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  • Amphioxus-cephalochordata
  • Tay-Sachs disease, it causes a relentless deterioration of mental and physical abilities that commences around six months of age and usually results in death by the age of four

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  • 1. 4th Post lab discussion
    Bio22 LManahan
  • 2. Embryology
    Development of embryo
    Fertilization
    Cleavage
    Gastrulation
    Neurulation
    Organogenesis
  • 3. Fertilization
    • Fertilization membrane
    • 4. Hardened vitelline membrane to prevent further sperm penetration
    • 5. Perivitelline space
    • 6. Grey crescent
    • 7. Jelly coats
    It prevents too many sperm from getting to the egg at the same time, because of its viscosity.
    Proteins in the jelly initiate the acrosome reaction in sperm so they are ready to fertilize the egg.
    It provides a sort of "shock absorber" to prevent injury .
  • 8. Figure 32.1 Early es,mbryonic development (Layer 1)
    Cleavage is a series of rapid mitotic divisions (without cell growth)
  • 9.
  • 10. (d)
    Blastula. A single layer of cells
    surrounds a large blastocoel
    cavity. Although not visible here,
    the fertilization envelope is still
    present; the embryo will soon
    hatch from it and begin swimming.
    Four-cell stage. Remnants of the
    mitotic spindle can be seen
    between the two cells that have
    just completed the second
    cleavage division.
    (b)
    Morula. After further cleavage
    divisions, the embryo is a
    multicellular ball that is still
    surrounded by the fertilization
    envelope. The blastocoel cavity
    has begun to form.
    (c)
    Cleavage partitions the cytoplasm of one large cell
    Into many smaller cells called blastomeres
    Fertilized egg. Shown here is the
    zygote shortly before the first
    cleavage division, surrounded
    by the fertilization envelope.
    The nucleus is visible in the
    center.
    (a)
    Figure 47.7a–d
  • 11.
    • These cells are pluripotent (have the potential to become ANY of the 220 types of cells in the human body). These are embryonic stem cells
    • 12. Which is holoblastic and which is meroblastic?
  • The development of body axes in frogs
    Is influenced by the polarity of the egg
    Anterior
    (a)
    Body axes. The three axes of the fully developed embryo, the
    tadpole, are shown above.
    Right
    Dorsal
    Ventral
    Left
    Posterior
    Animal
    hemisphere
    Animal pole
    Point of
    sperm entry
    1
    The polarity of the egg determines the anterior-posterior axis
    before fertilization.
    Vegetal
    hemisphere
    Vegetal pole
    Point of
    sperm
    entry
    At fertilization, the pigmented cortex slides over the underlying
    cytoplasm toward the point of sperm entry. This rotation (red arrow)
    exposes a region of lighter-colored cytoplasm, the gray crescent,
    which is a marker of the dorsal side.
    2
    Future
    dorsal
    side of
    tadpole
    Gray
    crescent
    First
    cleavage
    3
    The first cleavage division bisects the gray crescent. Once the anterior-
    posterior and dorsal-ventral axes are defined, so is the left-right axis.
    Figure 47.8a, b
    (b) Establishing the axes. The polarity of the egg and cortical rotation are critical in setting up the body axes.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. SURFACE VIEW
    CROSS SECTION
    Animal pole
    1
    Gastrulation begins when a small indented crease,
    the dorsal lip of the blastopore, appears on one
    side of the blastula. The crease is formed by cells
    changing shape and pushing inward from the
    surface (invagination). Additional cells then roll
    inward over the dorsal lip (involution) and move into
    the interior, where they will form endoderm and
    mesoderm. Meanwhile, cells of the animal pole, the
    future ectoderm, change shape and begin spreading
    over the outer surface.
    Blastocoel
    Dorsal lip
    of blastopore
    Dorsal lip
    of blastopore
    Blastula
    Vegetal pole
    Archenteron
    Blastocoel
    shrinking
    The blastopore lip grows on both sides of the
    embryo, as more cells invaginate. When the sides
    of the lip meet, the blastopore forms a circle that
    becomes smaller as ectoderm spreads downward
    over the surface. Internally, continued involution
    expands the endoderm and mesoderm, and the
    archenteron begins to form; as a result, the
    blastocoel becomes smaller.
    2
    Ectoderm
    3
    Late in gastrulation, the endoderm-lined archenteron
    has completely replaced the blastocoel and the
    three germ layers are in place. The circular blastopore
    surrounds a plug of yolk-filled cells.
    Blastocoel
    remnant
    Mesoderm
    Endoderm
    Key
    Future ectoderm
    Future mesoderm
    Figure 47.12
    Yolk plug
    Yolk plug
    Gastrula
    Future endoderm
    The mechanics of gastrulation in a frog
  • 17.
  • 18. Organogenesis
    Various regions of the three embryonic germ layers
    Develop into the rudiments of organs during the process of organogenesis
  • 19. Neurulation
    Neural folds
    LM
    1 mm
    Neural
    fold
    Neural
    plate
    Notochord
    Ectoderm
    Mesoderm
    Endoderm
    Archenteron
    Neural plate formation. By the time
    shown here, the notochord has
    developed from dorsal mesoderm,
    and the dorsal ectoderm has
    thickened, forming the neural plate,
    in response to signals from the
    notochord. The neural folds are
    the two ridges that form the lateral
    edges of the neural plate. These
    are visible in the light micrograph
    of a whole embryo.
    (a)
    Figure 47.14a
    • Early in vertebrate organogenesis
    • 20. The notochord forms from mesoderm and the neural plate forms from ectoderm
  • Neural
    fold
    Neural plate
    Neural crest
    Outer layer
    of ectoderm
    Neural crest
    Neural tube
    (b)
    Formation of the neural tube.
    Infolding and pinching off of the
    neural plate generates the neural tube.
    Note the neural crest cells, which will
    migrate and give rise to numerous
    structures.
    Figure 47.14b
    • The neural plate soon curves inward
    • 21. Forming the neural tube
  • Eye
    Somites
    Tail bud
    SEM
    Neural tube
    1 mm
    Notochord
    Neural
    crest
    Coelom
    Somite
    Archenteron
    (digestive cavity)
    Somites. The drawing shows an embryo
    after completion of the neural tube. By
    this time, the lateral mesoderm has
    begun to separate into the two tissue
    layers that line the coelom; the somites,
    formed from mesoderm, flank the
    notochord. In the scanning electron
    micrograph, a side view of a whole
    embryo at the tail-bud stage, part of the
    ectoderm has been removed, revealing
    the somites, which will give rise to
    segmental structures such as vertebrae
    and skeletal muscle.
    (c)
    Figure 47.14c
    • Mesoderm lateral to the notochord
    • 22. Forms blocks called somites
    • 23. Lateral to the somites
    • 24. The mesoderm splits to form the coelom
  • neurula
  • 25.
  • 26. Level of telencephalon
    Level of heart
    Level of hindgut
    Level of midgut
    Level of eyes
    http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/57mmfrog/db57fg11.htm
  • 27. GENETICS
  • 28. Vocabulary
    • Genetics: The scientific study of heredity
    • 29. Allele: Alternate forms of a gene/factor.
    • 30. Genotype: combination of alleles an organism has.
    • 31. Phenotype: How an organism appears.
    • 32. Dominant: An allele which is expressed (masks the other).
    • 33. Recessive: An allele which is present but remains unexpressed (masked)
    • 34. Homozygous: Both alleles for a trait are the same.
    • 35. Heterozygous: The organism's alleles for a trait are different.
  • Composition of DNA
    The structure of DNA was discovered by Watson and Crick in 1953.
    It is a twisted double helix molecule, containing sugar, phosphates, and nitrogenous bases.
    The sugar is deoxyribose and the phosphoric acid molecules are always the same and provides for the structure (side of the ladder).
    The only difference between us is the order and arrangement of the four bases (rungs of the ladder).
  • 36. Bases of DNA
    Adenine= A
    Thymine= T
    Guanine= G
    Cytosine= C
    A always pairs with T
    C always pairs with G
  • 37. Bases of RNA
    Adenine= A
    Uracil= U
    Guanine= G
    Cytosine= C
    G always pairs with C
    T from the DNA = A in the RNA
    A from the DNA = U in the RNA
  • 38. DNA Model
  • 39. Chromosomes
    The DNA in every cell is located in rod like segments called chromosomes
    Chromosomes occurs in pairs in every cell of our body except in the sperm and ovum.
    Chromosomes numbers are the same for each specie.
  • 40. Chromosome Numbers
    Species Diploid # Haploid #
    Cattle 60 30
    Swine 38 19
    Sheep 54 27
    Horse 64 32
    Human 46 23
    Chicken 78 39
    Goat 60 30
    Donkey 62 31
  • 41. Chromosomes
    There are 2 sex chromosomes included in the diploid number of the chromosomes.
    All of the other chromosomes are referred to as autosomes.
    In mammals if the sex chromosomes are alike, XX it results in a female.
    If the sex chromosomes are different, XY it results in a male.
  • 42. Sex Determination
    Females contribute an X chromosome towards the sex of their offspring.
    Males can contribute an X or a Y chromosome toward the sex of their offspring.
    Absence of an Y chromosome results in a the embryo developing into a female.
    Presence of an Y chromosome results in the embryo developing into a male.
  • 43. Sex Determination
    Gametogenesis = Formation of gametes through meiosis.
    Male = 4 viable spermatids
    Female = 1 viable ovum, 3 polar bodies.
  • 44. Laws of Inheritance
    • Law of Segregation: When gametes (sperm egg etc…) are formed each gamete will receive one allele or the other.
    • 45. Law of independent assortment: Two or more alleles will separate independently of each other when gametes are formed
  • Mendelian Genetics
    While assigned to teach, he was also assigned to tend the gardens and grow vegetables for the monks to eat.
    Augustinian Monk at Brno Monastery in Austria (now Czech Republic)
    Not a great teacher but well trained in math, statistics, probability, physics, and interested in plants and heredity.
    Mountains with short, cool growing season meant pea (Pisum sativum) was an ideal crop plant.
    Gregor Mendel
    “Father of Genetics”
  • 46. Mendel worked with peas (Pisum sativum)
    • Good choice for environment of monastery
    • 47. Network provided unusual varieties for testing
    • 48. Obligate self-pollination reproductive system
    • 49. Permits side-by-side genetic barriers
    • 50. Cross-pollinations require intentional process
    • 51. Crosses meticulously documented
    • 52. Crosses numerically/statistically analyzed
  • One Example of Mendel’s Work
    Tall
    Dwarf
    x
    Phenotype
    P
    TT
    tt
    Genotype
    Homozygous
    Dominant
    Homozygous
    Recessive
    All Tall
    Clearly Tall is Inherited…
    What happened to Dwarf?
    F1
    Tt
    Tall is dominant to Dwarf
    Heterozygous
    F1 x F1 = F2
    possible gametes
    Punnett Square:
    t
    T
    3/4 Tall
    1/4 Dwarf
    F2
    Tall
    Tt
    Tall
    TT
    T
    possible gametes
    Dwarf
    tt
    Tall
    Tt
    t
    Dwarf is not missing…just masked as “recessive” in a diploid state… there IS a female contribution.
  • 53. F1 x F1 = F2
    F2
    possible gametes
    Punnett Square:
    t
    T
    Tall
    tt
    Tall
    TT
    T
    possible gametes
    Dwarf
    tt
    Tall
    Tt
    t
    Mendel as a Scientist
    Test Cross:
    Unknown Tall
    Dwarf
    x
    tt
    possible gametes
    If Unknown is TT:
    t
    t
    Tall
    Tt
    Tall
    Tt
    T
    possible gametes
    Test Progeny All Tall
    Tall
    Tt
    Tall
    Tt
    T
    1/3 of F2 Tall are TT
    2/3 of F2 Tall are Tt
    possible gametes
    If Unknown is Tt:
    t
    t
    Tall
    Tt
    Tall
    Tt
    T
    possible gametes
    Test Progeny Half Tall Half Dwarf
    Dwarf
    tt
    Dwarf
    tt
    t
  • 54. Another Example of Mendel’s Work
    Green
    Yellow
    x
    Phenotype
    P
    gg
    GG
    Genotype
    Homozygous
    Recessive
    Homozygous
    Dominant
    All Yellow
    Clearly Yellow is Inherited…
    What happened to Green?
    F1
    Gg
    Yellow is dominant to Green
    Use G/g rather than Y/y for symbolic logic
    Heterozygous
    F1 x F1 = F2
    possible gametes
    NEVER use G/Y or g/y
    Punnett Square:
    g
    G
    3/4 Yellow
    1/4 Green
    F2
    Yellow
    Gg
    Yellow
    GG
    G
    possible gametes
    Green
    gg
    Yellow
    Gg
    g
    Green is not missing…just masked as “recessive” in diploid state
  • 55. F1 x F1 = F2
    F2
    possible gametes
    Punnett Square:
    g
    G
    Yellow
    Gg
    Yellow
    GG
    G
    possible gametes
    Green
    gg
    Yellow
    Gg
    g
    Mendel as a Scientist
    Test Cross:
    Unknown Yellow
    Green
    x
    gg
    possible gametes
    If Unknown is GG:
    g
    g
    Yellow
    Gg
    Yellow
    Gg
    G
    possible gametes
    Test Progeny All Yellow
    Yellow
    Gg
    Yellow
    Gg
    G
    1/3 of F2 Yellow are GG
    2/3 of F2 Yellow are Gg
    possible gametes
    If Unknown is Gg:
    g
    g
    Yellow
    Gg
    Yellow
    Gg
    G
    possible gametes
    Test Progeny Half Yellow Half Green
    Green
    gg
    Green
    gg
    g
  • 56. Mendel worked with peas (Pisum sativum)
    • Good choice for environment of monastery
    • 57. Network provided unusual varieties for testing
    • 58. Obligate self-pollination reproductive system
    • 59. Permits side-by-side genetic barriers
    • 60. Cross-pollinations require intentional process
    • 61. Crosses meticulously documented
    • 62. Crosses numerically/statistically analyzed
    • 63. Scientists of 1860s could not understand math
    • 64. Work lost in journals for 50 years!
    • 65. Rediscovered in 1900s independently by 3 scientists
    • 66. Recognized as landmark work!
  • After 1900 several scientists tried to replicate Mendel’s crosses using other species including snapdragon.
    Genetics After Mendel
    Red
    Yellow
    P
    x
    PRPR
    PYPY
    When these alleles go walking, they both do some talking (codominance)!
    OK, so we cannot use R/r nor Y/y so we pick a third letter…P for the petal color gene.
    Notice: we do NOT mix R/Y or r/y!
    All Orange
    F1
    PRPY
    F1 x F1 = F2
    possible gametes
    Punnett Square:
    PY
    PR
    F2
    Orange
    PRPY
    Red
    PRPR
    PR
    This F2 will NOT have a 3:1 ratio of phenotypes.
    Instead it shows a 1:2:1 ratio!
    The exception here proves the rule.
    possible gametes
    Yellow
    PYPY
    Orange
    PRPY
    PY
  • 67. In addition to this, there are multiple alleles possible:
    PR = red PY = yellow p = no pigment
    The combination of alleles in a diploid determine the flower color:
    PRPR = red
    PRPY = orange
    PYPY = yellow
    PRp = pink
    PYp = cream
    pp = white
    Human hair color follows a similar pattern:
    Alleles: HBn = brown HBd = blonde hR = red hbk = black
    The combinations of these alleles determine the base hair color:
    HBnHBn = dark brown
    HBnHBd = sandy brown
    HBnhR = auburn
    HBnhbk = dark brown
    HBdHBd = blonde
    HBdhR = strawberry blonde
    HBdhbk = blonde
    hRhR = red
    hRhbk = red
    hbkhbk = black
    Recessive can be common!
    Dominant does NOT mean frequent!
  • 68. Another Example of Recessive Being Common: Pisum sativum
    Garden Peas: green seed, wrinkled seed, dwarf stature, white flower
    gg
    ww
    dd
    aa
    In other words: a quadruple double-recessive
    is the most common garden pea on Earth!
    Quantitative Inheritance: multiple genes control trait
    Highest Crop Yield: AABBCCDDEE
    Intermediate Crop Yield: AabbCCDdEe
    Lowest Crop Yield: aabbccddee
    Darkest Skin Color: AABBCCDDEE
    Intermediate Skin Color: AaBbCcDdEe
    Lightest Skin Color: aabbccddee
    AaBbCcDdEe x AaBbCcDdEe can produce a huge range of colors!
  • 69. Phenotype = Genotype + Environment
    Crop Yield = Genotype
    + Minerals
    + Water
    + Light
    - Pests
    etc.
    Optimizing these factors determines agricultural productivity…last part of our course!
    Human Skin Color = Genotype
    + Sun (UV) Exposure
    - Aging Factors
    The sun exposure effect is most obvious in people of intermediate skin base color
    but everyone can have “tan lines.”
  • 70. Who Gets To Mate With Whom? …Two Extremes
    Inbreeding Depression: related parents give same recessives to children
    Hemophilia: Queen Victoria’s Mutation and Diseased Grandchildren
     recessive sex-linked, X chromosome disorders, haemophilia is more likely to occur in males than females
    Tay-Sachs: Jewish Populations
    Recessive autosomal disease; relentless deterioration of mental and physical abilities
    Hybrid Vigor:
    Wild Corn A x Wild Corn B
    High Yield Hybrid Corn!
  • 71. Tree method crossing of two traits(dihybrid)
  • 72. Continuous Variation
    Many traits may have a wide range of continuous values. Eg. Human height can vary considerably. There are not just "tall" or "short" humans
  • 73.
    • Gene interaction:
    • 74. Many biological pathways are governed by multiple enzymes, involving multiple steps. If any one of these steps are altered. The end product of the pathway may be disrupted.
    • 75. Environmental effects:
    • 76. Sometimes genes will not be fully expressed owing to external factors. Example: Human height may not be fully expressed if individuals experience poor nutrition.
  • The Average American Phenotype
  • 77. Ecosystems: Basic Concepts
  • 78. What is an ecosystem?
    System= regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole
    Ecosystem = an ecological system;= a community and its physical environment treated together as a functional system
  • 79. Ecosystem Services
    The human economy depends upon the services performed for free by ecosystems.
    The ecosystem services supplied annually are worth many trillions of dollars.
    Economic development that destroys habitats and impairs services can create costs to humanity over the long term that may greatly exceed the short-term economic benefits of the development.
    These costs are generally hidden from traditional economic accounting, but are nonetheless real and are usually borne by society at large.
    http://www.epa.gov/watertrain/pdf/issue2.pdf
  • 80. Ecosystems:Fundamental Characteristics
    Structure:
    Living (biotic)
    Nonliving (abiotic)
    Process:
    Energy flow
    Cycling of matter (chemicals)
    Change:
    Dynamic (not static)
    Succession, etc.
  • 81. Abiotic components:
    ABIOTIC components:
    Solar energy provides practically all the energy for ecosystems.
    Inorganic substances, e.g., sulfur, boron, tend to cycle through ecosystems.
    Organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other complex molecules, form a link between biotic and abiotic components of the system.
  • 82. BIOTIC components
    The biotic components of an ecosystem can be classified according to their mode of energy acquisition.
    In this type of classification, there are:
    Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
    Organisms that produce their own food from an energy source, such as the sun, and inorganic compounds.
    Organisms that consume other organisms as a food source.
  • 83. Trophic level: All the organisms that are the same number of food-chain steps from the primary source of energy
    Modified from: General Ecology, by David T. Krome
  • 84. Trophic Levels
    A trophic level is the position occupied by an organism in a food chain.
    Trophic levels can be analyzed on an energy pyramid.
    Producers are found at the base of the pyramid and compromise the first trophic level.
    Primary consumers make up the second trophic level.
    Secondary consumers make up the third trophic level.
    Finally tertiary consumers make up the top trophic level.
  • 85. Trophic Levels Found on an Energy Pyramid
    The greatest amount of energy is found at the base of the pyramid.
    The least amount of energy is found at top of the pyramid.
    Source: corpuschristiisd.org/user_files/91702/Ecosystem.ppt
  • 86. Food Chains
    The producers, consumers, and decomposers of each ecosystem make up a food chain.
    There are many food chains in an ecosystem.
    Food chains show where energy is transferred and not who eats who.
  • 87. Example of a Food Chain
  • 88. Food Webs
    All the food chains in an area make up the food web of the area.
  • 89. Changes in Ecosystems:Ecological Succession
  • 90. Definition:
    Natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary
    The gradual replacement of one plant community by another through natural processes over time
  • 91. Primary Succession
    Begins in a place without any soil
    Sides of volcanoes
    Landslides
    Flooding
    Starts with the arrival of living things such as lichens that do not need soil to survive
    Called PIONEER SPECIES
  • 92. http://botit.botany.wisc.edu
    http://www.saguaro-juniper.com/
  • 93. Primary Succession
    Soil starts to form as lichens and the forces of weather and erosion help break down rocks into smaller pieces
    When lichens die, they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soil
  • 94. http://www.life.uiuc.edu
  • 95. Primary Succession
    Simple plants like mosses and ferns can grow in the new soil
    http://www.uncw.edu
    http://uisstc.georgetown.edu
  • 96. Primary Succession
    The simple plants die, adding more organic material
    The soil layer thickens, and grasses, wildflowers, and other plants begin to take over
    http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu
  • 97. Primary Succession
    These plants die, and they add more nutrients to the soil
    Shrubs and tress can survive now
    http://www.rowan.edu
  • 98. Primary Succession
    Insects, small birds, and mammals have begun to move in
    What was once bare rock now supports a variety of life
    http://p2-raw.greenpeace.org
  • 99. Secondary Succession
    Begins in a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms
    Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than primary succession
    Example: after forest fires
  • 100. http://www.geo.arizona.edu
  • 101. Climax Community
    A stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the successionprocess
    Does not always mean big trees
    Grasses in prairies
    Cacti in deserts
  • 102. Symmetry and Body Plan
  • 103. Symmetry
    Arrangement of parts with regard to the axes and planes.
    Way a body parts is arranged around a center point
    4 fundamental types of animal symmetry:
    Spherical or universal
    Radial
    Biradial or radiobilateral
    Bilateral
  • 104. Asymmetry
    Anaxial symmetry
    Body cannot be divided by planes into similar halves
    Body is irregularly shaped
    No definite anatomical relationship between different parts
  • 105. Asymmetry
  • 106. Universal or Spherical
    Homoaxial symmetry
    Symmetry exists in an organism that can be dissected into equal or identical halves by any of the infinite axes and planes that transect it.
    Assumes shape of ball
    Body parts arranged concentrically around or radiating from a central point
  • 107. Universal
  • 108. Radial Symmetry
    Monoaxialheteropolar symmetry
    Organism assumes shape of a cylinder with parts arranged around and along a single central axis in which 2 ends are different: mouth and anus
    Central axis is referred as longitudinal, oral-aboral or antero-posterior axis.
    Plane passing through axis dividing organism into similar halves.
  • 109. Radial Symmetry
  • 110. Biradial symmetry
    Dissymmetry
  • 111. Bilateral Symmetry
    only the transverse axis has similar ends.
    Antero-posterior axis and dorso-ventral axis
    Divides animal into right and left with mirror images
  • 112. Bilateral Symmetry
  • 113. Asymmetrical – without a balanced arrangement of similar parts on either side of a point or axis
    Radial - any plane passing through the oral-aboral axis divides an organism to mirror images
    Bilateral – only the midsagittal plane divides an organism to mirror images. Have definite anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends
  • 114. Other Features of animal Forms
    Antimeres – identical and asymmetrically corresponding parts of an animal.
    Arms of a starfish
  • 115. Other Features of Animal Forms
    Metamerism – division of body into segments or metameres.
    Segmentation may be superficial or external (false) OR may include internal organs (true)
    Segments may be similar (homonomous) OR different from each other (heternomous)
  • 116. Other Features of Animal Forms
    Cephalization – differentiation of anterior end of animal and is characterized by concentration of nervous elements such as formation of brain and sense organs.
    Well-developed head region
  • 117. Other Features of Animal Forms
    Tagmatization or tagmosis – union of segments into larger functional groups.
    Each special group is a tagma (plural, tagmata)
  • 118. Animal Diversity
  • 119. Why Things are Grouped
    Put things in order
    Easier to find
    Show that things share certain traits
  • 120. Methods of Classification
    Early Classification
    Aristotle
    Plants and Animals
    Plants (Green & Didn’t Move)
    Animals (Weren’t Green & Move)
  • 121. Aristotle’s Classification
    Animals
    Land, Water, Air
    Plants
    Size of plant
    Pattern of Growth
  • 122. Aristotle’s Classification
  • 123. Methods of Classification
    New Classification
    Carolus Linnaeus (1735)
    2 main groups: Kingdom
    Use specific traits into same group and called it species
    Placed similar species to larger group called genus
  • 124. Linnaeus
    Important Changes in Aristotle’s System:
    Plants and Animals into more groups
    Based his system on specific traits
    Gave organisms names that described their traits
    • Living things had 2-part names:
    Genusspecies
  • 125. Classification System
  • 126. Classifying Organisms
    Kingdom
    Phylum
    Class
    Order
    Family
    Genus
    Species
  • 127. Classification
  • 128. How Scientists Classify Today
    Look at Traits
    Compare traits of one organism with those of another.
    Compare organisms living today with those that lived long ago.
  • 129. Classifying Based on How Organisms are Related
    Classifying the House Cat
  • 130. Other Evidence Used in Classifying
    Based on living thing’s ancestors
    Horses and donkeys have many same ancestors
    Similar body structures
    Human and cat have similar front limbs and similar bones arranged in similar patterns
    Body chemistry
    Horseshoe crab’s blood is similar to spider
  • 131. Scientific Name Comes from Classification
  • 132. Why Scientific Names are Used
    No mistakes can be made about which living thing is described.
    Scientific names seldom change.
    Scientific names are written in the same language around the world.
  • 133. Kingdom Classification
    Animal
    Plant
    Fungi
    Protist
    Monera
  • 134.
  • 135. Modern Classification
    Seven groups – Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
    Evidence – Same ancestors, similar body structure, body chemistry
    Organisms given 2-part scientific names
    Kingdoms – Moneran, Protist, Fungus, Plant, Animal
  • 136. Overview of Animal Diversity and Phylogeny
    • Diversified during Precambrian and Cambrian periods
    • 137. Monophyletic
    • 138. Parazoans-first branch, lack true tissues
    • 139. Radiata and bilateria two major branches of Eumetazoa
    • 140. Evolution of body cavities
    • 141. Protostomes and deuterostomes
  • 142. Parazoa
    • Sponges
    • 143. “beside the animals”
    • 144. Simple aquatic and marine forms
  • Eumetazoa
    Two major branches:
    • 1. Radiata-radial symmetry, top and
    bottom, no front, back, or sides,
    diploblastic larva
    • 2. Bilateria-bilateral symmetry, triploblastic,
    cephalization
  • 145.
  • 146. Importance of Coelom
    • Acoelomates-no body cavity, Platyhelminthes
    • 147. Pseudocoelomates-fluid filled body cavity,
    partially lined with mesoderm, Nematoda
    • Coelomates-fluid filled, completely lined with mesoderm, Annelida
    • 148. Coelom-body cavity that protects internal organs
  • 149. Protostomes and Deuterostomes
    Protostomes:
    • Mollusks, Annelids, Arthropods
    • 150. Spiral cleavage
    • 151. Determinate cleavage
    • 152. Blastopore forms the mouth
    • 153. schizocoelous
    Deuterostomes:
    • Echinoderms and Chordates
    • 154. Radial cleavage
    • 155. Indeterminate cleavage
    • 156. Blastopore forms the anus
    • 157. Enterocoelous
  • 158. The Origins of Animal Diversity
    • Colonial protist origin during Cambrian Explosion
    • 159. Evidence from fossil beds: Burgess Shale, Yunnan region, Greenland
    • 160. Why such rapid diversification?
    1. Adaptive radiation
    2. Predator-prey relationships
    3. Higher concentration of oxygen
  • 161. Porifera - Sponges
    No symmetry
    No organs
    The least complex animals
    Aquatic in fresh and marine environments
  • 162. water out
    glasslike structural elements
    amoeboid cell
    pore
    semifluid matrix
    central cavity
    flattened surface cells
    water in
    flagellum
    microvilli
    nucleus
    Body Plan of a Sponge
  • 163. Venus’s flower basket (Euplectella)
  • 164. Cnidaria
    Radial symmetry
    Body has only 2 cell layers
    Mouth surrounded by tentacles with stinging cells
    Aquatic, FW and marine
    Include jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, hydra
    Some are motile, and all have a very simple nervous system
    Respiration: direct gas exchange with aquatic surroundings
  • 165. There are two Cnidarian body plans
    Polyp
    outer epithelium (epidermis)
    mesoglea
    (matrix)
    inner epithelium (gastrodermis)
    Medusa
  • 166. reproductive polyp
    female medusa
    male medusa
    sperm
    ovum
    Life cycle of Obelia
    feeding polyp
    zygote
    planula
    polyp forming
    branching
    one branch from a mature colony
  • 167. Flatworms - Platyhelminthes
    Body has 3 cell layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
    Bilateral symmetry
    Parasitic and free -living aquatic (fw and marine) and terrestrial: tapeworms, flukes, and Planaria
    Digestive system with one opening
    Primitive nervous system
    Hermaphroditic
    Respiration through skin
  • 168. pharynx (protruded)
    protonephridia
    flame cell
    nucleus
    cilia
    fluid
    filters through membrane folds
    Planaria, a free-living flatworm
    opening of tubule at body surface
    flame cell
  • 169. brain
    nerve cord
    genital pore
    testis
    penis
    oviduct
    ovary
  • 170. b A definitive host eats infected, undercooked beef
    a Larvae become encysted in intermediate host tissues
    c Scolex of larva attaches to intestine’s wall
    d Many proglottids form by budding
    f Cattle may ingest embryonated eggs or ripe proglottids to become intermediate hosts
    e Ripe proglottids containing fertilized eggs leave host in feces
    Tapeworm life cycle
  • 171. Roundworms - Nematoda
    Digestive system with mouth and anus (“complete”)
    Separate sexes
    Aquatic and terrestrial, free living and parasitic
    Body cavity gives “tube within a tube” construction
    Respiration through skin, no circulatory system
  • 172. Body Plan of a Roundworm
    gonad
    pharynx
    intestine
    eggs in uterus
    anus
    false coelom
    muscularized body wall
    Caenorhabditiselegans
  • 173.  Life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum
  • 174. Mollusks - Mollusca
    Often but not always have external shell
    Includes clams, oysters, snails, slugs, squid, octopus, scallops, chambered nautilus
    Body is soft with bilateral symmetry
    Nervous system, circulatory system, respiratory system
    Some have excellent sense organs and large brains, and can learn easily.
  • 175. Body Plan of a Snail
    anus
    gill
    mantle cavity
    excretory organ
    heart
    digestive gland
    shell
    stomach
    mantle
    radula
    foot
  • 176. Body Plan of a Cuttlefish
    esophagus
    stomach
    kidney
    digestive gland
    brain
    arm
    jaw
    mantle
    reproductive organ
    internal shell
    siphon
    ink sac
    heart
    accessory heart
    tentacle
    radula
    anus
    gill
  • 177. Segmented Worms - Annelida
    Body composed of many identical segments. Allows more specialization
    Aquatic or terrestrial
    Includes clam worm, feather worms, leeches, and earthworm.
    These animals have “all” systems, and are quite complex. They are most likely the ancestors of the Arthropods, the most successful Phylum of animals on Earth.
  • 178. “jaws”
    toothlike structures
    pharynx (everted)
    antenna
    palp
    (food handling)
    tentacle
    eyes
    chemical-sensing pit
    parapod
  • 179.
  • 180.
    • Taxonomy is the science of grouping
    and naming organisms.
    • Classification the grouping of
    information or objects based on
    similarities.
    • The scientific name comes from one of two
    “dead” languages – Latin or ancient Greek.
  • 181.    
    • a two name system for writing scientific names.
    • 182. The genus name is written first (always Capitalized).    
    • 183. The species name is written second (never capitalized).    
    • 184. Both words are
    italicized if typed or underlined if hand written.
    Example: Felis concolor or F. concolor
    Which is the genus? The species?
       
    Binomial Nomenclature
  • 185. "Formal" scientific names should have a third part, the authority.     The authority is not italicized or underlined.
    The authority is written as an abbreviation of the last name of the person responsible for naming the organism. Since Carolus Linnaeus was the first person to name many plants, the L. for Linnaeus is very common in plant scientific names.
    An example is Quercus alba L.