NMC2009 Dramatically Different

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A presentation supporting a workshop at the New Media Consortium Symposium on New Media and Learning.

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NMC2009 Dramatically Different

  1. 1. Kim Flintoff Curtin University of Technology and Queensland University of Technology
  2. 2. IN Drama as skill and knowledge set THROUGH WITH Drama as Drama as pedagogy delivery system
  3. 3. “There seems to be a strong drive to present theatre in Second Life. This is especially interesting when we step back and realize that we are ALWAYS performing in Second Life. …the very nature of this form of communication suggests constant role- playing and performance.” (Schrum, 2007 ) Schrum, S. (2007), Poetry and Theatre Performance in Second Life, presented at the New Media Consortium Symposium on Creativity 14 August , transcript viewed 13 June, 2008
  4. 4. “ In the book Drama of Colour Saldaña discusses a study done by researchers Gourgey, Bosseau, and Delgado (1985) with lower socio-economic Black and Hispanic students in elementary school. After a six month improvisational drama project, gains were observed in vocabulary and reading comprehension. Survey results also suggested that students also showed improvement in attitude areas including trust, self-acceptance, acceptance of others, and empowerment “ from: http://www.angelfire.com/ego/edp303/whydrama.html Saldaña, J. (1995), Drama of Color: Improvisation with Multiethnic Folklore. Heinemann Drama. ISBN-13: 978-0435086671
  5. 5. A complex form of “improvisation” Creative/ structured play Participatory performance – learners are inside the performance An “open” work; meaning is negotiated; a ‘writerly’ (Barthes) text Always Fiction
  6. 6. Process Drama is a group engagement in a negotiated fictional space where participants role play (in realistic and creatively expressed forms) around a theme or issue primarily for the benefit of shifts in empathetic understanding and extended perspective.
  7. 7. In recent years I’ve been advocating an approach I’ve been calling “generative play”. “This approach to learning that does not pursue predetermined outcomes but rather recognizes that serendipity in a focused, yet playful, exploration of ideas is likely to lead to unexpected discoveries and insights that are of great significance to individuals and groups involved in the learning. The play is purposeful yet the specific learning is not prescribed at the outset.” Flintoff, K. Chapter 13: Online sites for Generative Play in Anderson M., Carroll J. and Cameron D. (eds) Drama Education with Digital Technology. Continuum Books (publication forthcoming)
  8. 8. “This generative play seems to best emerge when there is a strong ludic engagement with a limited regard to formulating an ideal narrative. The narrative emphasis is limited to the degree to which participants are comfortable with sustaining the fiction; in some ways this seems to have been anticipated by Janet Murray when she speculated that: If participatory environments merge with authored environments … tensions between the author and the participants may increase … The area of immersive enchantment lies in the overlap between these two domains. (Murray 1997, pp. 266-267)” Flintoff, K. Chapter 13: Online sites for Generative Play in Anderson M., Carroll J. and Cameron D. (eds) Drama Education with Digital Technology. Continuum Books (publication forthcoming)
  9. 9. 1. Climate Setting The stages in planning and 2. Pretext implementing a 3. Enrolling Process Drama vary 4. Belief Building but can be broken 5. Injection of tension down into a series 6. Deepening tension of phases – the order of which can 7. Resolution change depending 8. Reflection inside the action on the nature of 9. Reflection outside the the drama… action
  10. 10. C Personal and social experience Starting point O Source material N Psychological Responses to source V processes E N Active imagining Working in context, in action T Using and making symbols - I metaphors – tension – Theatre structure O atmosphere – rhythm and pace N S Purpose and motivation to create new meanings Neelands, J. and Goode, T. Structuring Drama Work: A handbook of available forms in theatre and drama. Cambridge University Press 1990, 2000.
  11. 11. REFLECTION EXPERIENCE/SOURCE FOCUS ISSUE *subject to: FRAMING ACTION • an agreement to observe the constraints of the convention; THROUGH CONVENTION* • values held by the leader and students; • learning purposes and intentions; • appropriate mode of action Neelands, J. and Goode, T. Structuring Drama Work: A handbook of available forms in theatre and drama. Cambridge University Press 1990, 2000.
  12. 12. Context-Building Narrative Action Action “telling the tale” “setting the scene” Poetic Action Reflective Action “symbol and metaphor” “psychology and insight” Neelands, J. and Goode, T. Structuring Drama Work: A handbook of available forms in theatre and drama. Cambridge University Press 1990, 2000.
  13. 13. Context-Building Action Narrative Action In MUVEs like Second Life these conventions can be modified and new dimensions explored. Poetic Action Reflective Action Neelands, J. and Goode, T. Structuring Drama Work: A handbook of available forms in theatre and drama. Cambridge University Press 1990, 2000.
  14. 14. Mapping/diagram Circle of Life ming Circular Drama Objects of Collective Character Context- Character Role-on-the-Wall Collective Drawing Building Simulations Defining Space Soundtracking Action Diaries, Letters, Jo Still-image urnals, Messages The Ripple Games Unfinished Guided tour Materials Neelands, J. and Goode, T. Structuring Drama Work: A handbook of available forms in theatre and drama. Cambridge University Press 1990, 2000.
  15. 15. Noises Off A Day in the Life Overheard Critical Events Conversations Hot-Seating Reportage Narrative Interview/Interrog Tag Role ation Teacher-in-Role Action Mantle of the Telephone/Radio Expert Conversations Meetings Time Line Neelands, J. and Goode, T. Structuring Drama Work: A handbook of available forms in theatre and drama. Cambridge University Press 1990, 2000.
  16. 16. Masks Alter Ego Metamorphosis Analogy Mimed activity Behind the Scene Montage Caption Making Play within a Play Poetic Ceremony Prepared Role Come on Down! Re-enactment Cross-cutting Action Revue Documentary Ritual Flashback Role-Reversal Folk forms Shape-Shifting Forum Theatre Small Group Playmaking Gestus TV Times Neelands, J. and Goode, T. Structuring Drama Work: A handbook of available forms in theatre and drama. Cambridge University Press 1990, 2000.
  17. 17. Choral Speak Space Between Gestalt Spectrum of Giving Witness Difference Group Sculpture Taking Sides Reflective If I was You… This Way/That Way Action Marking the Thought-tracking Moment Voices in the Head Moment of Truth Walls have Ears Narration Neelands, J. and Goode, T. Structuring Drama Work: A handbook of available forms in theatre and drama. Cambridge University Press 1990, 2000.
  18. 18. Early one morning before people had gotten up, a man from Myrdal in the east was walking past some cliffs when he came to the entrance to a cave. He could hear that there was merrymaking and dancing going on inside the hill, and outside he saw a large number of sealskins. He picked up one of them, took it home, and locked it in his trunk. Some time later, in the course of the day, he went back to the cave's entrance. A beautiful young girl was sitting there. She was entirely naked and crying bitterly. She was the seal to whom the skin belonged that the man had taken. The man gave the girl some clothing, comforted her, and took her home with him. http://daryllorettecafe.typepad.com/the_altruism/2008/12/the-sealskin.html
  19. 19. Later she came to accept him, but never got along very well with other people. She would often just sit there and look out to sea. After some time the man took her as his wife. They lived well together and had many children. The peasant hid the skin, locking it securely in his trunk, and he carried the key with him everywhere he went. http://daryllorettecafe.typepad.com/the_altruism/2008/12/the-sealskin.html
  20. 20. Many years later he rowed out fishing and forgot the key at home under his pillow. However, others say that the peasant went to a Christmas service with his people, but that his wife had been sick and was unable to go with them. They say that he forgot to take the key out of the pocket of his everyday clothes when he changed. When he arrived home that evening the trunk was open, and his wife had disappeared with the skin. She had found the key, out of curiosity looked through the trunk, and found the skin. http://daryllorettecafe.typepad.com/the_altruism/2008/12/the-sealskin.html
  21. 21. She could not resist the temptation. She said farewell to her children, put on the skin, and threw herself into the sea. Before the woman jumped into the sea, it is reported that she said: This I want, and yet I want it not, -- Seven children have I at the bottom of the sea, Seven children have I as well here above. http://daryllorettecafe.typepad.com/the_altruism/2008/12/the-sealskin.html
  22. 22. It is said that this touched the peasant's heart. After this, when he rowed out fishing, a seal often swam around his boat, and it seemed that tears were running from its eyes. From this time on he was always successful catching fish, and luck often came to his beach. People frequently saw this couple's children walking on the beach while a seal swam along out in the sea accompanying them. It would throw colourful fish and pretty shells to them. But the mother never again returned to land. http://daryllorettecafe.typepad.com/the_altruism/2008/12/the-sealskin.html
  23. 23. Email: kim@kimflintoff.com Skype: kimbowa Blog: http://www.dramanite.com Twitter Plurk LinkedIn: Fickr http://www.linkedin.com/in/kimflintoff Friendfeed Second Life: Kim Pasternak Digg Teen Second Life: Kimbo Vita Del.icio.us Diigo Facebook Slideshare
  24. 24. ABSTRACT: Drawing together the established wisdom of educational drama, applied theatre and quot;situated role,quot; this session will examine the benefits of creating socially-driven learning activities inside 3D MUVEs. Role-played learning activities in 3D MUVEs can be framed as an quot;active-inquiry process.” This session will propose and test some effective forms and conventions to frame inworld roleplay as purposeful collaborative learning.

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