The European Moment<br />By: Kaitlyn Glenn<br />
Chapter 17: The Atlantic Revolutions <br />American Revolution<br />1775-1787<br />1760’s - British government added new taxes & tariffs<br />1776 - Declaration of Independence launched it<br />Enlightenment – “popular sovereignty, natural rights, consent of the governed” (Strayer 503) <br />1781 - Military victory against Britain occurred<br />1787 - Creation of federal constitution<br />Separated from Britain and brought separate colonies into one united nation<br />French Revolution<br />1789-1815<br />King Louis XVI raised taxes<br />Commoners created the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen<br />“men are born and remain free and equal in rights” (Strayer 504)<br />1793 – King Louis XVI executed<br />Terror of 1793-1794<br />Maximilien Robespierre & Committee of Public Safety executed tens of thousands of supposed enemies<br />They were executed themselves<br />1799 - Napoleon Bonaparte invaded France<br />1815 - Napoleon’s empire was brought down and marked the end of the Revolution <br />
Chapter 17: The Atlantic Revolutions<br />Haitian Revolution<br />1791 – 1804<br />In Saint Dominigue (Haiti) slaves outnumbered white landowners 500,000 to 40,000<br />To the slaves a revolution meant a promise of personal freedom<br />1791 – Huge slave revolt began<br />1790’s – Toussaint Louverture led brutal massacres of whites<br />Defeated foreign powers and Napoleon<br />January 1, 1804 - Jacques Dessalines was made first head of state<br />“Only completely successful slave revolt in world history” (Strayer 509)<br />Spanish American Revolution<br />1810 – 1825<br />“Did not…generate a revolution as much as have one thrust upon them by events in Europe” (Strayer 511)<br />1808 – Napoleon invaded Spain & Portugal and deposed King Ferdinand VII<br />This forced Latin America to take action<br />Started with “scattered and uncoordinated protests” (Strayer 510)<br />Influenced by Enlightenment<br />Simon Bolivar (died 1830) & Jose de San Martin - <br />Needed support of people<br />“Americanos” – those born in America<br />“Enemy” – born in Spain or Portugal<br />
Chapter 17:Worldwide Effects of Revolutions<br />Smaller effects:<br />Enlarged voting publics<br />Universal male suffrage – 1914<br />Ideas of “republicanism, greater social equality…liberation from foreign rule” (Strayer 513)<br />Abolition of Slavery:<br />Abolishment was a huge transformation in the world because slavery was extremely acceptable since the beginning of civilization<br />“Enlightenment thinkers” believed that it was a violation of people’s natural rights <br />Became widely known that slaves were not needed for economic advancement<br />Freed slaves did not really have political equality (except in Haiti) nor did they really have economic progress or success<br />Nationalism:<br />America’s fight to free their colonies started it all (1776-1825)<br />Divided society into separate nations based on culture and territory and gave them political freedom within themselves<br />“Europe’s modern transformation also facilitated nationalism” (Strayer 516)<br />Feminism<br />Organized groups of women fought their subordination to men for the first time (transatlantic)<br />Olympe de Gouges created the Declaration of the Rights of Woman in 1791<br />1870 – Focused mainly on suffrage (in the West)<br />1900’s – Women were granted entry to universities <br />1914 – 100,000 women participated in Feminist organizations in France <br />
Chapter 18: Industrialization in Europe<br />Characterized by rapid technological improvement which led to greater output of goods and services <br />Industrial Revolution occurred first in Europe because possibly…<br />Many of the states were small and extremely competitive<br />Monarchs united with merchant class because they desperately needed revenue<br />Began in Britain<br />Most highly commercialized country in Europe<br />Factors that ensured there were plenty of industrial workers:<br />Agricultural improvement kept food prices low and “freed up labor from the countryside” (Strayer 532)<br />The guilds (monitored how manufacturing enterprises were run) no longer existed<br />Rapidly growing population<br />Factors that gave Britain the edge on being the first country to industrialize<br />British Aristocrats were interested in commerce for a long time and many took part in new mining and manufacturing enterprises<br /> British trade was worldwide (merchant fleets protected by Royal Navy)<br />Politics promoted commerce and economic progress<br />Religious toleration that allowed people with skills of any faith<br />Scientific Revolution in Great Britain was more focused on observation and experiments than any other country<br />New energy sources – <br />First, coal-fired steam engines<br />Later, petroleum-fueled engines<br />Production of goods increased fiftyfold between 1750-1900<br />
Chapter 18: How Society was Affected in Britain<br />Textile Industry:<br />Cotton consumption – <br />(1800) 52 million lbs <br />(1850) 588 million lbs<br />Coal production – <br />(1750) 5.23 million tons<br />(1850) 68.4 million tons<br />Aristocracy:<br />Landowners<br />Numbers declined because industrialization gave way to newly rich people who didn’t need land to be wealthy (i.e. businessmen, bankers, manufacturers) <br />Middle Class:<br />Benefited the most from industrialization<br />Reform Bill of 1832 expanded the right to vote to many middle class men (not women)<br />Their were more jobs available for women by late 1800’s (teachers, clerical work…etc)<br />(1881-1901) Female secretaries in Britain went from 7,000 to 90,000<br />Laboring Class:<br />More than 70% of population<br />Suffered most & benefited least<br />Work conditions got worse and worse <br />(1824) Trade unions were legalized<br />Karl Marx (1818-1883)- Socialism – Idea that equality of classes would end poverty<br />
Chapter 18: Industrialization: America & Russia<br />AMERICA<br />1820’s- Began in Textile Industry in New England<br />Labor protests (sometimes violent): <br />1877- Eastern Railroads gave 10% pay cut which created massive strikes<br />1892- Violent strike at Homestead Steel <br />No political party represented working class & Socialism was not accepted<br />American Federation of Labor - <br />Focused only on skilled laborers<br />Wouldn’t side with any political party<br />Politics:<br />“Populists” – small farmers mostly<br />“Progressives” – created reforms for better industrial work conditions<br />“World’s leading industrial power by 1914” (Strayer 542)<br />Produced 36% of world’s goods<br />RUSSIA<br />Monarchy & Socialism<br />1861- Serfs were freed<br />1860- Began industrial growth<br />1900-<br />4th in the world in steel production<br />Huge in coal, textile, and oil <br />Mostly in major cities<br />Factory workers:<br />5% of population<br />13 hr workdays until 1897<br />Resentful of bad work conditions<br />Radical beliefs leading to large-scale strikes<br />1905- Worker revolts & strikes resulted in reforms<br />1917- Russian revolt in WWI <br />“Only in Russia was industrialization associated with violent social revolution” (Strayer 548)<br />
Chapter 19: China<br />China was seen as a huge market to others because of the large population<br />Fighting the European expansion as well as dealing with internal conflicts:<br />Peasant uprisings and DRASTIC population increases <br />No Industrial Revolution & no increase in food production accompanied the population growth<br />State did not enlarge to keep up with growth <br />1793- Emperor Qianlong denied Britain’s request to increase trade<br />(1839-1842) Opium Wars began because opium was a huge trade product, but Commissioner Lin Zexu decided, in court (1836), to destroy all imported opium<br />1842- Treaty of Nanjing ended 1st Opium War: British terms put limits on China’s independence<br />(1856-1858) 2nd Opium War: Brutal vandalism of Summer Palace opened more treaty ports<br />Defeat by France (1885) and Japan (1895) caused China to lose Vietnam, Korea, and Taiwan<br />(1850-1864) Taipang uprise led by Hong Xiuquan- <br />Peasants revolted and believed in their own form of Christianity<br />Wanted revolutionary change and an industrial nation<br />Landowners and Western military aided in the defeat of the Taipang & restored Qing dynasty<br />(1860’s-70’s) China’s “self-strengthening” applied Confucian beliefs to it’s attempt at reconstruction<br />1890’s- Failed attempt at nationalism by organizations of educated Chinese<br />1900’s- Boxer Rebellion<br />Made failure of “self-strengthening” evident<br />Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (“Boxers”) laid siege to foreign embassies in Beijing<br />1912- China collapsed and became dependent on Europe<br />
Chapter 19: The Ottoman Empire<br />1750- “The central political fixture of a widespread Islamic World” (Strayer 571)<br />1798- Napoleon invaded Egypt and it was a huge blow to the Ottoman Empire<br />Starting in late 18th century-Empire set up reforms to try to strengthen the state:<br />Sultan Selim III created new military and administrative groups based on Europe<br />1839- Imperial declaration that finally recognized equality of all men (most importantly, religion)<br />(Decades following 1839)-Tanzimat (“reorganization”): Attempts to Westernize and modernize <br />Added new industries, schools, and laws based on Western culture, economy, and administration<br /> Made changes in the legal systems of diverse areas<br />The reforms changed the political and cultural identity of the nation:<br />“Islamic renewal movements” inside and outside the empire occurred (Strayer 575)<br />Mid-1800’s- “Young Ottomans” agreed with Westernizing of political system; “Islamic modernism”<br />1876- short-lived constitution that tried to create a representative government<br />Sultan Abd al-Hamid II agreed with reforms but not the constitution or intertwined religious school subjects<br />Young Turks appeared and sought a “militantly secular public life”, denouncing any Islamic beliefs as a nation<br />1908- military coup pushed for extreme secularization of schools, courts, and laws<br />Established Law of Family Rights (despite religion) and wanted Empire’s official language to be Turkish<br />By the end of 19th century- Was known as “the sick man of Europe” because it was unable to keep Christianity from overcoming region after region.<br />Huge territorial losses to stronger European powers<br />China (main Ottoman state) became weak <br />Huge technology gap between Ottoman Empire and the West<br />In the end, Ottoman Empire became dependent on Europe (like China was)<br />Desire for secular nationality ultimately led to the fall of the empire in WWI<br />
Chapter 19: Japan<br />1600’s- Japan was governed by a shogun (military ruler) from the Tokugawa family<br />Sole purpose of these rulers was to prevent civil war between rival feudal lords (1600-1850)<br />Peace gave way to “economic growth , commercialization, and urban development” (Strayer 578)<br />1750- Japan was the most urbanized empire<br />Provided a good basis for economic growth in late 1800’s<br />Shogun were undermined by corruption and the citizens having no respect for them:<br />Caused “peasant uprisings and urban riots” (most notably in Osaka in 1837) (Strayer 579)<br />1853- Commodore Perry (US) arrived in Japan and broke the trade barrier<br />This created a civil war which led to samurai’s overtaking Japan (1868) known as “Meiji takeover”<br />Goal was to get rid of Western powers in Japan <br />1871- Samurai’s influence was stopped and citizens were governed as equals<br />1877- short and peaceful rebellion by samurai which was ultimately unsuccessful<br />Social, political, educational, technological, and cultural changes occurred<br />1889- Constitution established a parliament that was based on democratic politics and ideals<br />“State-guided industrialization program”- only one like Europe and North America (Strayer 582)<br />1883-1884- Huge taxes to fund this created a peak in violent protests<br />1902- Anglo-Japanese Treaty gave Japan status as a Great Power of the world<br />After military conquests in Russia and China, Japan became “an economic, political, and military equal in Asia” (Strayer 584)<br />Created it’s own unique, industrialized, and modernized imperial empire<br />
Chapter 20: European Rule in the Colonial Era<br />(1500’s & 1600’s) Conquest over America was beginning of colonial takeovers<br />(1750-1900) Second phase of conquests<br />Helped by Industrial Revolution and Europe’s military capacity<br />(1750-1850) Conquest over India involved making and unmaking alliances over a long period of time<br />(1875-1900) Europe divided Africa amongst themselves & the Great Powers<br />Australia & New Zealand were colonized rather that conquered <br />“Violence was a prominent feature of colonial life both during conquest and after, various groups…willingly cooperated with colonial authorities” Strayer 595)<br />Because of a lack of European overseers, they used people with status to govern their way<br />Promoted European education<br />(1857-1858)Indian Rebellion- started because the colonies were offended by the military forces use of “a new cartridge smeared with animal fat from cows and pigs” (Strayer 596)<br /> Pigs were sacred to Hindus and cows were sacred to Muslims<br />Caused a wave of uprisings throughout India and they wanted to bring back the Mughal Empire<br />(1858) Rebellion was stopped, but the Europeans were afraid to change the society for fear of future rebellions<br />Ended “the era of British East India Company rule in the subcontinent” (Strayer 596)<br />Differences of the European Colonial Empires in the late 1800’s vs. earlier empires:<br />“Scientific racism”- Using science to promote degradation of Asian & African natives<br />Colonial states were able to influence the colonies that they governed (i.e. centralized taxes)<br />Classified their subjects “scientifically” by race and societal class<br />European ruled colonies contradicted their original beliefs of democracy by ruling as dictators <br />
Chapter 20: Colonial Economies<br />Europe changed the ways the people in the colonies worked (violence & force)<br />Colonial state was able to tax, seize land, force labor, and create new industries (especially railroads)<br />People were forced to work for free on public projects (i.e. railroads, construction of government buildings…etc)<br />1946- “Statute labor” was finally abolished in French Africa<br />Cash-crop agriculture became very popular among the colonies<br />1905- Massive Rebellion occurred in the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia) to stop forced farming of cash crops; The Dutch invaders used force & violence<br />In some countries cash-crop’s were produced willingly and by choice<br />Cash-crop success created a shortage of jobs and made the use of slaves necessary , exploited laborers, and caused some men to marry women strictly because of their labor power<br />Colonial subjects began performing wage labor for European industries:<br />Subjects needed money, didn’t have enough land to support their families or were ordered to work<br />(Late 1800’s-Early 1900’s) Huge plantations developed all over Southeast Asia <br />European colonies in Africa seized massive areas of land that belonged to the natives (plantations) <br />1913- Law defined 88% of land belonging to whites (but they were only 20% of population)<br />“Mines were another source of wage labor for many” (Strayer 603)<br />Late 1800’s- fast growing cities of the colonial world attracted wage earners (by choice)<br />Work conditions (like everywhere else) were horrible in most European-ruled colonies<br />European colonies presented women opportunities & hardships unlike men's<br />“More land and labor were devoted to…the global market at the end of the colonial era than the beginning” (Strayer 606)<br />
Chapter 20:Identity & Culture in the Colonial Era <br />Western education among some minorities in Africa and Asia added to new identity<br />Could give these people an escape from forced labor and access to better paying positions<br />19th century India- “Western-educated people organized a variety of reform societies” (Strayer 608)<br />Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833), one of the leading reformers, believed that European education would modernize India<br />Religion “transformed identities during the colonial era” (Strayer 609)<br />Most remarkable changes occurred in colonies where Christianity took hold<br />i.e. New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, and most importantly non-Muslim Africa<br />10,000 missionaries were in Africa by 1910, and 50 million non-Muslim Africans had converted by 1960<br />Military defeats created doubt of other gods and practices<br />“Christianity was widely associated with modern education” (Strayer 609)<br />Christianity soon became “Africanized” and still used old practices (charms and got advice from medicine men)<br />In India, “leading intellectuals and reformers began to define their region’s endlessly varied beliefs, practices, sects, rituals, and schools of philosophy as a more distinct, unified, and separate religion that we now know as Hinduism” (Strayer 610) <br />Swami Vivekenanda (1863-1902) saw Hinduism as a way to strengthen the communities<br />Helped to build a cultural nation and the distinction of Muslims in their own communities<br />The ideas of race and ethnicity gave the citizens of colonial countries a way to identify and belong<br />End of 19th century- “African Identity” gave Africans a way of identifying themselves in a nation full of European oppression and racism<br />Edward Blyden (1832-1912) played a prominent role in the argument that all races contributed in the making of a “world civilization”<br />The notion of a “tribe” was “the most important new sense of belonging that evolved from colonial experience” (Strayer 612) <br />
Sources<br />NYU School of Law – Title Page Picture<br />http://centers.law.nyu.edu/jeanmonnet/totallaw/wheretostudy.html<br />American Revolution Resources- American Revolution Picture<br />http://www.vcsc.k12.in.us/tcr/liberty/<br />Wikipedia – Haitian Revolution Picture<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:San_Domingo.jpg<br />Zunal,com- Slavery Picture<br />http://www.zunal.com/index-matrix.php?Curriculum=110&Grade=104&page=6<br />Trenton Historical Society- Textile Picture<br />http://trentonhistory.org/Documents/EagleFactory.html<br />Sociology 4 All – Europe Industrial Revolution Picture<br />http://sociology-4-all.blogspot.com/2009/02/industrial-revolution-and.html<br />Intro to World History Blog - America & Russia Industrial Revolution Picture<br />http://introductiontoworldhistory.blogspot.com/1999/04/industrial-revolution.html<br />Paul Chrastina- Opium Picture<br />http://www.opioids.com/opium/opiumwar.html<br />Camille Sourget Librairie - Ottoman Empire Picture<br />http://camillesourget.com/en/books-ottoman-empire/<br />Interesting Facts- Samurai Picture<br />http://interestingfacts-themur.blogspot.com/2009/01/way-of-japanese-samurai-bushido.html<br />Kuoni Destination Management - European Rule (Map of Europe) Picture<br />http://www.kuoni-dmc.com/destinations/europe/<br />Posters- Colonial Economies Picture<br />http://www.posters.snngr.com/posters/posters.php?item=3591449<br />Latino Initiatives- Culture & identity in Colonial Era Picture<br />http://latino.si.edu/virtualgallery/Sabor/bios/RaicesEXHIBITIONS.htm<br />Ways of The World Book<br />Strayer, Robert W. Ways of the World: A Brief Global History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009<br />
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