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The Early Romantic Age


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The Early Romantic Age

  1. 1. The Early Romantic Age The Historical and Social Context 1760-89
  2. 2. King George III <ul><li>He became king in 1760 and reigned for 60 years (one of the longest reigns in English history!)
  3. 3. He promoted the agricultural Revolution and was nicknamed “Farmer George”. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Britain vs France <ul><li>Britain fought against France for colonial expansion
  5. 5. Britain was superior in world trade
  6. 6. Britain praised its government while despising France's absolute monarchy </li></ul>
  7. 7. The American Independence <ul><li>In the colonies in North America Enlightened ideas had found a fertile ground.
  8. 8. In 1773 the colonies rebelled against Britain at the Boston Tea Party.
  9. 9. They threw tea into the harbour and used the slogan “No taxation without representation” </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Declaration of Independece <ul><li>The colonies proved to be united against Britain
  11. 11. On 4 July 1776 they signed the Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson
  12. 12. Britain recognised the independence in 1783 with the Treaty of Versailles. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions <ul><li>At the end of the 18 th century, the methods of farming and the manufacture of goods began to change.
  14. 14. Increase in population – increase in trade = new market for new goods and new labour force to produce and buy them
  15. 15. Agricultural revolution happened gradually (Enclosure Acts)
  16. 16. James Watt invented the first reliable Steam Engine in 1775. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Industrial Revolution <ul><li>The Steam Engine was applied to the mechanisation of the “Jenny”, an engine used to spin wool
  18. 18. It was used in the coal mines to pump water out of the mines.
  19. 19. Due to the industrial growth, the domestic transport needed to be improved. Turnpikes or toll roads and a canal system with locks were built. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The New Industrial Society <ul><li>Society could be divided in two main classes: wage-payers and wage-earners.
  21. 21. Landlords grew extraordinarily rich thanks to the enclosure process.
  22. 22. Wealth turned England into a “consumer society”.
  23. 23. Population moved to new industrial areas, where mushroom towns were built to house workers.
  24. 24. Women and children were highly prized and exploited by employers (= less paid; easy to control).
  25. 25. Labourers were called “hands”. They lived and worked in appaling conditions. They had no rights nor regulations to control their working hours. </li></ul>