Motivating Strategic Practice Development Using CMM
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information Innovation Motivating Strategic Practice Development with a Capability Maturity Model Approach Leo de Sousa AbstractThis paper describes the use of a motivational information model (Capability Maturity Model -CMM) as an innovative way to help plan, mature, assess and motivate the creation of a process.Topics covered are (a) Background (including Definitions), (b), Description of the Model, (c)Construction of the Model, (d) Applicability of the Model and (e) Discussion of MotivationalTheories that support the model. The use of this model has proved to be effective in severaldisciplines and organizations. After reading this paper, the reader should be able to create anduse a “Strategic Practice Capability Maturity Model” in their organizations to plan, assess andmotivate practitioners to develop a strategic practice. DefinitionsCapability Maturity Model (CMM): CMM was developed by the SEI at Carnegie MellonUniversity in Pittsburgh http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmm/. A Five Level Model to guide and assessthe maturity of a process.Strategic Practice (SP): a best practice discipline that can be applied horizontally across anorganization. Examples: Project Management, IT Security, Enterprise Architecture, RiskManagement, Business Continuity, Performance Management, Facility and Space Planning,Strategic Planning, etc
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information InnovationStrategic Practitioner: a person designated to build, grow and promote a Strategic Practice likeProject Management, IT Security, Enterprise Architecture, Risk Management, BusinessContinuity, Performance Management, Facility and Space Planning, Strategic Planning, etc BackgroundIn April 2005, I was tasked to create an Enterprise Architecture strategic practice at the BritishColumbia Institute of Technology. We just reorganized our Information Technology Servicesdepartment and created a Strategic Practices team. The mission of the Strategic Practice teamwas to deliver horizontal best practice services like Project Management, IT Security, BusinessAnalysis and Enterprise Architecture. At the suggestion of my Associate Director, DaveCresswell, I investigated the possibility of using the Carnegie Mellon University SoftwareEngineering Institute Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) methodology (seehttp://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/index.cfm). Capability Maturity Model Integration is: “… a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements of effective processes that ultimately improve their performance. CMMI can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization. It helps integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes.”Since we did not have an existing Enterprise Architecture (EA) practice, I chose to take themodel and adapt it to create a plan for building the EA practice. It took many iterations andconsultation with colleagues and senior IT leadership to be able to publish the first EA CMM
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information Innovationplan. The end result of this collaborative process was the creation of a CMM plan for EnterpriseArchitecture. I use the CMM to grow and mature our EA practice. The success of this approachled us to apply it to help other Strategic Practitioners to build CMMs for Project Management,Business Analysis and IT Security. I began a blog in 2007 called Enterprise Architecture inHigher Education (http://leodesousa.ca) and wrote about our work with Capability MaturityModels in Enterprise Architecture. You can find my posts at http://leodesousa.ca/?s=cmm.These CMM posts are the most popular from readers and requests for templates on my blog.Forrester.com analyst Gene Leganza interviewed me in 2009 and wrote a blog post about thevalue of our approach - http://blogs.forrester.com/gene_leganza/09-09-10-babies_bath_water_and_enterprise_architecture_maturity_models. Over the past few years, Ihave sent copies of our templates to over 100 people from around the globe to review and use intheir organizations.A surprising side effect of this artefact is its motivational properties for the strategic practitioner.The CMM acts as a “project/program plan” or “roadmap” to progress to a higher level of practicematurity. I found exploring a new practice, especially one that I really knew nothing about, a bitoverwhelming. When I though more about it, the capability of Enterprise Architecture to impactour entire organization added more stress to ensure we did this right. Taking a disciplined andcollaborative approach to develop the CMM made a significant increased my comfort andcompetence level and decreased my stress level. Interestingly, this course is my first seriousexposure to motivational theories and I now have a context to understand why the CMMapproach has been so successful. As I read Edward Deci’s book “Why We Do What We Do”, Ifound much of what he explores in Part One “The Importance of Autonomy and Competence”directly related to the successes we encountered by taking a Capability Maturity Model
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information Innovation • Level 4: Quantitatively Managed - Predictable results, knowledge of factors causing variance and reuse • Level 3: Defined - Meeting cost and functionality targets as well as improved quality • Level 2: Repeatable - Meeting schedule and reduced turnover resulting from less overtime • Level 1: Initial - No benefits: Inconsistency, schedule and budget overruns, and defective applications Construction of the ModelOur approach to building the model allows for the strategic practitioner to develop andcommunicate their approach. This approach develops the strategic practitioner’s personalautonomy and is in alignment with deCharms (Deci p.30) – people strive for personal causation;to be the origin of their own behaviour. There are 8 steps to build a strategic practice capabilitymaturity model (CMM): 1. Identify and define 5 stages of maturity for the practice • Process Levels: • Level 1=Informal • Level 2=Development • Level 3=Defined • Level 4=Managed • Level 5=Optimized 2. List Attributes that describe each maturity level 3. Develop Attribute Descriptions for further clarification of what the outcomes are
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information InnovationFigure 3: Enterprise Architecture CMM in MS Excel Applicability of the Model Now that the model is built, we will explore its applicability. As a reminder the Strategic Practice CMM: • Describes the maturity of a process • Creates a roadmap for maturing a process • Communicates a plan to clients of the process • Motivates the strategic practitioner
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information InnovationUsing the CMM as a roadmap to mature a process answers the question “What should I donext?” It also provides guidance to the strategic practitioner about where to focus their efforts“Where should I focus next?” The tool can be used as a performance development tool bymanagers of the strategic practitioners to help support and develop their careers.Describes the maturity of a process • Introducing a new strategic practice requires a plan and a roadmap • Strategic Practitioner needs a way to communicate their process to stakeholders • Published the Strategic Practice CMM within a department and to the client communityMeasurement Attributes • Easy to assess if complete or not • Simple scoring system – no weighting for more complex attributes • Updated as attributes are complete – clearly shows progress which is a positive motivation factor • Reviewed annually to account for changes in strategyCommunication • The CMM is the roadmap for the process maturation • Clients (internally and externally) can see where the practice is going and provide feedback (hopefully constructive) to the strategic practitionerMotivation • The CMM is clear and provides the strategic practitioner with a roadmap to mature their practice
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information Innovation • The CMM is reviewed annually (at a minimum) so that strategic practitioner can celebrate successes of completed attributes in a level. • Ideally, when the strategic practitioner completes an attribute, they should update their CMM. This scoring approach tangibly demonstrates the competence of the strategic practitioner • If the strategic practitioner becomes overwhelmed with all the work they need to do, a manager can refer them back to their CMM roadmap as the agreed upon action plan and this reduces the stress on the strategic practitionerMeasuring Value and Assessing MaturityThe next set of steps will help the strategic practitioner measure the maturity and value deliveredby their Strategic Practice. The example used below is the development of an EnterpriseArchitecture practice. You will see all 5 levels with their attributes. Completed attributes areshaded green, underway attributes are shaded yellow and planned attributes have no shading.
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information Innovationtaking a Capability Maturity Model approach. Specifically, Deci’s chapters on the need forPersonal Autonomy and Engaging the World with a Sense of Competence confirm our approachto building and using the Capability Maturity Model. Next, I will use Tosti and O’Brien’s TenTypes of Job Reinforcers Taxonomy to analyze the Strategic Practice Capability MaturityModel. Finally, I will use Mumford’s Needs to demonstrate why the Strategic PracticeCapability Maturity Model works as a motivational model.Personal AutonomyDeci’s book, chapter 3 contains many ideas about personal autonomy. I found that several ideasdirectly relate to the success of using a Capability Maturity Model approach. Deci writes aboutthe intrinsic need for people to feel like they have some control on the work they do. (Deci p.30)My manager asked me to create and communicate a CMM for Enterprise Architecture. Thisallowed me to be in control of the work I was assigned to and made it feel like it was my own.Intrinsic motivation and autonomy are esteem needs as defined by Maslow and can be as strongas Maslow’s physiological needs. Giving people a choice on how to accomplish a goal makes allthe difference in their feelings of autonomy and motivation. (Deci p.34) The final idea in thechapter explores Autonomy support which is the opposite of control. This means taking theperson’s perspective by encouraging self initiation, experimentation and responsibility. (Decip.42) By encouraging a collaborative process for building the CMM, we respect thecontributions of individuals to a common goal. deCharms’ model of “plan-choose-act-takeresponsibility” fits very well with our approach of using the Strategic Practice CMM and directlysupports personal causation. (Deci p.30)
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information InnovationSense of CompetenceIn chapter 5 of Deci’s book, he explores the theme of competence. He provides a term that isnew to me – instrumentalities. Deci defines instrumentalities as linkages between people’sbehavior and their desired outcomes. (Deci p.57) By putting linkages into the system of work,instrumentalities can motivate people’s achievement. The Capability Maturity Model is such aninstrumentality. It provides a clear linkage of what the Strategic Practitioner must accomplish inorder to mature the practice they are tasked to implement. This is not the full picture becauseinstrumentalities are not enough to ensure a high level of productive involvement. (Dec p.63)People need to have a level of confidence in their skills in order to be successful. Decireferences the work of James Connell and Ellen Skinner; people need to have both the strategiesand capacities for attaining desired outcomes. (Deci p.64) The Capability Maturity Modelprovides both strategies and capacities for the Strategic Practitioner. When working on a multi-year process to develop and implement a strategic practice, it is very easy to lose focus on theend goals. I use the model to re-focus my efforts in such situations for myself and other strategicpractitioners. I have a mantra I use with my team when they come to me for advice aboutadvancing their practice – “Look at your CMM”. It is amazing the difference in the person’sattitude and motivation after we sit together and review their accomplishments with the CMM.We start with what they have completed and turn that cell green in the model. Next we look atwhat is underway and turn those cells yellow. Now instead of looking at black and white model,there is a color coded indication of progress and accomplishment. Robert White wrote about“The Concept of Competence”. He argues that the people desire to feel competent in theirenvironment and should be thought of as a fundamental human need. (Deci p.65). By buildingtheir Strategic Practice CMM, confirming its contents with their manager and peers, the Strategic
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information InnovationPractitioner develops a strong sense of the challenges they face and their capability tocompetently tackle them.Tosti and O’Brien – Ten Types of On the Job ReinforcersTosti and O’Brien published a short article in the NSPI Journal in 1978 listing a taxonomy ofOn-the-Job Reinforcers. The table below describes each reinforcer and how the StrategicPractice CMM relates to it.Analysis of Strategic Practice CMM using Tosti and O’Brien (1978)Reinforcer Type Reinforcer Description Strategic Practice CMM - BenefitsRecognition Praise, awards, certification of Model can be published for accomplishment, formal management, peers and customers to public acknowledgement, etc see accomplishmentsTangible Rewards Cash bonuses, commissions Strategic Practitioner can be measured profit sharing, etc on the achievements recorded in the CMM and depending on the organization receive rewards. In our organization, an intermediate systems analyst used the CMM as evidence of working at a senior level and had their job reclassified to a senior level with increased pay.Job Tasks Assignment of new duties, The Strategic Practice CMM is vertical redesign of present fundamentally a model to help build a job, opportunity for advanced new practice. It inherently captures the training, etc activities required to implement a new practice.Job Responsibilities Opportunity for more self This is almost a perfect fit for the management, more power to Strategic Practice CMM approach. decide/implement, more Please referring to the building the frequent participation in model section of this paper. decision making, given the opportunity to select goals and targets, etcStatus Indicators Invitation to “high level” Another good fit. I wrote another blog meetings, a new title, placed post on what a Strategic Practitioner is in a special category, etc http://leodesousa.ca/2010/02/enterprise- architects-what-attributes-do-you-look- for/Incentive Feedback Increased knowledge of The Strategic Practice CMM directly quantitative outputs, graphs of provided this reinforcer by providing a progress, receiving knowledge method to measure and show value. of individual performance, etc Refer to the Measuring Value section of this paper.
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information InnovationPersonal Activities Doing “screw off” behaviors Not applicable to the Strategic Practice at work, etc CMMSocial Activities Talking with fellow The Strategic Practitioner can use the employees, “Shooting the CMM as a discussion tool to gather breeze” with the boss, etc feedback and communicate direction to colleagues and management.Relief from Adversive Exempt from time clocks, Not applicable to the Strategic PracticePolicies or Procedures company policies, etc CMMRelief from Adversive Better lighting, office, location Not applicable to the Strategic PracticeWork Environment etc CMMMumford’s Needs for Job SatisfactionMumford (1991) wrote about five employee needs (Chen 2010): • Knowledge - need to fully use skills and learn new things; • Psychological - need for recognition, status, responsibility, and advancement; • Support/control/efficiency - need for support staff, a fair pay structure, and encouragement from supervisors; • Task - need to use a variety of skills, have autonomy, and get feedback; • Ethical/moral, need for fair treatment and communication about important decisionsThe Strategic Practice Capability Maturity Model addresses 4 of Mumford’s Needs. The modeldoes not address ethical and moral needs although it does contribute to communication aboutimportant decisions. The task need is addressed by allowing the Strategic Practitioner to buildtheir model and articulate the attributes of each level of maturity. This implies the StrategicPractitioner has the autonomy to use a variety of skills and techniques. The support need issatisfied by using the Strategic Practice CMM to communicate the direction (e.g. roadmap) forthe maturation of a practice with colleagues and management. The psychological need can befulfilled by using the model to show progress towards a goal by measuring progress. Positiveprogress provides a manager the option to reward and acknowledge the Strategic Practitioner.
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information InnovationAddressing the knowledge need is why we created the model. When a person is faced withdoing something new, particularly when the task is large and requires a long time to implement,the Strategic Practice Capability Maturity Model provides a roadmap with incremental steps toensure success. Conclusions We decided to adapt the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model Integration methodology and used it to develop a plan and roadmap to mature the creation of an Enterprise Architecture Strategic Practice at the British Columbia Institute of Technology. In the years since we created this approach, it has been applied to other Strategic Practices like Project Management, Business Architecture and IT Security. Based on the comments and requests for more detailed information about our approach, we believe this technique has broad applicability in many disciplines and organizations. A primary contributor to the success of this approach is the motivational aspects of allowing a Strategic practitioner to: • Describe the maturity of their Strategic Practice using levels and attributes • Plan and creates a roadmap for incrementally maturing a process • Communicate a plan to management, colleagues and clients of the Strategic Practice • Motivates the Strategic Practitioner to develop and mature their Strategic Practice by providing a vehicle for personal autonomy, sense of competence, on-the-job reinforcers and a focus for job needs of knowledge, psychological, support and tasks
IST 617 Assignment 3 – Student Choice #1 Oct 25, 2010 Choice #3: Design a Motivational Information Innovation ReferencesCarnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute (2010). Capability Maturity ModelIntegration. http://www.sei.cmu.edu/cmmi/Chen, Gina Marie (2010). Mumford’s Needs. Motivation at a Glance. IST 617 CourseAssignment, iSchool, Syracuse Universityde Sousa, Leo (2007). Enterprise Architecture in Higher Education. http://leodesousa.ca/?s=cmmDeci, Edward L. (1995). Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self Motivation. PenguinBooksHodges, Charles B. (2004). Designing to Motivate: Motivational Techniques to Incorporate intoE-Learning Experiences. The Journal of Interactive Online Learning. Volume 2, Number 3.http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/showissue.cfm?volID=2&IssueID=8Leganza, Gene (2009). Babies, Bath Water, And Enterprise Architecture Maturity Models.Forrester.com. http://blogs.forrester.com/gene_leganza/09-09-10-babies_bath_water_and_enterprise_architecture_maturity_modelsStruebel, Ute. (2008). CMMi meets ITIL. Presented at the 2008 European SEPGhttps://bscw.sei.cmu.edu/pub/bscw.cgi/d689601/Streubel%20three%20cases%20ITIL%20and%20CMMI-SVC%20B.pdfSun, Rui and Shi, Jintao (2010). Research on Capability Maturity Model for OrganizationalInnovation Management: Focus on Intellectual Capital.http://www.seiofbluemountain.com/upload/product/200911/2007qyczhy3z3a3.pdfTosti, Donald T. and O’Brien, Anne T. (1978). Ten Types of On-the-Job Reinforcers: ATaxonomy. National Society for Performance and Instruction Journal.