Uses, actual and_proposed of s& l


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about Genetic modified crops

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Uses, actual and_proposed of s& l

  1. 1. Uses, actual and proposed of genetically modified crops:--
  2. 2. Uses, actual and proposed It includes :Improved shelf life Improved nutrition Stress resistance Herbicide resistance Pathogen resistance – insects or viruses Production of bio-fuels Production of useful by-products Drugs Materials Bioremediation
  3. 3. Extent of worldwide use of GM crops:--------- Country 2010– planted area (million hectares)[81] 2009 – Agriculture area (million hectares)[82] Percentage of agriculture area with GM crops Biotech crops USA 66.8 403 16.56% Soybean, Maize, Cotton, Canola, Squash, Papaya, Alfalfa, Sugarbeet Brazil 25.4 265 9.60% Soybean, Maize, Cotton Argentina 22.9 141 16.30% Soybean, Maize, Cotton India 9.4 180 5.22% Cotton Canada 8.8 68 13.02% Maize, Soybean, Canola, Sugarbeet Rest of the world 14.7 3,883 0.38% ----
  4. 4. Improved shelf life:- It is first genetically modified crop which had a longer shelf life as of 2012, an apple that has been genetically modified to resist browning, known as the Nonbrowning Arctic apple. A gene in the fruit has been modified such that the apple produces less polyphenol oxidase, a chemical that manifests the browning. Improved nutrition:- The GM oilseed crops improved oil profiles for processing or healthier edible oils. The GM crops in development offer a wider array of environmental and consumer benefits such as nutritional enhancement and drought and stress tolerance. Stress resistance:- Plants engineered to tolerate nonbiological stresses like drought, frost, high Soil salinity, and nitrogen starvation or with increased nutritional value (e.g. Golden rice) were in development in 2011.
  5. 5. Herbicide resistance:-Tobacco plants have been engineered to be resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil. Companies are developing crops engineered to become resistant to multiple herbicides to allow farmers to use a mixed group of two, three, or four different chemicals. Pathogen resistance – insects or viruses:Tobacco, corn, rice and many other crops, have been generated that express genes encoding for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. Papaya, potatoes, and squash have been engineered to resist viral pathogens, such as cucumber mosaic virus which, despite its name, infects a wide variety of plants.
  6. 6. Production of biofuels:- Algae, both hybrid and GM, is under development by several companies for the production of biofuels. In 2013, the Flemish Institute for Biotechnology was investigating poplar trees genetically engineered . Production of useful by-products:Drugs:-Bananas have been developed, but are not in production, that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as Hepatitis B. Tobacco plants have been developed and studied, but are not in production, that can produce therapeutic antibodies.
  7. 7. Materials:- Several companies and labs are working on engineering plants that can be used to make bioplastics. Potatoes that produce more industrially useful starches have been developed as well. Bioremediation:- Scientists at the University of York developed a weed (Arabidopsis thaliana) that contains genes from bacteria that can clean up TNT and RDX-explosive contaminants from the soil: It was hoped that this weed would eliminate this pollution. Genetically modified plants have also been used for bioremediation of contaminated soils. Mercury, selenium and organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), TNT and RDX explosive contaminants have been removed from soils by transgenic plants containing genes for bacterial enzymes.