Gm crops


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Gm crops

  1. 1. Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Presented by: Marlon Mendez Cristian Tapia John Carlo Torrecampo Jayrum Galleon
  2. 2. What is GMOs? GMOs, or “genetically modified organisms,” are plants or animals created through the gene splicing techniques of biotechnology (also called genetic engineering, or GE). This experimental technology merges DNA from different species, creating unstable combinations of plant, animal, bacterial and viral genes that cannot occur in nature or in traditional crossbreeding.
  3. 3. Are GMOs safe? Most developed nations do not consider GMOs to be safe. In more than 60 countries around the world, including Australia, Japan, and all of the countries in the European Union, there are significant restrictions or outright bans on the production and sale of GMOs. In the U.S., the government has approved GMOs based on studies conducted by the same corporations that created them and profit from their sale. Increasingly, Americans are taking matters into their own hands and choosing to opt out of the GMO experiment.
  4. 4. What are the impacts of GMOs on the environment? Over 80% of all GMOs grown worldwide are engineered for herbicide tolerance. As a result, use of toxic herbicides like Roundup has increased 15 times since GMOs were introduced. GMO crops are also responsible for the emergence of “super weeds” and “super bugs:’ which can only be killed with ever more toxic poisons like 2,4-D (a major ingredient in Agent Orange). GMOs are a direct extension of chemical agriculture, and are developed and sold by the world’s biggest chemical companies. The long-term impacts of GMOs are unknown, and once released into the environment these novel organisms cannot be recalled.
  5. 5. 4 examples of genetically modified crops
  6. 6. 1. Pesticide resistant rape plants Scientists have transferred a gene to the rape plant which enables the plant to resist a certain pesticide. When the farmer sprays his genetically modified rape crop with pesticides, he or she can destroy most of the pests without killing the rape plants.
  7. 7. Advantages: 1. The farmer can grow a larger crop because it is easier to fight pests. 2. In some cases the farmer can use a more environmentally friendly crop spray. 3. The farmer can also protect the environment by using less crop spray.
  8. 8. Disadvantages: 1. Genes from the genetically modified rape crop could be transferred to the pests. The pests then become resistant to the crop spray and the crop spraying becomes useless. 2. Rape plants can pollinate weeds - for example navew which is found in rape fields. When rape plants pollinate the navew their genes are transferred. The navew then acquires pesticide resistance.
  9. 9. Corn, soya beans and sugar cane have also been genetically modified by scientists so they are able to tolerate crop spray.
  10. 10. 2. Insecticide sweet corn Scientists have genetically modified sweet corn so that it produces a poison which kills harmful insects. This means the farmer no longer needs to fight insects with insecticides. The genetically modified corn is called Bt- corn, because the insect-killing gene in the plant comes from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis.
  11. 11. Insecticide sweet corn
  12. 12. Advantages: 1. The farmer no longer has to use insecticide to kill insects, so the surrounding environment is no longer exposed to large amounts of harmful insecticide. 2. The farmer no longer needs to walk around with a drum of toxic spray wearing a mask and protective clothing.
  13. 13. Disadvantages: • This type of genetically modified corn will poison the insects over a longer period than the farmer who would spray the crops once or twice. In this way the insects can become accustomed (or resistant) to the poison. If that happens both crop spraying and the use of genetically modified Bt-corn become ineffective. • A variety of insects are at risk of being killed. It might be predatory insects that eat the harmful ones or, perhaps attractive insects such as butterflies. In the USA, where Bt-corn is used a great deal there is much debate over the harmful effects of Bt-corn on the beautiful Monarch butterfly.
  14. 14. Cotton and potatoes are other examples of plants that scientists have , genetically modified to produce insecticide.
  15. 15. 3. Golden rice Golden rice is genetically modified rice that now contains a large amount of A-vitamins. Or more correctly, the rice contains the element beta- carotene which is converted in the body into Vitamin-A. So when you eat golden rice, you get more vitamin A. Beta-carotene gives carrots their orange colour and is the reason why genetically modified rice is golden. For the golden rice to make beta-carotene three new genes are implanted: two from daffodils and the third from a bacterium.
  16. 16. Golden rice
  17. 17. Advantages: 1. The rice can be considered a particular advantage to poor people in underdeveloped countries. They eat only an extremely limited diet lacking in the essential bodily vitamins. The consequences of this restricted diet causes many people to die or become blind. This is particularly true in areas of Asia, where most of the population live on rice from morning to evening.
  18. 18. Disadvantages: 1. Critics fear that poor people in underdeveloped countries are becoming too dependent on the rich western world. Usually, it is the large private companies in the West that have the means to develop genetically modified plants. By making the plants sterile these large companies can prevent farmers from growing plant- seed for the following year - forcing them to buy new rice from the companies. 2. Some opposers of genetic modification see the "golden rice" as a method of making genetic engineering more widely accepted. Opponents fear that companies will go on to develop other genetically modified plants from which they can make a profit. A situation could develop where the large companies own the rights to all the good crops.
  19. 19. 4.Long-lasting tomatoes Long-lasting, genetically modified tomatoes came on to the market in 1994 and were the first genetically modified food available to consumers. The genetically modified tomato produces less of the substance that causes tomatoes to rot, so remains firm and fresh for a long time.
  20. 20. Long-lasting tomatoes
  21. 21. Advantages: 1. Because the GM tomatoes can remain fresh longer they can be allowed to ripen in the sun before picking - resulting in a better tasting tomato. 2. GM tomatoes can tolerate a lengthier transport time. This means that market gardens can avoid picking tomatoes while they are green in order that they will tolerate the transport. 3. The producers also have the advantage that all the tomatoes can be harvested simultaneously.
  22. 22. Disadvantages: 1. Scientists today can genetically modify tomatoes without inserting genes for antibiotic resistance. However the first genetically modified tomatoes contained genes that made them resistant to antibiotics. Doctors and vets use antibiotics to fight infections. These genes spread to animals and people, doctors would have difficulties fighting infectious diseases.
  23. 23. Genetically Modified organism tested in our country
  24. 24. Modern biotech help Filipinos in: 1. Increasing crops yield 2. Enjoying and Producing crops which are resistant to pest and diseases 3. Enjoy rice which are tolerant to drought, excessive temperature, soil acidity, salinity and other abiotic stress. 4. Has GM products which has improved nutritional quality, processing and storage and post harvest qualities.
  25. 25. List of GMO crops being tested in the country
  26. 26. Biotech corn • Corn is one of the most important grain in the world. • Herbicide-tolerant corn -these corn varieties work in a similar manner to herbicide-tolerant soybean. It allows growers better flexibility in using certain herbicide to control weeds that can damage crops. -insect resistant corn The modified corn contains a built-in insecticidal protein from a naturally acquiring soil microorganism (Bt) that gives a corn plants season-long protection from corn borers.
  27. 27. • The Bt protein has been used safely as an inorganic insect control agent for over 4o years. This means that most of the farmers need not to spray insecticides to protect corn from those insects which cause significant damage and yield loss in many areas • Bt corn also reduces toxin contamination arising from fungal attack on the damage grains.
  28. 28. Biotech Canola • Canola is a genetic variation of rapeseed and was developed by Canadian Plant breeders specifically for its nutritional qualities, particularly its low level of saturated fats. • Herbicide tolerant canola -herbicide-tolerant canola works similarly to other such crops. • High laurate canola • These canola varieties contain high level of laurate. Oil processed from this navel varieties is similar to coconut and palm oil.
  29. 29. Biotech Canola
  30. 30. • This new canola oils being sold to the food industry for use in chocolate candy coating, coffee whiteners, icings, frostings, and whipped toppings. Also in pharmaceutical- cosmetics industry. • Canola oil provides oleic acids(source)
  31. 31. Biotech potato • Insect resistant potato -this biotech potato works similarly with those insect- resistant corn. It contains a protein that provides the plant with well built-in protection from the Colorado potato beetle, thus, this potato needs no additional protection for these pest, benefiting farmers, consumers and environment. Virus resistant potato - Several potato varieties have been modified to resist potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y.
  32. 32. • Just as people get inoculations to prevent varieties are protected through biotechnology through certain viruses. Further, virus resistance often results in reduced insecticides use, which is needed to control insect vectors that transmit viruses
  33. 33. Biotech potato
  34. 34. Biotech cotton • Herbicide tolerant cotton -this cotton work similarly to such other crops, Insect resistant cotton -this modified cotton work similarly to insect- resistant t corn. It contains a protein that provides the plant with season-long protection from budworms and ball worms. The need for additional insecticide applications for these pests is reduced or eliminated.
  35. 35. Biotech cotton
  36. 36. Biotech squash • Virus-resistant squash- -a biotech yellow crookneck squash is now able to resist watermelon mosaic virus and zucchini yellow mosaic virus. These new varieties contain the coat protein genes of both viruses. This biotech approach bypasses aphid control and therefore, it may reduce or eliminate the use of insecticide.
  37. 37. Biotech squash
  38. 38. Biotech tomato • Delayed ripening tomato • -the delayed ripening tomato became the first genetically modified food crop to be produced in a developed country. These tomato varieties have extended shelf life. They contain a gene that slows the natural softening processes that accompanies ripening. • These tomatoes spend more days on the vine other than tomatoes thus resulting in a better flavor. Further, the longer shelf life has a commercial advantages in harvesting and shipping that can reduce the cost of production.
  39. 39. Biotech papaya • Virus resistant papaya • This Hawaiian developed papaya contains a viral gene that encodes for the coat protein of papaya ringspot virus. This protein provides the papaya provides the papaya plant with built in protection against PRSV. This biotech papaya works similarly to virus resistant papaya.
  40. 40. References  file:///E:/INTRO/4%20examples%20of%20genetically %20modified%20crops.htm  es?s_title=resistance-ppt&user_login=SreshtiBagati
  41. 41. Thank you for listening . .