Gm crops

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Gm crops

  1. 1. Genetically Modified Crops presented by David Taussig December 8, 2005
  2. 2. Why talk about GM crops? <ul><ul><li>Use is common, particularly in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>75 million acres planted in the U.S. in 2000 (Colorado State University 2004) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 Million farmers grow GM crops (Perry 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varying opinions regarding GM crops among the world’s governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stigma attached to GM crops among the general public </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What are GM crops? <ul><ul><li>Plants which have been genetically altered to express a desirable trait (Perry 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbicide resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virus resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insecticides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased nutritional value </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How are GM crops made? <ul><ul><li>Most common method is by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (CSU 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil bacteria containing a tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate the gene containing the desirable trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insert this gene into the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove the tumor inducing genes of the plasmid, and infect the plant cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regenerate transformed cells into viable plants </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Proposed benefits of GM crops <ul><li>Increased economic profits for the farmer </li></ul><ul><li>Lower prices for the consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced dependence on chemical fertilizers and insecticides (Gray 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially decreased environmental restriction (Chrisafis 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially increased nutritional benefit (CSU 2000, Coghlan 2005) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Potential dangers of GM crops <ul><ul><li>Health concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination of organic populations (Luhnow 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GM crops can be very difficult to contain or eradicate (Peterson et al 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitation of third-world farmers by American biotech companies (Peterson et al 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. A Biblical Perspective <ul><ul><li>It is important to recognize the intrinsic value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of the environment as God’s handiwork (Vautin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We should choose what is best for all of humanity, rather than a few American companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotech companies should use extreme caution, performing enough research to become as certain as possible that the product does not harm those who consume it. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Conclusion <ul><ul><li>Right approach to GM crops is one that is cautiously optimistic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We will need to find a way to increase food output in the future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More food will not be sufficient without addressing the political and economic issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research should be allowed and encouraged to continue to address safety and health concerns </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Bibliography <ul><li>Chrisafis, Angelique. “GM tomato could open up vast new agricultural lands.” Guardian Unlimited . July 2001. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,530024,00.html> </li></ul><ul><li>CNN Health . “Parents turn to organic food.” November 8, 2005. <http://www.cnn.com/2005/HEALTH/diet.fitness/11/08/organic.kids.ap/index.html> </li></ul><ul><li>CNN World . “Swiss tighten GM crop limits.” November 27, 2005. <http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/europe/11/27/swiss.gmo.vote.ap/index.html> </li></ul><ul><li>Coghlan, Andy. “New ‘golden rice’ carries far more vitamin.” NewScientist.com . March 2005. <http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7196> </li></ul><ul><li>Colorado State University “Transgenic Crops: an Introduction and Resource Guide.” August 2004. <http://www.colostate.edu/programs/lifesciences/TransgenicCrops/index.html> </li></ul><ul><li>Eicher, Carl; Maredia, Karim; Sithole-Niang, Idah. “Biotechnology and the African Farmer.” June 2005. <http://agecon.lib.umn.edu/cgi- </li></ul><ul><li>bin/pdf_view.pl?paperid=16821&ftype=.pdf> </li></ul><ul><li>Gray, Brian. “Genetically Modified Foods: Benefits, Risks, Outlook.” December 2002 </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.bethel.edu/~kisrob/hon301k/project/Final/gmf.htm> </li></ul><ul><li>Luhnow, David. “Biotech-Crop Battle heats Up as Strains Mix With Others.” The Wall Street Journal . November 8, 2005. A1, A6. </li></ul><ul><li>Jarvie, Michelle. “Genetically Modified Crops: With a Focus on the Use of Bt Corn in the United States.” July 2002. <http://www.bio.mtu.edu/~mmjarvie/genetics%20paper.pdf#search='genetically%> </li></ul><ul><li>Perry, Joe. “Genetically Modified Crops.” Science and Christian Belief Vol 15, No 2. 2003. pp 141-163. </li></ul><ul><li>Peterson, G; Cunningham, S; Deutsch, L; Erickson, J; Quinlan, A; Raez-Luna, E; Tinch, R; Troell, M; Woodbury, P; Zens, S.“The Risks and Benefits of Genetically Modified Crops: A Multidisciplinary Perspective” Conservation Ecology . Vol 4 (1). </li></ul><ul><li>2000. < http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol4/iss1/art13/> </li></ul><ul><li>US Census Bureau. “World Population: 1950 to 2050” </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldpop.html> </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. “Agrobacterium” July 2005. </li></ul><ul><li><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agrobacterium> </li></ul>

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