• Any biology based technology which uses organisms or their parts to make or modify products, or improve plants, animals and microorganisms.BIOTECHNOLOGY
Geneticengineering andbiotechnologyintertwiningconceptsPresented before class by:AVILA, ERNIE CBSE 4B
1. Tissue and cell culture2. Marker or molecular fingerprint technology3. Discovery and cloning of genes4. Recombinant DNA technology or Genetic engineering.Advances in S&T havebrought us:
• Serve as fingerprints and used ina. mapping genomes,b. Diagnostic tools to detect diseases or disorder in plants, animals including humanc. Facilitate in selection in plant and animal breeding and make it more effective and exactd. Study biological diversitye. Identify species variety or hybrid plants and animals, human individuals1. Molecular andbiochemical markers
• Used in:a. Medicine to propagate cell culture to produce health products such as hepatitis vaccine, insulin.b. Agriculture- Propagate plants from a very small sections of various plant parts such as seed, roots, leaf and other. This will result to clone of similar and uniform quality2. Tissue and cell culture
Create variability or change in plants. Important traits such as resistance to disease can be obtained in this manner Eliminate diseases to produce disease-free planting materials which can be safely transported to other places.
Help in designing drugs to combat diseases To incorporate such genes for important traits like disease resistance, control of ripening in crops by genetic engineering.3. Discovery and cloningof important genes
• An organism which has a gene transferred by genetic engineering is called as genetically modified organism• Gen Eng. Is utilized only when the trait to be transferred is difficult or impossible and it will take long time to attain, by conventional breeding methods.Genetically modifiedproducts
• There are now many GM crops such as corn, cotton, soybean, oil rapeseed, papaya and tomato with traits obtained through genetic engineering.• These traits includes resistance to insect pest such as corn and cotton borer, herbicide resistance, fugal resistance and viral diseases, altered soil composition and long shelf life.Application in food andagriculture
• Various crops with better nutritional, post harvest and processing qualities.• Crops that thrive on:o Saline soilso Less watero Less nutrientsFuture products:
• Current: Production of biodegradable plastics by microorganism Use of recombinant chymosin in cheese production Use of genetically engineered glucose isomerase enzyme for high fructose syrup production which has a high thermal stability.Industrial application
• Future benefits: Production of biodegradable plastics and other industrial polymers by plants Use of protein engineered industrial enzymes that reduce energy and raw material used. Production of processed foods with desired functional properties.
• Current benefits: Bioremediation using selected microorganism Use of transgenic crops which protects themselves from insect pest and pathogen, thus reducing tremendously the use of chemical pesticide.Application inenvironment
• Future benefits Development of crops which use less chemical fertilizer and less water Development of crops which produce less wastes and toxins and extract pollutants.
• Our growing population is expected to reach 104 million in 2020.• To feed this population, our price production has to be increased from 12.3 million tons to 17.8 M or a 40% increase.• These increase must come primarily from higher biological crop yields and not by increasing land area or using more nutrients and water.What is biotechnology inPhilippines?
• Studies by UNDP, FAO, and World Bank shows that conventional method, even at their optimum efficiencies, will not be able to meet the food requirement of the increasing population. Such increases must be done in the context of sustainable agriculture.