion of these will be radio- collaborates with a wide range In the report ‘Beneficial program, aired by DR, saved on theThe cultural production, digitisation and of archive-owners; among those Commercialisation of the Public DAT carriers which just recently weretechnical development network consists are cultural institutions, libraries, Research for Society’ research by the digitalised through the special funds inof public cultural institutions, the internal universities, record companies and Danish Ministry of Science, Technology DR’s Cultural Heritage Project.Throughdivisions in the Danish Broadcasting private collectors. The company has and Innovation emphasises that one LARM, DR will get access to additionalCorporation, as well as private developed various software tools to of the main objectives is that Denmark metadata from the scientists, developcompanies working with digitisation, support the digitisation and digital shall be among the best to translate the technical platform together withmedia and technology. In general, the processes, and today it is one of the new research findings and knowledge the State and University Library furthernodes in the network are characterized leading digitisation companies in from research and education to new and understand the needs of researchby being in the spectrum between Europe. technologies, processes, products and environment better. The unifications ofpublic regulations and the rapid services (’Bedre kommercialisering the collections from DR and the Statechanging markets with commercial In 2008 Memnon won the request for af offentlig forskning til gavn for Library have created a unique onlineactors. Hence, there is a fine balance proposal (RFP) issued by DR. The samfundet’: 2006). research archive, which is the only onebetween servicing user needs and company has been responsible for the of its kind.wants, using new technologies digitisation of all DAT-tapes in DR’s The research is interesting because itand achieving the goals set by the collection, which is approximately can contribute to the development of The project creates value for DRpoliticians and organization, which 362,000 hours radiobroadcast from the society with a commercial agenda. by giving scientists access to DR-means that public broadcasters are 1989 to 2005. The digitisation started in Thus, it is interesting, but also an content; the organization is stimulatingchallenged continuously in satisfying 2008 and was completed in the summer obligation for a public service institution the development of a new field ofall. The key-players in this network of 2011. such as the Danish Broadcasting research and has its archive enrichedare some Danish cultural institutions Corporation to transfer value to by the content getting new metadata.represented by the collaboration Dansk the research and educational field Furthermore, DR obtains value inKulturarv and the digitisation firm (Medieaftalen 2011-2014). Currently, terms of newly developed interactionMemnon. the key collaboration between DR and techniques and funding for a technical the Research-Educational network is system to handle the digital archive driven through one research project content. This is why Porter emphasisesThe Collaboration Dansk called LARM. shared value as a way to increase the value of all involved partners, as heKulturarv argues: The Research Project LARM “If all companies individually pursuedDansk Kulturarv (DKA) is a national shared value connected to theircollaboration between the Danish particular business, society’s overallBroadcasting Corporation, The Danish The Danish Research and Education interest would be served. AndFilm Institute, The National Museum, institutions that are collaborating companies would acquire legitimacy inThe Royal Library, The Danish State with DR’s Cultural Heritage project is the eyes of the communities in whichArchives, National Gallery of Denmark, predominantly represented through the they operated, which would allowThe State and University Library and research project LARM. The vision of democracy to work as a governmentsThe Heritage Agency of Denmark. LARM is to build an infrastructure for set policies that fostered and supported research on one million hours of radio. business.”A part of the obligation of DR’s Cultural The project is a collaboration between - Porter & Kramer: 2011: 17 29
  • 30. The Political education, and training in the areas institutions like BBC, The Swedish of art and culture. Furthermore, its Royal Library and Utrecht University FIAT/IFTA responsibilities include popular culture, ( intellectual property rights, radio andGlobal TV, sport and international cultural The purpose is to exchange Fédération Internationale des Archives cooperation, which include the EU and experiences and jointly develop a de Télévision / The International the Nordic Council of Ministers (kum. platform by bringing together up to Federation of Television Archives dk). The ministry operates in the same 30,000 materials by those involved (FIAT/IFTA) represents more than 250Network areas as the project, and this makes it a in archives. The materials are partly members. Among its members are natural actor in changing some factors exposed on a freely accessible portal television archives, multimedia and that are influencing the project. on the domain audiovisual archives and libraries, and all those engaged in the preservation Besides the Danish Ministry of Culture, DR is involved in the project as a and exploitation of moving imageThe political network is interesting the Danish Ministry of Science, content partner, and the reasoning and recorded-sound materials andbecause it enforces regulations and Technology and Innovation also behind entering an international project associated documentation ( goals for the project, but also funds operates in the domain, because of the was to obtain insight and to createdifferent activities. ministry’s responsibility for research, actual added value in the following Some of FIAT/IFTA’ s main objectives information technology (IT), innovation, areas: is to provide a forum for exchange ofThe political network consists of both telecommunications, university knowledge and experience betweennational and international actors. The educations and internationalisation • Technical enabling of its members, to promote the study ofnational actors are represented by the of education and training in Denmark dissemination of cultural any topic relevant to the developmentDanish Government, but the Danish ( Funding from the Ministry of heritage and use of audiovisual archives andMinistry of Culture and the Danish Science, Technology and Innovation • Re-usable technical to establish international standardsMinistry of Science, Technology and has been allocated to the project; infrastructures on key issues regarding all aspects ofInnovation are also connected to the however, the main source of income is • Re-usable digital content audiovisual media archive managementproject. from the Ministry of Culture. creation of English metadata ( • Experience with the standardOn an international scale three Open Archive Initiative (OAI) In 2011 FIAT/IFTA, DR among otherscollaborations are key; two in relationto the European Union – EUscreen and The European Union • Insights into user interaction launched a pilot project that should with cultural heritage investigate the feasibility of usingEuropeana – but, also the cooperation • Collaboration to participate in a technology to give the broadcastersbetween international broadcasters The European Union (EU) is an European best-practice network access to each other’s content. Thecalled FIAT/IFTA. economic and political union of 27 pilot is using DR’s system CHAOS member states, which are located for the project, and the collaboration primarily in Europe. The EU has Europeana enriches the project by giving the developed a single market through a knowledge about how the system canThe Danish Government & the standardised system of laws, which Through Euscreen, the cultural heritage be improved when collaborating. apply in all member states. The EU project is involved in a high level EU-Danish Ministry of Culture operates through a hybrid system of project called Europeana, which was Besides DR, Belgian VRT and RTBF, supranational independent institutions funded by European Commission in Austrian ORF, Dutch B & G and Arab and intergovernmentally made 2008. The goal of the project is to make MBC (Al Arabiya) are a part of the pilotThe foundation of the project is, as decisions negotiated by the member Europe’s cultural and scientific heritage that will run until September 2011. Inpreviously mentioned, the allocation states ( Important accessible to the public ( September it will be decided if FIAT/of DKK 75 mill to DR from the Danish institutions of the EU include the IFTA should push trans-national archiveMinstry of Culture. Therefore the project European Commission, but the key Europeana is considered to be a sharing even further.has been placed under the Ministry actors for the project are currently the European cultural heritage prestigeof Culture’s leadership and this is collaboration-projects EUscreen and project that EU has invested three-legislatively established in the Media- Europeana. digit million Euros in; resulting in theAgreement 2007-2010 (Medieforlig establishment of different projects2007-2010). The project management EUscreen aggregating cultural content, amongrefers to DR on a daily basis but the these is the project EUscreen. Theoutline and goals of DR’s Cultural DR’s Heritage Project is currently mission is to make www.europeana.euHeritage Project are given by the involved in a European project called a platform for cultural heritage content,ministry. EUscreen, an international ‘best where it will become possible to search practice’ project with 26 partners from more than ten million materials fromThe Danish Ministry of Culture is Europe. The project is funded within 1500 cultural institutions throughoutresponsible for a number of policy the eContentplus-program of the Europe (The New Renaissance: 2011).areas: creative arts, music, theatre, film, European Commission and runs aslibraries, archives, museums, protection a three-year project, which began inand preservation of buildings and October 2009. The network consists ofmonuments, archaeology and higher archives, broadcasters, and educational30
  • 31. Alberto Manzi, TV Instructor on Educational program for illiterates, in studio of Italian network. Rome, Italy. February 1961 Photographer: David Lees. -Source: Life Magazine31
  • 32. From the studio intercom. From Trøndelagsutstillingen 1930. Photo credit: Municipal Archives of Trondheim32
  • 33. be elaborated underneath when weChanging the Conditions of Although the agreement only covers The Interaction Between the discuss some of the keynotes in the streaming content on the domains political-global network.the Project via the Network and, Networks and the materials have to be subject to This also explains the paradox in the– A short study of Copy-Dan DR’s editorial control and responsibility, project: on one hand, it is shaped and it has still has given DR the possibility Since, the project is a part of a media established by a political network inand IPR to publish materials that previously corporation and a public service cooperation with a cultural productive was considered almost impossible to institution, it has multiple networks network that operates on a national use due to lack of rights or missing affecting it. These different networks scale; on the other hand, the project isCopy-Dan is an association, which information about the right-holders. have different goals and are rooted in part of an international network, wheremanages copyrights for a number of larger more international agendas that it is constantly expanding by enteringrights holders. Rights management is The extended license model is a Nordic are affecting the project indirectly. As different collaborations with globalto collect and distribute fees for use of invention, which is furthest developed Castells argues, these networks are actors that operate under differentintellectual property rights under the in Denmark. It has increased the closely linked, and posses great power. legislations and rule-sets. In order tolicenses ( the period value of public service organizations’ maximize the use of its networks, theup to 2008, the Ministry of Culture paid archives and works as an inspiration To sum up the importance of the value must be documented to a nationalgreat attention to the talks between for other countries. This means what network for the project, the flexible network, althought its actual value hasthe DR and Copy-Dan to ensure that other broadcasters are trying to get it structure is essential. The reason the greatest potential when you canthe digitised materials in DR’s archives implemented in their local legislation. for this is that because a large collaborate on a larger scale.could be used in the future. In late European Broadcast Union (EBU) is bureaucratic organisation’s ability to2007 DR and Copy-Dan reached an currently cooperating with DR and handle constantly changing interest As relations are another way ofagreement on an expanded license, other Nordic broadcasters to inspire and values is impracticable, making a understanding power, meaning it is notso that DR could include content the European Commission and its more autonomic project structure more only the government that changes thestreaming, which it was previously member states to implement this model beneficial. legislation and terms of the project.prohibited from doing (Copy-Dan in the rest of the European Union. It is Instead it is the relations betweenÅrsrapport: 2009). assessed that the Nordic model can Since the project is between different different actors in a network that simplified the complex IPR-legislation networks it becomes a switch that give the actual power to change theConcretely, DR pays Copy-Dan an and create a unified solution across connects different networks. By nature framework. Examining the projectannual sum for streaming the content, Europe with the goal of enhancing the the project is created as a mutual with Castells network-mindset, someand in return DR is obliged to report opportunities for European cultural project between a political network and characteristics should be back to Copy-Dan. Copy-Dan heritage and increase transnational a cultural production network, and later First of all, the project:then distributes the money between collaborations. As Castells explains: this has expanded into other networks.the rights holders. The solution is quite This fusion between the political domain • Has a natural ability tounique, because it turns the established “Other institutional and cultural and the media is also a theme Castells cooperateprocess of rights clearing upside down. contexts appear more prone to direct discusses. • Works with public and privateThe solution is known as ‘The Extended government control of the media. organizationsLicensing Model’.Earlier DR used a lot Indeed, this is the case for most “Thus, media politics is not just politics • Is a switchof resources on finding the individual countries in the world. Governments in general, and it is not the politics ofrights-holders in order to pay them. tend to combine various strategies: the media: it is the dynamic interface Basically, increasing globalisation isThe previous process had a negative political control over public media between political networks and media altering the premises of the project,impact on the use of archival content, (often the most influential); government networks. I call the management of that being either political change ofbecause it became costly to clear the pressure on media owners; legislation this interface between two or more the conditions for cultural productionrights compared to the actual use of the empowering government control over networks, network switching. The being public service. But, also thecontent. all forms of communication; (…) This control of this switching capacity more market related conditions are is critical in the attempts to control defines a fundamental form of power in changing areas such as digitisation,The new model consists of two parts Internet-based communication in the network society: switching power. media, and technical development, and- a financial element and reporting countries in which the state is the I call the holders of switching power, thus constantly changing the project’saspect. Now, DR pays a yearly a non- dominant instance of society.” switchers.” conditions for value creation. A naturaldisclosed lump sum. The lump sum - Castells: 2009: 267 - Castells: 2009: 423 step forward is then to examine themakes it possible to use most parts activities that are creating value.of the archive, if DR reports back the Consequently, the network of public One might argue that the projectmetadata related to the content along broadcasters has to focus on getting becomes a switch because it existswith the statistics of the actual usage. the government to change the restraints on the border of different networks.Copy-Dan then has the responsibility of for making the digitised content This gives the project power to changedistributing the funds, and of keeping accessible for the user, because they the terms that the national publicand updated register of rights-holders. are setting the framework by controlling service institutions operate under byThis model generates, an earlier not in terms of legislation and specified cooperating with international partnerspossible, income to the right-holders by prioritisation when giving funding to the and through this it becomes easierlowering of the broadcasters transaction public service broadcasters. to change national legislation. It willcosts. 33
  • 34. 4CHApTER The processes of the project34
  • 35. traditional way of using the value chain • Dissemination & CollaborationThe Value Chain seems to be a bit out of date and – getting the digital content commercial when applying it directly to to users via different media this case study. channels such as TV and the internet or collaborations withdigitization Analysis Instead this description takes the value other players chain activities and translates them into new categories that are applicable The processes are not an isolated to DR’s Cultural Heritage Project. value creation within DR, it is an openworkflow in by Michael However, the purpose is still to describe system where different actors from the how the project creates value through a networks can add external value or process involving different actors. obtain it. A visualisation of this particular process is illustrated in figure 3.DR’s Cultural The Overall Process of Because we have simplified the process it is relevant to desribe the different parts in the detail required to PorterHeritage understand the value in each step of Digitising, Preserving, the process. According to Michael E. Porter, the value chain can be regarded as the Disseminating, and The supporting activities should be framework in which a company canProject mentioned briefly. These, in particular, analyse and understand its value Collaborating are a part of the general operations in the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, propositions. The value chain holds insights that can secure a company’s and not a part of this study’s ontology. financial value and profitability in the In order to understand and ensure Although, they still play an interlinked marketplace.The value creating activities, hence, a cost-reductions and efficient workflow role and support the primary activities,model for describing these is needed. the Cultural Heritage Project they are quite similar to other large “The value a company creates isMichael Porter’s model Value Chain spends a great deal of resources in organisations, and not so relevant at measured by the amount that buyersAnalysis can enable an understanding understanding various aspects of the this time in value creation within the are willing to pay for a product orof the value creating processes in DR’s production and workflow process. project. Instead the focus is put on service. A business is profitable if theCultural Heritage Project. The value chain can be divided into preparation, digitisation, preservation, value of it creates exceeds the cost of two processes that correspond to the collaboration, and dissemination. performing the value activities.”The overall objective of a value original outline of the project namely: - Porter & Miller: 1985: 150chain description is to understandthe production process and products • Digitisation & Preservation – The value chain defines andthat create sustainable competitive dealing with the process of categorizes the organizations genericadvantages and have as high a profit taking analogue tapes and work. The primary activities are themargin as possible. However, Porter’s creating digital content value adding activities, where the product or service during the practical and, or, physical work are enriched the by new and added value in the creation process. The supporting activities are other company inputs and infrastructure that allows the value adding eventsFigure 3 – VALUE CHAIN OF DR’S CULTURAL PROJECT in the primary activities to take place (Porter & Miller: 1985).Source: INSPIRED BY PORTER GOLODNOFF & LERKENFELD Linkages management is often a powerful source of competitive advantages, which is a way of enhancing and controlling added value. ACTIVITIES Analysing the interdependent activities, which are connected by linkages, can help enhance and control the value. Linkage is when the performances or design of one activity affects the PREPARATION DIGITISATION PRESERVATION COLLABORATION DISSEMINATION efficiency of other activities. Thereby, linkage creates a trade-off, which should be optimised accordingly to the decided strategy (Porter & Miller: 1985). 35
  • 36. different carriers are only digitalized was chosen to perform the actual • An editorial network for sharing orientated optimisation perspective.Preparation, Inbound once and from the best source format digitisation, focus is always on DR’s Two copies of the digitised • ideas and inspiration Work groups for new Secondly, it is engaged in the value possible. demands and needs, when it comes to creation in the broader national sense.logistics quality of the output and the process of content • collaborations and projects Knowledge sharing To exemplify some of the activities that The budget also covers some technical delivering and receiving the carriers and have created value for society or DR, development, because there has been content files. the following three activities can beThe process begins with the lending a need for expanding the storage in The digitisation includes the production Activities related to DKA are performed used:of the actual archival content from DR. order for DR to handle the new tasks The department Bånd & Film solely of two digital copies for each item: one in the collaboration phase, andThere are some logistics related to the related to preserving the archive handles the internal digitisation for preservation and future broadcast these always support the individual • Product and/or servicepreparation of the digitisation process. material digitally. process, that use the digitisation of production, and one for collaborating institution’s needs, and in this case, the development in theIt is the physical tasks of: the television content. The department with external partners. Danish Broadcasting Corporation’s. collaborative network Dansk has, in collaboration with DR’s Cultural Kulturarv for the domain www. • Organising the archive Heritage project, developed a new Mediearkivet creating collections for digitisation Digitisation of the content workflow process that has changed value for the user • Registering the tapes within the best practice and is price competitive The digital copy for preservation and Dissemination, Services • New programs and or metadata different formats in the market plance. A digitisation broadcast production is stored in DR in DR’s collection through • Applying barcodes, if this is The tasks related to the actual schedule rotates a number of internal digital production archive, The Media strategic co-productions as the needed. The barcodes are digitisation are considered the knowledge workers in a production plan Archive; television items are stored in In order to activate the value of Bjørn Nørgaard project creating used to keep track of content “operations” of the value chain if you that ensures maximum efficiency and a DVCPRO 50, whereas radio-items are embedded information and knowledge value for the cultural production and carriers, and support an use Porter’s definitions. Normally, a high output. stored in Broadcasts 16-bit PCM Audio. in the project as well as in DR, pilot in DR efficient digitisation and quality company would produce the products projects are initiated: in short these are • New users as the collaboration control of the procedures in this stage, but the products here, CHAOS products and services for targeted end- with the LARM consortium • A tendering process, if external are actual digital files. These are users, and these are developed with where DR’s digitalized help is needed, e.g., system development, hardware or considered to be product or the files Securing, Outbound logistics The external collaboration requires internal and external partners. collection of radio since 1989 can also be a part of future products another format; because of this, it is has been made available for the external digitisation of an and services. These future products stored in the format H264 5MB for The strategically objective is to use entire research environment in specific collection of a given and services are developed when the The securing phase includes all tasks television and MP3 for radio. DR’s Cultural Heritage Projects position Denmark creating value through format files are combined with other content, regarding the handling of the digital to develop and test new engaging increasing knowledge about • Packaging tapes and handling editorial work and/or technological content once the files have been services, where the user interactions and in society the shipping process, if carriers services. produced. In Porters value chain, the and participation creates new insight. are to be digitalised at external facilities by other vendors. Also, tasks are considered as the outbound Collaboration, Marketing & This has the potential to become new However, DR’s Cultural Heritage Depending on the actual format, logistics. This task covers: added value in the different collections. Project does not have the ability to picked up carriers at external locations for internal digitisation many different tasks are part of the Sales Experience, which can create a create financial value in the traditional operations in the value chain. In order • Ingesting files to the foundation of knowledge and secure market sense, but it can optimise to maximise the output the, project DR’s production archive better services and products in the and create financial room, or profitA good example of a digitisation focuses on developing and supporting (Mediearkivet) and the Cultural In Innovation Economist Michael future. margins for more digitisation and/orprocedure is the preparation of DAT- an industrialised digitisation processes. Heritage Media Assets Porters terminology, marketing and better processes in digitisation andtapes, where every tape is manually Management system (i.e., hard sales normally focus on developed project portfolio, which is considered Reflectionregistered and a barcode is applied, The actual digitisation process covers drives from the external vendor product, but this being cultural heritage, as value in the project and by DR’sbefore the tapes are packed in boxes the following tasks: or internally from DR’s own focus is on creating the prerequisites overall management in accordance withand shipped to an external vendor. servers and systems), for future use. the original mandate of digitalising as • The digitisation of the content on • Quality control of files and much as possible for the given financial upon the the carriers. Two formats are trans- assigned metadata, when The use and dissemination of DR’s framework. coded from the archive content the files are stored in there cultural heritage content is drivenNo selection in the - one for preservation and a low- respective systems through a series of collaborations, both Yet, the value chain management, resolution copy for dissemination internally and externally, nationally and and the fine-tuning of the underliningpreparation process process and collaboration Depending upon the chosen internationally. The collaborations are, processes, are regarded as part of the • Quality and content control, digitisation process the handling of for a large part organised in a network core task in the project. The work has examining if the content has usable the ingest process varies, currently of cultural institutions, called Dansk proven not only to enhance productivityFrom the beginning, the strategy has quality, and actually contains the this function has been undertaken by Kulturarv, which all are subsidised by due to shared and understoodbeen to digitise all the unique content content that the attached metadata both Memnon and DR Bånd & Film. the Danish Ministry of Culture. agreements and transparency in bothin the program archive, thus, DR does describes, data collection during The external digitised content can be The activities within the framework of tasks and financial structure, but alsonot support any selection within the the process, if possible. For ingested from either hard drives or The work is based on institution’s DR’s Cultural Heritage Project have to generate unforeseen innovation.different parts or format groups of the instance enriching the content data tapes. The internally digitalised separate editorial focus, strategy and been described by using Michael E. Both also play a vital part in realisingarchive. Since all of the content in DR’s during the digitisation process content is transferred through the contract with the Danish Ministry of Porter’s value chain model. the potential and value of the project,collection is valued, the sequence in without additional or excessive internal network. Basically, the overall Culture. The institutions and Ministry because the development of a strongwhich the digitisation is conducted costs; a good examples is screen process is the same, however, different of Culture but also the Agency of The value chain can be viewed as and clear transaction-process betweenis by selecting the most endangered dumps for thumbnails. departments carry out each of the Cultural Heritage have agreed on some supporting two objectives in the the phases - preparation, digitisation,formats and organising them into easy processes. deliverables requiring both editorial and project. First it deals with the objective and securing – creates a moreand workable collections. Programs With regard to the DAT-digitisation technical development, these are: of maximising the activities in the industrialised process, where lessor materials that are archived twice on project where an external vendor beginning of the project from a market- resources are spent.36
  • 37. T.V. Quiz Show, Roundup. 1957 Photographer: James Burke -Source: Life Magazine37
  • 38. 5CHApTER An Analysis of DR’s Cultural Heritage Project38
  • 39. Max Boisot experiences that primarily are very knowledge—its diffusion in a population categories are created in order distributing the knowledge to other local and full of details. The outcome of agents.” to describe the information in agents (Boisot: 2007: 123). is also filtered through a conceptual - Boisot: 2007: 11 clear and relevant distinctions filter making the recorded data into of states that can be acted– Data, more general information based on Consequently, Boisot defines three upon. Codification and beliefs, the agent’s environment and overall categories of knowledge that is classification are made to experiences. This process is the core of embodied knowledge, abstract symbolic reduce the cost of processing the knowledge creating process within knowledge, or narrative knowledge the data of experience.Information the agent as illustrated in figure 4. • Abstraction allows one to (Boisot: 2007: 20). The filters transform • Embodied knowledge is often focus on what is relevant knowledge that is either tacit or referred to as tacit knowledge and reduces the number of abstract-symbolic to something that is and is very difficult to articulate. categories that needs to beand articulated and therefore can be shared It is concrete, experimental, and analysed when classifying a between individuals. As Boisot states: tangible expressed in situated phenomena. This allows for a physical behaviour. reduction in data processing “The first type of knowledge is • Narrative knowledge mediates cost.Knowledge embodied and hard to articulate and between the fully embodied (Boisot: 2007: 118) the second type is abstract-symbolic. and fully abstract symbolic In human evolution, the first type of knowledge. The knowledge types can be defined knowledge preceded the second type, • Abstract symbolic knowledge by the cost of extracting informationin the and, on any pragmatic definition of is primary representational, from data and converting it into knowledge, it still incorporates most of mental, non-situational and knowledge. The process where the what we mean by the term. We take disconnected from behaviour. resource cost is measured in time, codification and abstraction as the two (Boisot: 2007: 115) space, and energy. TransferringInformation- data-processing activities that facilitate knowledge from the different types of the articulation of embodied knowledge Since all agents have cognitive knowledge has different costs allocated first in a narrative form and then later limitations the process of acquiring to it. The embodied knowledge can in in an abstract-symbolic form. We then knowledge is created by extracting some cases, or to some extent be sospace develop the I-Space as a conceptual information from data through hard to articulate that the possibility framework that relates the articulation codification and abstraction. of codifying and abstraction becomes of knowledge—its codification impossible or the cost becomes and abstraction—to the sharing of • Codification is a process where too high in regards to the value ofTo give a brief introduction to Boisot,one of his basic assumptions is that inorder to understand the world, a givenagent must filter incoming stimuli that Figure 4 – THE AGENT-IN-THE-WORLDare external data. He argues for aconversion of data to information and Source: boisotthen to knowledge, through what hedefines as perceptual and conceptualfilters.In sum, the information occurs when an EXPECTATIONS AGENTagent tries to identify and categorisedata based on its previous knowledge,is it in a good condition, is it large, andwhat is the content? Questions in which STIMULI DATA INFORMATIONthe observer is dependent on prior AGENTknowledge of the reality, meaning that: KNOWLEDGE“(…) information is an extraction fromdata that, by modifying the relevantprobability distributions, has a capacityto perform useful work on an agent’s WORLD STORED MENTAL MODELSknowledge base.”- Boisot: 2007: 20 PERCEPTUAL CONCEPTUAL VALUESData is converted to information by FILTERS FILTERSpassing the agent’s present perceptualfilter based on the agent’s previous ACTIONS 39
  • 40. In this analysis, the project is examined impossible for an agent to grasp in The objective is to facilitate anusing Boisot’s theoretical framework. its real form. However, it is a way to improvement of search tools in DRFirst Boisot is presented in brief, approach the underlying structures, and in the external collaborations and Figure 5 – THE INFORMATION SPACEfollowed by a discussion of data, mechanisms, relations, events, enhance the usability of the archive byinformation, and knowledge in relation behaviour, and experiences existing making it possible to research across Source: Boisotto the project. Then a couple of in the actual domain. In concrete, the numerous databases of differentexamples of how knowledge is created outcome of the interpretation of reality formats and with various an information-space is presented will be the development of a set of It requires a critical mass of digitisedwith examples that illustrate Boisot’s principal guidelines as a solution to content, so the users actually perceivedifferent phases when knowledge how to exploit the value when digitising it as they can move freely between theis developed. This is a part of the cultural heritage. different collections (Digitalisering afdescription of a value-creating and Kulturarven: 2009).-utilising process that happens via a CODIFIED 4 5Social Learning Cycle-curve (SLC) Knowledge can, in this case, be linkedwithin a conceptual framework known Data, Information & to the different departments in DR –as the Information-space. and because of that the aggregation Knowledge in the Case Study of knowledge and the sharing hereofAs Critical Realism operates in three becomes essential for the organisation. 3 CODIFIEDdomains, Boisot’s distinction betweenthe three terms--data, information, Initially, the government has seen To understand the new task andand knowledge--are used as a the digitisation of data in a broader acquire the needed knowledgemethod to describe different domains perspective, being analogue produced regarding the process and workflowsin which the project operates. This materials predominantly from the within the objective of industrialisedgives a framework for developing a national cultural institutions. The data digitisation, DR needed to collect, 6method of understanding the domains in a broad perspective is therefore organise, and develop a lot of differentinterdependent relations, but it also cultural artefacts in different categories, new knowledge. Knowledge thatprovides the context for a discussion i.e., moving pictures, text (books, was in different places - physical, UNCODIFIEDof the various forms of value within the newspapers, journals), archive, sound, geographical, and cognitive- and bothproject as they appear in the different etc., but also catalogues, directories internal and external. The overall Abstract 2 1 DIFFUSEDphases. and museum artefacts were considered objective was to create a plan for the to be cultural heritage (Danish Ministry digitisation of the most endangeredThis requires an introduction to Boisot’s of Culture: 2009: 4). Unfortunately, a formats, which DR could act upon inuse of data, information and knowledge large part of the cultural heritage is order to have the top managementin relation to changing and agent unique and fragile, and until now it has authorise the digitisation start. Concrete UNDIFFUSEDknowledge base and behaviour. In been difficult to provide general publicshort: access to the materials (Fælles Arv til Fælles Brug: 2009). • Data characterised by being perceptible by the senses and The information in DR can be defined are describable in space, time, as the process of making the data and energy. available for use by adding new • Information is the meaning systems and categories to the content, agents can try to extract from so that digital content not only becomes the significant regularities who accessible, but also identifiable and resides in data. searchable. This process is a part the • Knowledge is an agent objective of the metadata-project expectations who are modified by the arrival of new Theoretically, the content would be information. converted into usable information • Data will be observable in the instead of being a huge collection of empirical domain, being the unknown analogue data. But, even case studies represented in the though the exact sum and the content I-space, and information will of the data was unknown, it has, since be seen as a part of the actual the beginning of the project, always domain representing insight to been considered to be a collection how the different examples are of high value, and thus a great asset interrelated and are a part of a for DR. Nevertheless, the task of value creating process. standardising and creating sufficient metadata was, and still is, quiteIn this analysis, knowledge will be demanding for the Danish Broadcastinga part of the real domain, being Corporation.40
  • 41. The Social abstraction from the scanning process, was DR’s Metadata Project. archive and choose the right carrier which only the personnel in Arkiv and process, but it is also a process The focus of the project was to to digitise from. This was necessary Research was trained for. of conflict because earlier reconstruct and homogenise DR’s because some of the content could be codification can be challenged metadata based on earlier descriptions stored on more than one type of carrier, Also, editorial insights in the priorLearning by new insights. of the productions in the archive. and DR wanted to avoid digitising productions and content of the archive 3. Abstraction: A process where items twice, since it would be a waste require some embedded knowledge the new codification and Before 2007, the metadata was of money, furthermore two copies of in the organisation. And the ability to abstraction are generalized in organized in a number of different the same item would be considered create new and attractive content andCurve in order to focus in the essential tools. The principal one was an online a deterioration of the data quality in services based on the archive material parts of the problem. Are often search-tool, which combined more Mediearkivet. such as was crucial. done in conjunction with the than thirty different databases with Problem-solving process. archivist produced descriptions of the In order to gather the needed One could argue that unless allInformation 4. Diffusion: A process where content. Additional search-tools were a knowledge, a group of specialists workers can search the content without the new knowledge is shared number of paper-based archives with from DR was gathered, and the group intensive training, the objective of with the target group who puns-cards, programme guides from had to combine, share and organise creating a functioning archive with user- can understand it due to the newspapers and original contracts. their individual knowledge, data and friendly interface and the possibility ofSpace codification of the knowledge. The search-tools were mainly used by information to create new knowledge self-service is not fulfilled. Target groups with the same the archivists when they did research and then articulate it. Creating a cross- contextual knowledge as the and guided people from production organisational work group was crucial, It took more than twelve months to agents do not need codification divisions, so the content in the archive since a lot of the knowledge was secure the objectives. In this period the as others do. could be utilised. disbursed in different departments, but most important work of the group wasIn order to understand the process 5. Absorption: A process where also embodied and tacit. to research the complex field and theof knowledge created from data and new knowledge is absorbed Consequently, datasets had to be development of a needed codificationinformation Boisot has developed the by practical application and merged in order to correspond with the The working group consisted and abstraction to use a foundationSocial Learning Curve in Information learning-by-doing. forthcoming digitisation project, and of members from the following for DR’s Cultural Heritage Project.Space. A conceptual framework where 6. Impacting: A process where make secure the needed knowledge departments: Arkiv & Research, Bånd The most debated and analysedthe evolution of new knowledge is abstract knowledge is within the area of content, carriers & Film, TU Innovation, TU production single question was how to organisedescribed. embedded in concrete praxis and metadata was available when the systems and DR’s Cultural Heritage the earlier and different datasets to in products, the organization, project was moving to the next phase. project. All the participants in the match the newer metadata format thatIn the Information Space the data is behaviour, etc.; is often done in working group had a different but had very strict rules embedded in therepresented in a three dimensional conjunction with Absorption. The main objective was then to create complex knowledge of the archive and software and thesaurus in The dimension data is (Boisot: 1998: 60) a dataset, which had the needed the problem at hand, which made for Hence, this particular question requiredorganised/categorized under is: codification and abstraction level so a workgroup of highly skilled people. a intensive scanning-phase before it A given project does not need to follow it could be more widely diffused and People whose common interest in could go into the problem-solving. • Concrete or Abstract the ideal SLC-curve, but it would follow also get the ability to serve multiple the field but with different knowledge • Uncodified or Codified a curve, where the process to some purposes for different parts of the helped solve the task. But in order to This question also made the project • Undiffused or Diffused extent is present. Ideally however, a organisation. Because of this, the solve the task it was crucial that they a costly affair, but the new knowledge project would follow the ideal curve datasets from earlier databases had to understood each other and each of created gave DR the ability toIn this space the development of new in order to maximize the production be combined and serve new needs: the others individual concerns, hence continue the process and in manyknowledge would ideally follow the and impact of new knowledge and striving towards an abstraction and ways it became a cornerstone indepicted Social Learning Curve. value. To understand the conceptual • Easier for the production people codification all of them could make use the development. Additionally, the framework 6 projects are presented, to search DR’s archive, and in of. resources invested in the scanningThe evolution of new knowledge would which have been or are part of the DR’s time also to use it once it had process was profitable in a longhappen trough a data transformation in Cultural Heritage project. These cases been digitised in one and the In DR, many departments had different perspective, and the future successsix phases: will help us understand the important same system as Mediearkivet. interpretations of, how the content was an optimised use of the archive phases in the SLC-curve and illustrate • Secure digitised content could should be organised and utilised. For materials both in terms of the 1. Scanning: A process where how different tasks need different be stored in Mediearkivet. As instance the archivists had historically digitisation, but also in general for DR. opportunities and threats are approaches. The cases then serve as a production archive ingestion been responsible for the categorisation identified with data patterns empirical data that helps to describe the of digital files could not happen of DR’s archive content, and which provides insight. A empirical domain. before certified metadata in consequently, they held great control process, which can provide relation to a given item was of the information, but also possessed codification and abstraction present. high knowledge about the archive. for which tempo is dependent • Create a tool to control and on the fields complexity; also Scanning guide the digitisation of the The abstraction and codification known as the codification and cultural heritage for the project of the archive had as a thumb rule abstraction of the objectified - The metadata project managers and archivists. primarily been codified by Arkiv & field. Research. It should be emphasised 2. Problem-solving: A process In relation to the last need it should be that the archivists also possessed great where the uncertainty is An example of a project, where mentioned that the outcome was the knowledge of how to use the system. lowered through the structuring scanning played a key role in creating creation of a “digitisation list” that now A reason for this was that it required of the codification and knowledge, in this case in the work is used to find unique content in the prerequisites for searching the archive, 41
  • 42. BASF Beta Video Cassettes Photographer: Grant Hutchinson -Source: Flickr, Open source license42
  • 43. any experience with. DR primarily challenge in organisations because insights; such as that innovating theProblem-solving used scanners of the type telecine. there is a risk aversion in many firms’ digitisation process can lower market Telecine scanners playback the content knowledge management processes prices and increase quality of the- The Film Pilot while copying it and saves it as a file, where the focus is on exploitation outcome. Furthermore, that if the whereas the new scanner copies every rather than exploration. When working market cannot deliver a satisfactory frame of the film one by one and then with innovation and the creation of solution, it is also a reasonableThe pilot project was initiated in 2010 compiles them into a complete film. new knowledge Boisot suggests that possibility to internalise the digitisation.with the purpose to digitise and secure a more balanced approach with more This creates a justifiable probabilityDR’s large collection of 16 mm film. The pilot project did an extensive explorative and entrepreneurial projects that the project can guide itself whenThe collection was estimated to have sampling of content and found that the will lead to new knowledge in the it is faced with digitising other formats.a volume of 28,000 hours equal to a 16 mm film collection was in a good organisations. In order to succeed, one For that reason the result is replicable,digitisation cost of approximately DKK condition, considering that some of has to go through the phase of both because it can be applied to multiple100 mill. the content dates as far back as 1896. scanning and problem-solving. future scenarios and this gives the The collection was estimated to have project potential for creating addedThe actual work of digitisation a volume of 17,500 hours instead of The way DR’s Cultural Heritage Project value and fewer resources on theencompasses many different 28,000 hours. The analysis showed deals with the risk and the uncertainty empirical testing is spent than the firstprocesses, and the film pilot is an that the collection could be divided into of being explorative is to lower the time a digitisation pilot was made.interesting example of the process fourteen sub-collections with different hazard by testing within an open, butof problem solving. DR’s Cultural characteristics, in conditions, length, small, targeted pilot, where the use of At this point in time, the second partHeritage project needed to examine the colour casts etc. The samplings, external and internal knowledge and of the film pilot project is expectedprocess of digitising 16mm film, so that hundred hours in total, were digitised on inputs were combined to create value. to reach its conclusion in Octoberit could challenge the existing prices the data scanner. During the digitisation In neoclassical terms, an additional 2011 and the results so far havein the commercial market. In general various optimisation processes in the value was also created, given that been promising. It is too early to saythe technologies often depend on the manual workflow and postproduction of the digitisation of the 4,500 hours of whether the new knowledge will leadcarrier format, the age of the carrier or the digital files was tested with the goal 16mm film initially was estimated to to a reduction in digitisation cost in thecontent and the machinery and process of reaching the best possible solution cost DKK 60 mill. However, by the estimated area of saving more than 80for converting the content to the needed for digitising 16mm. end of the pilot, the cost came to only %, but the work has already establishedproduction format. Because of this the DKK 10 mill because of the use of new new and valuable knowledge for DRobjectives in the film pilot was twofold: The result of the film pilot was quite technology and development of the and their partner FIAT/IFTA and other promising. It showed that the new process. Not only did the film pilot give players in the international network of • First a thorough analysis of technology had potential for optimising new knowledge about how DR could archive holders. Furthermore, external the content in the archive and the digitisation and workflow, because develop better methods for digitising, commercial vendors in the market of its physical state would be it was possible to explore the field and it also resulted in a savings of DKK 50 digitisation and potential partners show conducted. find an abstraction and codification mill. As Boisot elaborates: an increasing interest in collaborating • Secondly a market test of that could be utilised to generate value and sharing knowledge with DR. a recent development in within DR as well as in the market “Through empirical testing and technology would be tested. place. replication the outcomes can be A new film scanner seemed to replicated and a probability distribution provide a new valuable way The result was initiation of a second assigned, thus creating socially of digitalising 16 mm film had pilot with a new objective to test justifiable probabilities. The challenge emerged, but no broadcast whether an internal process could be for the agent is to recognize the archive had tested it so far. developed where the manual and digital potential for creating value from some workflow when digitising the 4,500-hour subset of probabilities by making risk-In order to fully explore the market collection of news could be changed. adjusted investments, which createdevelopment, an external consulting This was due to an abstraction, if the potential for normal profits. Thefirm with knowledge of film digitisation altering some basics in the process kind of replicable empirical knowledgefrom the commercial market was hired. could optimise the digitisation of 16mm available in probable worlds allows forThe firm worked with a team of internal film, the digitisation of other collections the application of a socially derivedexperts from the department of Arkiv could have the same potential. discount rate; it thus has an objective& Research in order to answer the net present value. Framed in terms ofquestions regarding the collection. The pilot project is an example of the action, an agent will probably get whatThe actual digitisation of the film was benefits new knowledge possesses if a it pays for. Much scientific knowledgeexamined through a collaboration company can create a good problem- is of this type, not indubitable, but, onbetween the consulting firm and the solving process on top of successful account of systematically recordeddepartment Bånd & Film along an codification and abstraction process. repetitions and replicated tests,external partner who had developed The process often challenged by highly corroborated and hence, highlyone of the new scanners on the market. internal value sets which already are probable.” in place with prior codified beliefs - Boisot: 2007: 153The scanner, which was going to be where individuals do not see thetested, was a data scanner that used potential in the new, but rather the risk The empirical testing, in this case thea technology that DR did not have of the unknown. This is a common film pilot, has given the project crucial 43
  • 44. Mediearkivet is a centralised system, had to be able to handle content from and problem-solving processes in the financiers such as private funds. When innovation is called for, however,Abstraction which is used to store DR’s production, partners outside of DR. SLC in the Information-space with it makes less sense. We need to be aware of our options.” and support the production department the purpose of being able to connect The earlier vehicle for the collaboration,– archiving for future use in their production of new content. It Additionally, the system was developed to the internal systems of potential the website www.danskkulturarv. - Boisot: 2007: 216 is the online platform available for the on the principles of open source in collaborators. dk, quickly lost its stamina, since the staff in DR, which makes them able to a community with external partners responsibility and tasks were not The conclusion is that a developing a work on the same content from different among those were the LARM Prior learning from the international officially nor politically divided between project such as Dansk Kulturarv createsIn the process of abstraction in the workstations. Mediearkivet has been consortium, the National Gallery of community, technical development the institutions. Although, DR financed an experimental sharing-environment toSLC, the codification and abstraction of developed specifically for DR, and Denmark and FIAT/IFTA, and apart and the metadata project in DR have and developed the website in 2007, in foster an innovative take on the Danishthe knowledge reaches a level, where consequently it is unfeasible for the from these, also function within the led to the development of a system cooperation with a few other cultural cultural heritage. Thus, the partnersit is generalized and ordered in such a system to work with a rapid changing collaboration, Dansk Kulturarv. The with flexible metadata structure. institutions, it was not successful in should reject the daily, conservativeway that it becomes possible to focus technology. open source format forced the system The structure in CHAOS can handle driving the interests for the process of managerial approach and instead enteron solving a category of similar tasks to store the files in a different format, numerous types and designs of digitising the national cultural heritage. the collaboration on a foundation ofinstead of focusing on one problem. When storing new files in Mediearkivet, being H264 5 MB copy of the digitised metadata and thesauruses. Instead of In 2008 and 2009 the content of decentralisation and flexibility and serve it is important to divide the programmes files. This format was chosen to organizing within a predefined structure, the website was primarily a window multiple purposes while supporting theThis can be exemplified in regards to into small components, so it is feasible integrate and develop synergies with the massive data or metadata-set is for showcasing outdated shared individual needs of the organisation.DR’s Cultural Heritage project when to re-use these in future programmes. the external partners’ collections without indexed using SolR open sourced dissemination projects, about previouslooking at the two systems where the One can describe this as a codification putting restrains on DR’s internal search engine. visions for the digitisation of national In reality, however, this period of lowdigitised content is stored and used and abstraction process, where specific production system, Mediearkivet. cultural heritage. The missing activity activity helped the partners involvedin future productions. The internal clips are being prepared for usage in Restrains were, in this, case, caused and development of the site was most discover that Dansk Kulturarv shouldproduction system, Mediearkivet andthe additional developed system, the other contexts, and a more general contextualisation besides the actual by the internal system, but rules and procedures are, in general, based on Diffusion - The Collaboration likely the reason for the website’s lack of success, and the use is today quite resume the dialogue and begin to collaborate on a more entrepreneurialCultural Heritage Archive Open System,CHAOS, can be seen as a result of a programme, is needed. Besides being able to run productions, it is also trans- previous schemes or models, which can be obstacle when sharing. Boisot of Dansk Kulturarv low. foundation. This has resulted in a new foundation that makes sense accordingcodification and abstraction process medial, which makes it possible to argues that: In 2009, when the previously to the institutions’ individual strategieshappening in DR during 2008 and extract sound from a video clip, and use Accordingly, the collaboration Dansk mentioned national report about the for it-development, digitisation,2009. As: it in radio broadcast or on the Internet. ”How far we are aligned in our Kulturarv has evolved over the Danish cultural heritage was finally exhibitions, and dissemination purposes information-extraction strategies will years toward active engagement published, it failed to raise the needed etc.“Both codification and abstraction The foundation of Mediearkivet is the depend on how far our respective and participation from the different governmental support for digitisation.involve selecting from alternatives— structure of the different components, expectations are shaped by institutions. The example of Dansk The result was that the cultural Consequently, in the winter of 2010,from noisy data-sets in the case of so it is highly searchable and can be conventions, that is, socially shared Kulturarv illustrates, how the process institutions in the collaboration had to DR’s Cultural Heritage project proposedcodification; from competing categories used in infinite combinations. This is encoding rules and contextualizing of diffusion is a way to start the favour other priorities, and neglected a plan for revitalizing the the case of abstraction. Where done by a thesaurus, which can extract procedures, or by idiosyncratic capitalization of the organisational or the collaboration. On the theoretical A plan, that invited them to participate inmanagers constitute an organization’s and combine different metadata in an circumstances— codes and contexts project-based knowledge. level, in terms of Boisot, the support or a virtual organizational structure, wheredominant coalition, their codification intelligent manner. The stored format for that are not widely shared. The act possibility for the needed codification the network to some extent was openedand abstraction choices will shape its preservation and broadcast production of extracting information from data Since its beginning, DR’s Cultural and abstraction in order to engage in to collaborators within the culturalepistemic practices, its goals, its rules, is for television items DVCPRO 50, constitutes an interpretation of the Heritage project has had an obligation collaborative sharing environment for sector. The Directors from the culturalits routines, and through all these, its whereas radio-items are stored in data. It involves an assignment of the to collaborate with the public institutions diffusing the cultural heritage were not institutions immediately supported thedominant logic.” Broadcasts 16-bit PCM Audio. Files data to existing categories according to in the cultural sector with the goal of available. This resulted in a long period plan, and at this time the collaboration- Boisot: 2007: 99 are storage redundant and in different some set of pre-established schemas sharing knowledge. In addition, the of low activity within the collaboration. is being prioritised and a new phase of locations for security reasons. or models that shape expectations. For collaboration should facilitate the actively engaging the members seemsGiven this, Mediearkivet is developed this to be possible, such schemas or process of creating and increasing the An explanation of the fatigueness to be running.through a codification and abstraction With regard to the retro digitisation of models must already exist in some form value of national cultural heritage, and Dansk Kulturarv had for a period of timeprocess based on the needs of the the Cultural Heritage materials, the or other.” by this, the value for the users, i.e. eller could be the managerial approach that The revitalisation plan is based on DR’speople producing broadcasting, content is most often archived from - Boisot: 2007: 29 namely the public. is dominant, when public institutions are strategy for activating the collections,whereas CHAOS is based on making the copy of the broadcasted program entering collaborative projects outside creating synergies and user value, bythe digitised archive content accessible making it impossible or financially The reasoning for developing and In the fall of 2010, DR wanted to utilise the organisation, hindering flexibility encompassing knowledge about thethrough newer platforms, being the unfeasible to divide the programs into maintaining CHAOS was to create a the results of the digitisation project and and exploration. partners’ operations and priorities.internet and mobile phones, and adding smaller components within the project new system with a completely different massive collection of digital content. The goal today is to create a self-content from external collaborators and budget. infrastructure and architectural design. Throughout the years the project “Simply put, an entrepreneur will act sustaining network, which worksusers. The reasoning for the abstraction In Boisot’s point of view CHAOS had developed an understanding sooner, and on the basis of more shaky together in different disseminationand codification process that happened Because Mediearkivet was not viable becomes a facilitator for serving of its collaborating partners and experiential data than a manager will. projects based on need and wants fromin terms of creating Mediearkivet differs for working with external partners and a broader and more conventional although substantial funding from the Our arguments, if accepted, have both the participants. One can say the planfrom the one for CHAOS, and a short collaborating, along with integrating established idea of how technology and government was not dedicated to the theoretical and practical implications. operates on three levels:description of the different logics is open source technology, CHAOS internal systems should be configured, sector, the institutions continuously Our institutions and their governancetherefore needed. It is relevant because was developed. The objective was to when making archive content digitised their collections. The digitised structures are strongly biased in favour • An editorial forum, where thea significant part of the project has been create new value by collaborating with accessible for the users. Accordingly, content, however, was created and of managerial epistemologies, often individual organisations outlinethe collaboration between digitising and national cultural institutions; hence a the features of the system can be used in more individual ways according at the expense of entrepreneurial their strategic objectives andadding existing files to Mediearkivet as tool for sharing content fostered the viewed as a result of a successful to individual institution’s strategies and ones. Managerial epistemologies are create a shared and commonwell as building CHAOS. development of a new Media Asset abstraction process based on the contract agreements with the Ministry of conservative, something which makes understanding of priorities and Management system. The system result of different modes of scanning Culture, National Agencies and/or other sense under conditions of stability. future needs.44
  • 45. • A number of ad-hoc working capitalise on the knowledge in relation teams, designers from Kolding School instantly became a smash hit as DR’s by FIAT / IFTA (The International groups that coordinate specific to the framework set for the individual of Design and DR’s developers are first big online commitment to heritage Federation of Television Archives) as projects within the framework of institution. trying to absorb the codified and materials. This success attracted the winner of the best online archive cooperation. Purely established abstract information from the collections considerable national and international project. The price is distributed every and driven by individual DR’s Cultural Heritage Project has with the involved knowledge in order to interest. year at international conference for organisational needs or wishes a continued responsibility for driving develop new and shared knowledge. broadcast archives. Bonanza received in order to secure financial forward the collaboration on these Processes where practical applications The concept was to involve users in the prize because of its innovative funds are covered by the levels. Developing a website where for exploring cultural heritage are a dialogue with DR and each other approach to communication and participants themselves. the knowledge and projects can tested and discussed. While discussing about what materials to digitise within digitisation of archive content. • An informal knowledge- be disseminated or distributed and sound search, a study was conducted DR first. The conclusions were that the sharing network between the thereby securing the products of the where the user would work in a three users loved the dialogue and access Today, the website is still considered a participants about ongoing collaborative diffusion process, where dimensional installation where the radio to the archive materials, hence the success within DR given its more than efforts within the institutions. both collaborators meet and understand content was displayed as trees, and use created value. Basically, the users 65,000 monthly users. The site has a the potential of the collection, and there length and position displayed on got to choose ten programmes, series broad user group and attracts all ages,The editorial forum is hold together by users are enriched by contextualisation the walls of the installation as a product or shows from a hundred different but surprisingly, 55 percent of users areseries of meetings organised around and dissemination projects based on of their metadata, while the content of pre-selected items. Each item was between 12-39 years old, with a smallboth technical issues and thematic knowledge, and work within the entire the files was played back as part of the illustrated by a short snippet. In total bias of the 20-39 year olds. On eachwishes. For example, the year 2014 will cultural sector. installations sound-scape. a thousand snippets were online visit the average user spends moremark the 150 year anniversary of the These learning-by-doing techniques as part of the launch process in ten than 16 minutes on viewing archivewars for the Duchesses of Schleswig are key components in the project. The different categories, released one by content, a visit duration that is quiteand Holstein with the armies of Prussia project has created many insights while one over a period of twelve weeks. high when looking at other websites onand Austria in 1864. This event makesit relevant for different institutions to Absorption absorbing the results of the practical applications. More than 100,000 voted. The ten items, which received the most votes in the Internet.use others institutions content relatedto the theme. The potential of bringing – LARM Research Project Currently one of the new discussions each category, were then digitised and made available the following week in a In theoretical terms, the ability to discover and/or rediscover the contentartefacts from different Danish cultural in the project is related to research high resolution and full-length edition of earlier times has become a partinstitutions together in a digital domain The research consortium LARM data. Who are responsible for the viewable by a full-screen player. of regular users media consumption,and enrich the users with experiences clearly illustrates some very future preservation of these? Data and hence increasing the diffusion. Theis a new take on cultural heritage in interesting examples of the absorption knowledge, which helps codify and Bonanza was a great success, not only knowledge that is absorbed throughDenmark. Boisot explains this way of process that can take place once abstract the cultural heritage for better did the Danes watch more than seven Bonanza is changing habits for mediacollaborating and sharing: the codification and abstraction are diffusion and understanding. Questions, million programmes or excerpts from consumption of when users are looking diffused. The objective with LARM not foreseen before engaging in the programmes within the first six months, at DR’s services.“The epistemic heterogeneity that is, among others, to develop an practical issues of the LARM project. but in 2009 the concept was honouredcharacterizes agents in general, infrastructure for one million hours An issue potent enough that two ofwhen viewed from the perspective of radio for research purposes and the research partners have asked DRof evolutionary epistemology, is a needed services to facilitate the new to use part of their funding within thesource of intelligence and of strategic interdisciplinary research area. LARM project to develop somethingopportunity. Applying this point at thelevel of the knowledge-based firmly has that can be used in facilitating this new Figure 6 – Bonanza’s first month User driven innovation is one of the discussion and create new knowledgethe effect of shifting the emphasis froma concern with knowledge sharing— an key elements in this. The interfaces which might lead to a new impacting Source: and infrastructure are based on that can help change the field.activity that facilitates decentralization researchers’ needs and are developed change the field.based on the commonality of in close collaboration with designersknowledge—to one focused on and technicians. The applications aredistributed processing—an activity that tested on a series of cases where Impacting – the Creation offacilitates self-organization based onknowledge differences (Tsoukas 1996).” radio broadcasts are analysed from a variety of perspectives. DR has the Online Archive Bonanza Visits viewings Average 82.000 1.9mio 7 clip- Boisot: 2007: 216 the responsibility of managing the development process of CHAOS inIn other words, the differences between collaboration with technicians from A website and archive service whichthe collaborators are an advantage, The State and University Library which has provided the most successfuland a source of intelligence and is going to receive the copy of DR’s access to DR’s content so far, as every week from jan. 16th to feb per userpossibilities. The knowledge and DAT digitisation project in order to well as in the SLC terms, illustrates 7th 2008value of one cultural institution makes give access to the Danish research the process of impacting, resulting inthe total amount of knowledge and environment. knowledge being embedded in agentsvalue grow. In addition, the shift from through a product. Over time thisbeing concerned about knowledge- DR’s technical team from the TU this particular product has changedsharing to focusing on distributing the Innovation are responsible for user-behaviour and their practice ofprocesses between the institutions. This developing the front-end services for consuming DR’s services. In 2007 DR’screates room for the representatives in the researchers. This i a complex task Cultural Heritage Project developedDansk Kulturarv to self-organise and where various humanistic research the concept of Bonanza. Bonanza 45
  • 46. View during a college football game. USA, October 1958 Photographer: George Silk -Source: Life Magazine46
  • 47. to the value creation. Fulfilling the that was compatible with the market processes and digitisation techniques failed tapes could not have been international network FIAT/IFTA, thus,The value of objectives in one part of the SLC lays price. in the organisation. This was done to identified. giving more broadcasters the ability to the foundation for fulfilling the next part. capitalize on market knowledge. The digitise film more economically. Some of the processes are event- In order to ensure a feasible price, and vendors were then asked to propose The close collaboration with Memnon correlated in such a manner that they a price within the budget constraints, a number of solutions and ideas that and the transparent box strategy have In summary, DR’s Cultural Heritageknowledge are regarded to work in tandem (Boisot: a number of discussions took place was to be debated in a personal forum given the project crucial insights to Project has created a flexible 1998: 61). within in 2007. One particular subject with the project management. And the process of digitising. Hence newer organisational structure, based on was, how DR could benefit from market finally, after this longer procedure, DR collaborations have traces of the first both explorative and exploitative The value of a goods can be defined vendors’ knowledge and secure the chose the vendor for digitising the DAT- proof of concept. In the film pilot, a working principles. This means thatcreation by measuring the utility and scarcity needed industrialised process. The collection. similar idea for digitising has been DR’s digitisation results creates new of the goods. The goods utility is industrialised process was needed used. However, during the evaluation knowledge and develops workflows, defined by the level codification and in order to obtain an estimated “real” One Belgium vendor - Memnon - process the external vendor was which will lower the price for digitisation. abstraction and its scarcity in the market price. Whereas the market price invented an industrialised process, reluctant to lower prices in the market. In 2014 the given funding will have diffusion. The value distribution in for much smaller digitisation projects where one operator, after a slow Instead DR decided to continue to digitised and preserved more than 80%Upon examination of the phases in the I-Space is illustrated figure 7, where the previously had been around EUR 50 preparation phase, became able test, hence moving from outsourcing of DR’s archive for the grant of DKKSocial Learning Cycle illustrated by maximum value and the minimum value per hour, DR only had the budget for to control forty DAT-recorders, and to internalising. Internalising seems 75 mill. Furthermore, it is estimateddifferent cases, the empirical domain are depicted as V-Max and V-Min. This paying a price less than one tenth of software, which would automate to be less expensive, than waiting that the project has lowered the cost ofhas been described. A natural step fits with the traditional understanding that. the quality assurance process to a for the market to develop the needed digitising the entire archive from DKKforward is to grasp the actual domain, of value in the market.It can be viewed large extent. Memnon was one of knowledge. Because the industrialised 284 mill, estimated in 2005 (Internalconstituting events and experiences. and analysed, as well as improved The solution was to create a the world’s leading companies within processes are not absorbed, hence Memo, DR DM: 08.2005), to under DKKHere, the actual series of events through the creation of related new transparent box, a term used within the the restoration and digitisation of impacting the industry, the project 150 mill estimated examined with the purpose of knowledge from the projects within project for describing an outsourcing sound, and because of their previous cannot push the market that digitisesunderstanding the processes of how the project, which can continue the process. In contrast to a black box, the experience, the workflow was well film. Consequently, this particularvalue is created and utilised, but also to optimisation of the over all value chain. transparent box is a method, where the designed. They presented a trustworthy network will not create maximum valueaid in understanding the real domain, project and the collaboration partner case and offered a price of just for the archive holders of film, unlesswhere mechanisms are activated, thus, define a future collaboration through a EUR 3.03 per hour, a price that was DR or other innovators decide to share The Marketinfluencing the two other domains. clear, shared understanding of some significantly lower than any other of the the knowledge, and therefore lower the given tasks for a specified project. The bids. prices. However, the goal of the projectIn the analysis of the framework of transparent box therefore becomes is to share the process through theknowledge, creation is understood an outsourcing of a specific part of the To summarize, the transparent box is Value ofthrough the projects within DR’s value chain, but still assuring that the a balance between defining tasks andCultural Heritage Project. As already labour division and responsibility is well- not having too strict borders for theillustrated, there are different processes defined. The benefits of making it a very exploration. Still, in cases, where theconstituting the ideal Social Learning transparent process is to ensure that linkages between the tasks are very FigurE 7 – THE PARADOX OF VALUE DigitisingCycle, which is where new knowledge trust can be built within the partnership. interdependent, it is important to allowis developed through a transformationof unstructured data to new behaviors Furthermore, it allows the individual partners to develop the most optimised the vendor to discuss the borders of input and outcome to fully exploit the Source Boisotand praxis within the agents; be it the processes without DR interfering. limits of potential. Culturalorganization or the individual. In the EU-tender regarding the In the DAT-case, Memnon arguedFollowing the exemplification of the DAT-digitisation, DR gave as much that DR should apply barcodes,different phases in the SLC, the notion information as possible, such as while registering the tapes prior to CODIFIED Heritageof an ideal SLC for the entire project is information about the collection, tape shipment; a task not anticipated byexplored and sought illustrated. This brands, condition of archive and usage, DR. In return Memnon would raise the V-MAXleads to a discussion of the different expected volume and pre-known security profile and check the data inkinds of values that are influencing issues. A set of fixed demands was the digitisation process, making surethe project. Finally, an argument for given and these had to be met by any the tapes were registered correctly CODIFIEDthe complex term “value” is presented. The project of digitising the content of potential vendor in the bidding. For on the tape as well as combined withThis will be divided in to three different the Cultural Heritage can be measured example, the file formats and quality the right metadata-XML. Furthermore,types of value; organizational value in regular financial terms. The finances was fixed, and a set of criteria related it would allow Memnon to scan andin production; organisational value in can be seen as a value chain margin or to the transportation was designed trace the carrier throughout the entirepublic service production including profit, but in DR it is seen as financial in order to avoid endangering larger digitisation process. This was key, ifdiffusion/dissemination; followed by a possibility to digitise and preserve of volumes of the collection at the same and when problems arose, for instancemore general public service value in DR’s content. time. if Memnon had to re-digitise. An error V-MINsociety. The values, however, do not A good example of this type of value is Ultimately, a maximum price for occurred in 2010, where DR’s quality UNCODIFIEDnecessarily correlate due to different the digitisation of DR’s DAT-collection. every hour digitised was given; in this control detected issues with a specificagendas. In order to digitise the DAT-tapes a EU- particular case around 3.5 EUR, which tape. The system could then identify Abstract DIFFUSED tender was issued in 2008. DR did not was substantially far from the market the actual recorder, which had failedWith regard to the cases already have the competences or the hardware price of 50 EUR. In return vendors because of issues with a tone head,presented in the SLC, the I-Space to complete the world’s largest DAT- were engaged in DR’s procedures, and 140 tapes had to be checked.creates new knowledge that is related digitisation project within a price range opening up for sharing the existing Without the tracing system the potential Concrete UNDIFFUSED 47
  • 49. The Cultural The Value and synergies are created while solving the The process of scanning, problem- large organisations such as DR, agreement for 2011-2014 (see quote primary objectives within the different solving, diffusion, and absorption can drive this development. The result from the introduction). The public partnerships; the new feature can be be viewed as an additional layer of the is that “television remains a mass access and use of DR’s content is distributed back to the existing and function as illustrated in figure 9. When communication medium from the today quite restricted. However, if aProduction I-space coming members of the technology looking at the technical development perspective of the transmitter, but it theoretical discussion is risen, the collective. and public service broadcasting, one is often a personal communication diffusion, absorption and impact of can argue that culture is consumed medium from the point of view of cultural heritage depends on the when agents are moving around the the receiver”, (Castells: 2009: 60); availability of the content. LookingValue Public coordinates within the figure. hence, the demand and the structure at the C-space the importance of of broadcasting are contradicting digitisation and accessibility can be The three kinds of values can be placed The movement is interesting because each other. The political opinion is explained. The X-axis represents the in a single I-Space that illustrates the it can explain how technology and that digitising cultural heritage creates diffusion, but should instead be viewed different drivers in the value creation. Service Value content is constantly changing in knowledge that is very valuable, but as accessibility, whereas the Y-axis The market value is generated in theThe value in terms of cultural the minds of the agent. If one looks not suited for commercialisation, and represents the digitisation, being the first part of the project’s value chain.production is created like the value in at traditional broadcasting, being thus remains a public service. The more content that is digitised, the more The process starts with the scanningneoclassical economics, however the television and radio, the absorptions neoclassical approach with transaction cultural heritage is codified and then and problem-solving, and it ends the of Digitalobjective is not to create a financial of the new digital platforms are costs and utilising scarcity-logics easier to diffuse. Because of this, there abstraction with delivering digitisedsurplus for the participants and/or changing the consumption patterns. therefore seems unfeasible, when the is a proportional increase and the more content to both the Mediearkiv andcollaborators in the process. Instead the The understanding of technology in value for - and knowledge in - society digitised material DR gives access CHAOS. The content that is created issurplus relates to production of valuable DR has traditionally been considered is created. The reason for this is that to, the more likely it is to be diffused, the basis for future value exploitation Culturalproducts and or services that supports as more than a tool for production. neoclassical economics reduces users’ illustrated in figure 10. Diffusion is also for DR. The process is illustrated as thediffusion of goods; that is public service. For example, previously, part of the value and commercialises access. equal to use, supporting the mantra in green curve in figure 9. The financial internal education in becoming a radio- Boisot argues, that: the project - use equals value. value is gathered through innovationThe values of these productions are operator in DR, was learning how to For value to be realized, it must and optimisations are represented as Heritage inmeasured in numbers of collaborations, build a radio console. The technology “Knowledge itself is not subject to the support DR’s mission to bring together, market value (MV).products and users. Each of which, and its functionalities were part of natural scarcities of physical objects challenge, and inform the public. In thecontribute to the diffusion and support the product of public service. Today, (Arrow 1962; Parker 1978). If you have short term, the focus is digitising the The value of the cultural productionof knowledge absorption in different technology is, for many workers, only the candy then I cannot have the same content, but in a longer perspective the is the process from abstraction to Societyways. considered a tool, or a black box that candy. If you have the knowledge, by project should also work on making diffusion, either through DR’s traditional conveys the public service product. The contrast, then if you transfer it to me all the digitised content available broadcast channels and offerings,For instance, CHAOS was created Internet and new media are changing you still have the knowledge. Where on digital platforms for the public, or through the collaborations suchto handle other cultural institutions’ in society, technology is pervasive knowledge can be readily transferred particularly for it to be used fulfilling as Dansk Kulturarv (illustrated inarchive collections, in order to secure and multifunctional, and most people from one party to another in this way, the new, and transformed user-needs. red). Here the value is measured asdistribution and dissemination. DR The use and knowledge of technology are able to consume content through it escapes the condition of natural Simultaneously with the digitisation of cultural production value (CPV), whichdeveloped the basic functionalities, have always been part of the Danish different technologies and or devices. scarcity that forms the physical basis of new cultural heritage, the right access is defined by the framework set insuch as the handling of media files from Broadcasting Corporation’s foundation. Hence, people’s attitude toward media our current understanding of property to the materials should provide users the public service agreement. In thethe digitised content. CHAOS quickly Looking at Boisot ‘s culture-space and public service are changing by rights; namely, that a physical object with important insights which enhance case of DR’s Cultural Heritage Projectshowed potential for collaborating, and (C-space) can give some insights moving around in an infinite process. cannot be in two places at the same their interpersonal understanding this is measured in the amount ofthe system evolved into an open source to, how tacit competencies can be Castells elaborates the change in a time. Consumption of a “knowledge through the process of absorption. collaborations, products, and userscollective. The technology collective accessed through cultural heritage more detailed way, saying that: good” under certain circumstances, is on equal terms with the commercialsupports different needs, while being digitisation; ultimately making it thus non-antagonistic (Grant 1996). One can assume that the more codified market, however, there are differentfinanced by all the members, and accessible although it posses some “Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Since the main purpose of property knowledge is, the more diffused it is in criteria for quality, content, andconcrete features are being developed abstract value as an asset. In short; broadcast evolved along a trajectory rights is to establish an acceptable a given network. This can be related to dissemination.based on each member’s individual that emphasized continuity in the form procedure for the allocation of digitisation of cultural heritage, meaningneeds. “The C-Space is a conceptual of communication, while increasing resources under conditions of natural the more digital content that is created, The public service value of the digital framework which focuses on the the diversity of delivery platforms and scarcity and of rivalry—they entitle the the more available it can become cultural heritage for society is createdRecently the largest development structuring and flow of information the concentration of media ownership. owner of a good to exclude others from to the public, and benefit society. by availability and access for the public.has been within the area of handling within and between organisations. It Broadcasting and the print press the consumption of that good where this Nevertheless, the curve is affected by The measurement of this is a veryradio and sound files. This project consists of two dimensions: codification, remained, by and large, mass media. would diminish the utility that he or she other factors such as IPR, and as a complex, and will not be fully examinedis initiated by a large grant from the the extent to which information can By contrast, computer networking would derive from it—why, some have result of the curve can be pushed down here, although it is key in the processNational Programme for Research be compressed and expressed on and telecommunications rapidly argued, do we need property rights for or up depending on how the global and of embedding knowledge in society.Infrastructure. A part of the grant also paper - simple text is typically more exploited the potential of digitisation knowledge goods where these lack local networks change the legislation The public service value is situated incovers the development of CHAOS codified than images and quantitative and open source software to generate natural scarcity?” of intellectual property rights. If one the blue area and covers the process ofto handle a new online service for information is more codified than new forms of local/global interactive - Boisot: 2007: 172 takes the argument that the archive diffusion, absorption and impacting.user-generated metadata and tagging, discourse - and diffusion, the extent to communication, often initiated by the and digitisation is funded by the publicwhich the researchers of LARM which information is shared by a given users of the networks.” Since, the knowledge and value of a through the media-license fee, andneeded to study the content. The grant population of agents. This population - Castells: 2009: 58 digital cultural heritage per se is not consequently belongs to the public,was a way of sharing the cost of the can consist of either employees or a scarcity good, making the content demands that the digital archive shouldinfrastructure, to secure the needed firms.” The many platforms are altering the available for the public seems like be accessible for everyone. It is alsotools for the research environment, - Griffits, Boisot a.o: 1998: 531 production and broadcast of public a natural step – and hence it also in connection with users the materialsthus benefiting society. In this way, service, and often the users, not emphasised in the latest media should be enriched and developed to create a future cultural heritage. 49
  • 50. 6CHApTER Conclusions50
  • 51. In the theory of new knowledge organisation, technology, or other, it of synergy as being successful when - Oliver & Roos: 2005: 908development, it is shown that the becomes a dynamic process. A process merging networks, but it is crucial not toknowledge is created through the where pre-established knowledge integrate the property horizontally. The objective of the guiding principleagents ability to codify and abstract and the new collected data and is in this case to create narratives formeaning within the movement in the information creates a new knowledge “The key is synergy. Synergy is based understanding the mechanisms andSLC. We argue that given this, the that changes the knowledge source of on the compatibility of the merging experiences in the project, thus makeusers ability to engage and work with the involved agent; this is an on-going networks. Production merges, not them a tool for decision-making whenthe content will increase/enhance the process where one’s knowledge and property. Networked organisations digitising cultural heritage. Ideally,diffusion, absorption, and impacting actions continuously are evaluated appear to be more successful business this will be a method for creating andprocess and in the I-Space and and generate input that challenges models in contemporary multi-media sustaining value, and will hopefully beaccelerate the knowledge production; the status quo of the process in order conglomerates than horizontal property beneficial for other agents faced withhence creating more value; a challenge to make the most of the work, based integrations.” the same challenges. However, thewhich will need to be solved in the IPR on data and information. Six insights - Castells: 2009: 83 guiding principles match DR’s Culturaland technical fields--not the editorial can be found from the examples of the Heritage project, because they arefield. individual phases within the SLC, they Following the ideas of Castells, a based on discoveries and narratives are: flexible and collaborating project can developed through the description andKnowledge is often produced turn out to be extremely valuable, and analysis of the project.when cultural heritage becomes • Insight 1 - Putting resources focus should then be on establishing asearchable, viewable, and usable. and time into scanning is fruitful clear division of labour and describing The knowledge constructed in theThis often happens through a for the future process the different areas of responsibility, and thesis then serves the frameworkshared infrastructure or standardized • Insight 2 - Problem-solving then supporting an open collaboration. of the narratives, so the decision-processes and/or a set of easily usable should be approached as a trial On the other hand, this increases making becomes easier, sincere, andguidelines - mainly, in the interaction and error process, making the the need for coordinating and spontaneous. Furthermore, using toobetween the cultural heritage and the abstraction that the project does communication, which can be obtained many resources or crucial time whenusers. Another part of the knowledge not solve one problem, instead by making the right abstraction and facing choices is avoided. As Oliver andcreation is the linking of content and it comes up with a solution codification, as some of the examples Roos explain:new metadata in the digital domain. applicable to more than one showed. An emphasis should also beGiven that generating new metadata scenario. made on the optimisation of workflows “Guiding principles are fundamentalis equally important to preserving the • Insight 3 - Abstraction and and value-chain management based justifications for rules and judgementscultural heritage through digitisation. codification should always by the organisational knowledge and (Kessels 2001) that differ from normsThis is due to the fact that part of leave room for some flexibility, previous innovations. (e.g. Harrison 1987) or interpretivethe cultural heritage content do not especially when fashioning schemes (e.g. Bartunek 1984), in thathave sufficient metadata, and or different schemes. they embed self-referential storylines tonew metadata constituted use whopotentially increases future use. • Insight 4 - Diffusion and collaboration require a flexible Guiding Principles for which team members feel emotionally attached (Oliver and Roos 2003) (seeNew metadata are a codification andabstraction process that creates the and decentralised structure; making room for initiatives and Exploring the Digitisation Table 1 for an illustration of how each guiding principle was applied).”possibility for diffusion and absorptionand impacting, within a broader improvisation in order to merge with the external objective. of Cultural Heritage and - (Oliver & Roos: 2005: 908)community. • Insight 5 - Absorption should happen in a broader Creating Value Based on the observations from examining the case and analysing the“(…) a key factor for productivity growth perspective, meaning not just knowledge- and value creation fourin this knowledge-intensive, networked in the organisation, but that the How can the new acquired knowledge guiding principles can be identified:economy is innovation, or the capacity related networks should also be transformed into daily use, so theto recombine factors of production in be targets for absorbing by value creation for society and DR • Use is valuea more efficient way, and/or produce practical application in order to is ensured when digitising cultural • Transparent boxeshigher value added in the process or in have value-exchanges between heritage? An approach is to create • Open source collectiveproduct. Innovators depend on cultural different knowledge-holders. guiding principles, inspired by David • Flexible resourcescreativity, on institutional openness to • Insight 6 - Access and Oliver & Johan Roos. The essence isentrepreneurship, on labor autonomy interaction fosters impact. that: The different guiding principles willin the labor process, and on the By making attractive content be explained, focusing on the guidingappropriate kind of financing for this accessible, larger groups of “Guiding principles call to mind principle itself, the heuristic guidance,innovation-driven economy.” users are mobilised. deeper narratives shared within a emotional mandate, followed by one of- Castells: 2009: 33 management team which, when two articulations within the abstraction. A key in the success seems to be invoked, provide access to far richerWhen the project worked on digitisation the establishment of an attractive guidance on effective courses of action.of material a number of process independent project structure. However, Such narratives helped managers weinnovations were created and these can the understanding of synergies between observed keep track of and consolidatebe seen as knowledge developments. the different networks and partners is their experiences, making themIn this case knowledge, be it knowledge crucial, because it can create shared available both at the time and in theabout the archive, the content, the value. Castells has an explanation future.” 51
  • 52. A brief Guiding • • Heuristic reasoning. • • Narrative mode. • • Emotional content.introduction Each of them affects the other. The members of the organisations will principles then base their decision-making on shared heuristic reasoning. A heuristicto guiding reasoning that draws upon some organisational narratives, where important values or key elements were expressed in stories. Hence, narrativesprinciples become a part of the organisational for DR’s environment and embedded in the workers as emotional content. The emotional content, Oliver andThe researchers David Oliver and Roos describe its not just a state ofJohan Roos have, in an organisational feeling god or bad, but include delight,case study, developed a method for motivation, serenity, anger, sadness, Culturalunderstanding decision making in high- fear, and other more complex feelings.velocity environments. Their research The process between them beingshows that organisations’ decision- dynamic, and when the heuristicmaking processes often are based on reasoning, narrative mode andsome guiding principles which play emotional content affect each other,a key role, when an agent is faced they create the basis for second levelwith choices. These principles should, concept: Guiding Principles. (Oliver & Heritagefrom Oliver and Roos’ perspective, Roos: 2005).be understood as a kind of heuristicreasoning or rule of thumb--within theorganisation or business unit--which theagent can refer when making a choice.Key in heuristic reasoning is that theyare developed and articulated by the FIGURE 11 - STRATEGIC GUIDELINES second-order concept Source oliver & Roos Guiding projectagents within the organisation, and alsorepresent values, norms, knowledge,and experiences that is embeddedin the individual, hence the guiding proiinciplesprinciples have emotional content.In the studied companies, themanagers and team membersappeared to make frequent decisionsbased on a shared and often articulatedunderstanding of the objectives and/or the environment. These sharedunderstandings set a mental framework #1 HEURISTICor concept, which were not based REASONINGon orders or other organisationaltemplates. Instead they provided anexplicit probability decision-makingguideline. Thus, Oliver and Roos arguethat guiding principles is a good method #2 Narrative #3 Emotionelfor governing the developing and/or Mode contentcontrolling of the units path and work inhigh velocity environments.The findings in their empirical study canbe divided into three: 3 findings52
  • 53. Guiding Guiding Guiding Guidingprinciple 1: principle 2: principle 3: principle 4:Use is value Transparent Open Source Flexible boxes Collective resourcesHeuristic guidance Heuristic guidance Heuristic guidance Heuristic guidanceAlways keep a focus on the users Principle for outsourcing, hence A sense of sharing is key, creating Flexible project economy. Manpower,and make sure similar tasks are only optimising different processes. Key shared value. Synergies can be funding, and resources can alwaysperformed once, but can be used N is understanding the process and created by fusion, for instance be found for projects with potential.amount of times. therefore also control of the price level. merging collections with other cultural Support the belief of dynamic, agile Optimising in transparent boxes should institutions. organisation, changing along with theRe-defining a new public service, the benefit partners or industries. different stages of the projectproject is not only working with new Facilitating an open organisation wheretechnology, but also adding value to bureaucracy and different goals do notthe traditional broadcasting. Strive Emotional content: restrict valuable collaboration. Emotional content:to challenge the lack of innovativethinking in terms of using new The management of the project defines People that work on the project aretechnology. an input and outcome of a project, and Emotional content: always flexible in terms of their tasks then collaborates with external partners and involvement. Furthermore, they are to optimise the process in a given box. The organisation is trained to expect not fixated on sustaining such things asEmotional content: If there is the potential of creating a partners to collaborate. Because of this, estimated cost, if the reality changes. better process, both partners acquire trust is a important key in cooperating,The team feels a personal responsibility value by, for example, a lowering cost. making the staff prepared to establish, Articulation:for the user interaction and utilises personal and long relationships withthe potential of the archive. The team new potential partners. Resources are not bound to fiscal yearswants to be drivers for changing Articulation: or specific activities, staff and financialexisting restrictions that are inhibiting funding is fluid, and resources are goingthe possibilities of creating value for The team feels they have a mandate to where they are needed. Internal memo,the users, so they are a part of creating “The major focus on cost reduction invite new partners, spirit is based on DR DM. Appendix 1: 10.09.2010access by developing concepts and through the digitisation of very 1+1 = 3.change the framework if necessary. extensive collections also means that styles are analysed and offered for “DR Cultural Heritage Project is working external digitisation, where there is Articulation: from the thesis that “Use equals value”Articulation: money to spare. An example of this and therefore sees Dissemination is the DR DAT tape collection that & Collaboration as an important represents the world’s largest DAT.” “DR must work actively to ensure activity in line with the digitisation and“To ensure this work, DR is focused on - access and availability of the preservation.”sesuring the materials so they are and programme archives, in its fullest - Internal memo, DR DM. Appendix 1:continue to be used - by DR and DR’s extent--for both the public and the 10.09.2010users; the Danes.” research community.”Internal memo, DR DM. Appendix 1: - Mediepolitisk aftale 2011-201410.09.2010 “The purpose of this collaboration is to ensure the overall national cultural“DR Cultural Heritage Project is working heritage through the exploitation offrom the thesis that “Use equals value” synergy affects across collectionsand therefore sees Dissemination and institutions so that the common& Collaboration as an important knowledge can benefit all in theactivity in line with the digitisation and cooperation of goods and materialspreservation.” from the different institutions could be- Internal memo, DR DM. Appendix 1: disseminated through their interaction10.09.2010 for the benefit and happiness of the Danes and Denmark.” - Internal memo, DR DM. Appendix 1: 10.09.2010 53
  • 54. Full frame of movie audience wearing special 3D glasses to view the film Bwana Devil which was shot with new natural vision 3 dimensional technology. USA, 1952. Photo by J. R. Eyerman Source: Life Magazine54
  • 55. Thoughts and be fluid. In reality, this would result in society. If use is value, we are instantly a network, where the people working prioritising the users. The framework would include the public in cultural should not be based on former, production; where researchers and obsolete prerequisites. Thus, we shouldreflections scientists can move freely between the move from public service to public public service institutions and thereby resources. create more and better products and services, thus more knowledge and value.New insights and learning from thetheoretical reflections have created a For instance a public servant could bemomentum, and pushed us to probe the hired at The National Gallery of Art,way we think about public service and but periodically be located at DR toproject organisations. prepare an exhibition, an interactive feature and documentary. In additionPublic service is a vision – an idea to the dynamic workplaces, the wayabout how to develop the good society we approach ownership and rights inwhere things such as education, terms of public collections should beknowledge, and access to cultural changed. Everyone could prosper fromheritage are considered public benefits, a fluid cultural heritage collection; thejust as clean water and minimum institutions, the users, and--if handledwages. appropriately--the rights owners.We believe that the cultural sectors It seems evident that collaborationshave potential to something even could offer insights, knowledge, andgreater if a mandate is given. The services, but also add value within thechallenges are, among other things, area of technology. Since technologyembedded in the way we define is changing rapidly, the experts are notownership, organisational borders, and a fixed or mastered by a specific workcontrol finances. force. Consequently, public service institutions cannot attract and sustainIn the digital domain, we see a massive the best technicians and developers onpotential for creating new use, which the market. Instead the solution shouldcan make the cultural heritage grow. be to create transparent boxes, definingOne of the foundations could be what an input and output in relation to a needwe define as open source collectives. and find the best people or organisationSharing, collaborating, and giving in the market to optimise the processresponsibility is key when utilising the within the box.valuable cultural heritage. While sharingin collectives, the political agenda Consequently, public service institutionsshould emphasise and prioritise the should concentrate on content, thus,need for engaging the users. Users are still have an understanding of whatkey, and should therefore be drivers for the technology could and should do,a new approach to cultural heritage, but when outsourcing the actual productionalso cultural production. of it. Open modules for external integrations, user input and designThe Danish Broadcasting Corporation, could foster innovation within the fieldsits fellow public service institutions, of dissemination, product development,and the public should always inspire and service. Some products or servicesand enrich each other. The goal is to could also have general open access,develop one collection, and, along so the users could develop their ownwith it, a common cultural heritage, in products and services, supportingorder to produce new and better public the idea of a remix- and participatoryservice products. culture.We call for a new society - a society Basically, technology does not hinderwhere public service becomes public or restrict development, as such thingsresources. An idea we want to push to as intellectual property rights, control,the extreme. Resources are no longer centralisation and ‘procedure asbound to one institution, but to the usual’ restrict development. Changingdynamic society. Hence they should these circumstances, would improve 55
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