Intrinsic Motivation Using Personal Learning Plans

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This is a presentation of an essay I wrote for one of my MSc courses. It focuses on how to motivate employees using a personal learning plan.

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Intrinsic Motivation Using Personal Learning Plans

  1. 1. Building Intrinsic Motivation Using Personal Learning Plans for High Technology Workers<br />Leo de Sousa, BCIT<br />Leadership Track, Session 4<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br /><ul><li>Background
  3. 3. Supporting Motivational Theories
  4. 4. An Approach for Motivation
  5. 5. Conclusions
  6. 6. Definitions and References</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  7. 7. Background<br />I am currently a distance Masters student at Syracuse University taking a Masters of Science in Information Management. Last fall, I took a course called Motivation with Information – IST 617.<br />This is talk stems from a research paper I wrote …<br />http://ischool.syr.edu/academics/graduate/msirm/index.aspx<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  8. 8. Background - Approach<br />This presentation explores an approach to build intrinsic motivation in High Technology Workers which:<br /><ul><li>motivates them to work on their personal learning plans
  9. 9. to earn rewards in their personal, educational and career objectives
  10. 10. in a work environment governed by a Collective Bargaining Agreement. </li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  11. 11. Background - Organization<br />Overview of IT Services @ BCIT (www.bcit.ca/its)<br /><ul><li>Centralized IT organization
  12. 12. 100 staff = 6 management, 4 BCGEU and 90 BCIT Faculty and Staff Association members (FSA)
  13. 13. Majority of IT Services staff are BCIT FSA members
  14. 14. BCIT FSA has 3 generic job descriptions – Junior, Intermediate and Senior Systems Analyst
  15. 15. Compensation is governed by the Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) between BCIT and BCIT FSA</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  16. 16. Background - Compensation<br />CBA Compensation Areas:<br /><ul><li>Holidays, Vacations and Leaves
  17. 17. Professional Development
  18. 18. Placement and Advancement
  19. 19. Salary, Hourly Rates and Allowances
  20. 20. Insurance/Benefit Plans
  21. 21. Administrative Allowances</li></ul>** no provision for rewards or bonuses in contract **<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  22. 22. Background - Challenges<br />This constrained environment is a significant challenge for managers to motivate and reward staff.<br />Challenges for Managers:<br /><ul><li>Must manage to the CBA which does not allow for rewards = manage to the lowest common denominator
  23. 23. If there is an appearance of breaking the rules, a grievance could result = management inaction
  24. 24. High tech environment is constantly changing and staff need to keep up = staff fall behind in their knowledge and skills</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  25. 25. Supporting Motivational Theories<br /><ul><li>Adam’s Equity Theory
  26. 26. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  27. 27. Adam’s Equity Theory<br />The table below shows how Adams’ Equity Theory balances between inputs and outputs as well as the measure of equity as perceived by the person. (Chapman, 2010)<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  28. 28. Adam’s Equity Theory<br />The diagram below shows how Adams’ Equity Theory balances between inputs and outputs as well as the measure of equity as perceived by the person. (Chapman, 2010)<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  29. 29. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory<br />Expectancy Theory is based on an employee’s beliefs: <br /><ul><li>Valence - refers to emotional orientations which people hold with respect to outcomes (rewards) – the value the person attaches to first and second order outcomes
  30. 30. Expectancy – refers to employees’ different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing – the belief that effort will lead to first order outcomes
  31. 31. Instrumentality – refers to the perception of employees whether they will actually receive what they desire, even if it has been promised by a manager – the perceived link between first order and second order outcomes</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  32. 32. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory<br />These 3 factors interact together to create a motivational force for an employee to work towards pleasure and avoid pain. The formula for this force is:<br />Valence of outcome x Expectancy act will be result in outcome (Instrumentality) = Motivation Force<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  33. 33. Approach for Motivation<br />“Although you may have little scope to change pay policies and make substantial changes to what people earn, there is plenty you can do. Making sure you hold regular one to one meetings to discuss goals and personal development is a valuable investment in time. Set goals for your team and help them to create their own personal development plan.” (Swinton, 2006)<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  34. 34. Approach for Motivation - Steps<br />Steps for a Manager to begin:<br /><ul><li>Make a commitment to your staff to help them with their career aspirations – do you have a PLP?
  35. 35. Meet regularly with your staff - at least twice a year – aligned to funding cycles to support plan
  36. 36. Collaboratively build a Personal Learning Plan to support shared Institute and Employee goals – shared ownership and responsibility</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  37. 37. Approach for Motivation - Attributes<br />Attributes of developing a Personal Learning Plan (PLP):<br /><ul><li>A “living” document that captures learning activities over time
  38. 38. Uses “SMART” learning objectives to ensure plans are realistic
  39. 39. Captures the commitments of the employer and the employee
  40. 40. Provides time for managers and employees to “plan”</li></ul>* SMART = (S)pecific, (M)easurable, (A)ctionable, (R)ealistic, (T)ime Bound<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  41. 41. Approach for Motivation - Components<br /><ul><li>Career Interests – general interest areas
  42. 42. Current Position – learning needs for current job
  43. 43. Learning Goals – high level goals mutually defined
  44. 44. Learning Activities – “SMART” activities to help achieve learning goals
  45. 45. Target Date – planned date
  46. 46. Evidence of Success – mutually defined success measures before the learning activity is started
  47. 47. Employee and Employer Commitment – this could be time and/or funding</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  48. 48. Personal Learning Plan Template<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  49. 49. Approach for Motivation - Benefits<br />Benefits of developing a Personal Learning Plan (PLP):<br /><ul><li>Reinforces the shared responsibility of the employer/manager and the employee to career development benefiting the employee and the company
  50. 50. Allows employees at lower positions to build skills and competencies so they can apply to reclassify to higher level positions
  51. 51. Allows employees to build skills and competencies so they can apply for different jobs and roles in the organization
  52. 52. Keeps job skills current in a rapidly changing high technology work environment</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  53. 53. Approach for Motivation - Rewards<br />Reward Scenarios of Constructing a PLP:<br />Allows employees to reclassify to higher level positions – PLP is a supporting document for reclassification process<br />Allows employees to apply for different jobs – PLP shows development in other areas of IT <br />Enables employees to remain current in their field reducing stress from technology change – being current with the technology employees work with reduces their stress<br />Employees who are supported by training and professional development are more engaged in the work they do<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  54. 54. Conclusion<br />Implementing Personal Learning Plans with high technology employees provides a manager the opportunity to provide rewards that benefit the employee and the organization. <br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  55. 55. Conclusion<br />Developing PLPs with your staff provides multiple motivational and rewarding impacts:<br /><ul><li>Reinforces the shared responsibility of the manager and the employee
  56. 56. Allows employees at lower positions to build higher level skills and competencies
  57. 57. Allows employees to change jobs by building skills and competencies
  58. 58. Keeps job skills current with a rapidly changing high tech work environment</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  59. 59. Conclusion<br />Personal Learning Plans are “living” documents that require an investment of time by the employee and manager to build plans that are realistic and achievable. <br />If managers choose to invest the time and effort, they tangibly enhance the personal, educational and career rewards of their employees.<br />IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  60. 60. Definitions<br /><ul><li>Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA): A written contract between an employer and a labor union, for a definitive period of time, spelling out conditions of employment, wages, hours of work, rights of employees and the union, and procedures to be followed in settling disputes.
  61. 61. Personal Learning Plan (PLP): A structured and collaborative process between an employee and their manager with goal of creating a plan for the employee’s personal, educational and career development. </li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  62. 62. Definitions<br /><ul><li>SMART Objectives: A mnemonic used in performance management to describe the goals and targets set for employees. SMART stands for : Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time Bound.
  63. 63. Total Compensation: A Human Resources term used to describe the complete compensation an employer provides to employee including salary, benefits, pension, health care and government benefits.</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />
  64. 64. References<br /><ul><li>BCIT FSA, B. (2007, July 1). Collective Agreement 2007-2010. Retrieved Nov 26, 2010, from BCIT Faculty and Staff Association: http://www.bcitfsa.ca/Documents/2007-2010CollectiveAgreement.pdf
  65. 65.  Brown, C. (2010, Feb 26). Reward Management and Motivational Theory. Retrieved Nov 20, 2010, from uPublish.info: http://www.upublish.info/article.php?id=316070&act=print
  66. 66.  Chapman, A. (2010, Feb 1). Adams' Equity Theory. Retrieved Nov 20, 2010, from businessballs.com: http://www.businessballs.com/adamsequitytheory.htm
  67. 67. de Sousa, Leo (2011, Apr 22). Building Intrinsic Motivation Using Personal Learning Plans for High Technology Workers. http://leodesousa.ca/2011/04/building-intrinsic-motivation-using-personal-learning-plans-for-high-technology-workers/
  68. 68. Deci, E. L. (1995). Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self Motivation. Penguin Books.
  69. 69.  Swinton, L. (2006, Oct 12). Adams Equity Motivation Theory; Put Workplace Psychology Into Action and Increase Motivation. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010, from Management for the Rest of Us: http://www.mftrou.com/adams-equity-motivation-theory.html
  70. 70.  Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.</li></ul>IT4BC| Sharing, Collaboration, Innovation| June 9-10, 2011<br />

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