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CHAPTER 2: THE 19TH
CENTURY WORLD OF
JOSE RIZAL
To understand how Dr. Jose Rizal shaped the Filipino nationalism we
need to look back into the 19th Century World of Jose Rizal.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF
NATIONALISM
 Nationalism is the love to our country expressed in devotion to
and advocacy of national interest and independence.
 The growth of nationalism can be attributed to two major
revolutions of the earlier century: The American Revolution of
1775-1789, and the French Revolution of 1779-1789. Both
revolutions gave birth to the idea that an individual’s loyalty has to be
his nation not to the king.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF
NATIONALISM
 The ideology of the French Revolution had influenced subject
people to cast off the yoke of colonialism by means of armed
uprising
 The development of nationalism in the Philippines, however, was
very slow. Loyalty to the nation began only after the unjust execution
of the Fathers Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora on February 17, 1872
RISE AND GRADUAL SPREAD OF
LIBERALISM AND DEMOCRACY
 The principal ideas of liberalism — liberty and equality — were
first realized in the American Revolution then in French Revolution.
Liberalism demanded representative government as opposed to
autocratic monarchy, equality before the law and opposed to legally
separate classes. The idea of liberty also meant specific individual
freedoms: freedom of the press; freedom of speech; freedom of
assembly; and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
RISE AND GRADUAL SPREAD OF
LIBERALISM AND DEMOCRACY
 Democracy was non-existent in the Philippines in the 19th
century. Spain do not grant Filipinos basic human right because they
believe that Filipinos will seek independence and overthrow the
regime.
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
 The Industrial Revolution of the 19th Century brought machinery to the world. It
started first in England then later spread in Belgium, France, Germany, and United
States.
 The invention of machinery brings a big impact in the lives of the people. The
following is the positive effects of machinery:
 The rise of the factory system
 Mass production of essential and non-essential goods
 Improvement of people's standard of living
 Greater Urbanization of Society
 Beginnings of specialisation or division of labour
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
 Invention of labour-saving devices
 The beginning of industrial capitalism
 Fostering of liberalism and nationalism
 Encouragement of people's mobility
The negative effects of Industrial Revolution to people are the following:
 Widening the gap between the rich and the poor
 Unending economic warfare between labour and capital
 Pollution and other environmental problems
 Beginning of woman and child labour
 Intensification of imperialistic rivalry between and among industrialised countries
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
 To solve the evils created by the industrial system different measures
were proposed by concerned sectors of world society
 For the liberals, laissez-fare policy or government's non-interference in
the conduct of trade and business has to be sustained for the continuous
expansion of the economy
 The socialists assert that the government has to control vital industries
and resources. This is necessary in promoting equality of opportunity and
people's welfare in society.
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
 The communist on the other hand, suggest that all factor of production
be owned and controlled by the government. Equality in society can be
achieved if social classes are destroyed and dictatorship of the proletariat is
established.
 Conversely, the Catholic calls for humane treatment of workers, respect
for workers' rights, and social justice for the poor. It also enjoined the
government to regulate the use of private property and provide humane
and favourable working conditions for the proletariat.
THE ADVANCE OF SCIENCE
 The Rapid expansion of scientific knowledge profoundly influenced Western
thought in the 19th century (Hunt et al, 1995). The result was an explosive growth of
fundamental scientific discoveries from 1830s onward.
 The triumph of science and technology had at least three significant
consequences. First, everyday experience and innumerable scientists impressed the
importance of science on the mind of ordinary citizens
 Second, as science became more prominent in popular thinking, the philosophical
implications of science spread to broad sections of the population. Technical
advances led the people to develop optimistic faith in man's capability to achieve
progress.
THE ADVANCE OF SCIENCE
 Third, the methods of science acquired unrivalled prestige after 1850. For
many, the union of careful experiment and abstract theory was the only route
to truth and objective reality.
 Science was not given emphasis in the Philippines in the 19th century. Rizal
stressed this point in his novel, El Filibusterismo. University students in their
class in Physics were not given the opportunity to manipulate laboratory
apparatus nor given the chance to undertake experiments to prove or disprove
scientific hypotheses.
THE UPSURGE OF WESTERN
IMPERIALISM
 In the 19th Century the Industrializing Western expanded to
non-western land. Western nations profitably subordinated those
lands to their economic interests. The reason of doing this
culminating surge were many, but the economic thrust of robust
industrial capitalism, an ever-growing lead in technology, and the
competitive pressures of European nationalism were particularly
important.
THE UPSURGE OF WESTERN
IMPERIALISM
 Western expansion had far reach consequences. For the first time in human
history, the world became in many ways a single unit. Moreover, European
expansion diffused the ideas and techniques of a highly developed civilization.
Yet the West relied on force to conquer and rule, and treated non-Western
peoples as racial inferior. Thus, non-Western elites, armed with Western doctrines,
gradually responded to Western challenge. They launched a national, anti-
imperialist struggle for dignity, genuine independence, and modernization.
Colonised peoples, therefore started to assert their rights to self-determination or
the right to choose the kind of government under which they would live.
OPTIMISM AND CONFIDENCE IN
PROGRESS
 Optimism or faith in society and man's ability to progress was brought
about by the advancement of science, the coming of steam-powered
industry and the spread of liberalism and socialism (Chodorow et al, 1994).
The optimism of the century was summed by Marquis de Condorcet in his
work, Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind.
He saw that "the strongest reason for believing the nature has set no limit
to realization of our hopes" and foresaw "the abolition of inequality
between nations, the progress of equality within nations, and the true
perfection of humanity.
OPTIMISM AND CONFIDENCE IN
PROGRESS
 Optimism and confidence in progress can be gleaned from the achievements
of men in the 19th century. Notably among these were the following (Capino,
1977) :
 Extension of human rights to many people
 Promotion of higher education for men and women
 Education for nationalism in schools
 Investment in science to serve mankind
 Improvement of public health thru the establishment of numerous hospitals
 Emergence of realistic literature, depicting the life of the time.
CHAPTER 3: SPAIN AND
THE PHILIPPINES IN
THE 19TH CENTURY
To complete the understanding of the era Rizal lived, there is a need for
us to look at the Spain and the Philippines during the said century.
This is vital in helping us appreciate Rizal’s leadership in working for the
country’s freedom.
SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY
 Political Instability in Spain. The 19th Century was a turbulent
century of politics in Spanish history (Zaide, 1994). It was a period of
political instability owing to the frequent rise and fall of ministries and
constitutions. To save the country from political disunity, the Spanish
crown works out the canovite system or rotativism (Maguigad et al.,
2000).
 Canovite System or Rotativism. Under this policy, the liberals and
conservatives in Spain took turns in administering the affairs of the
country.
SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY
 The political instability in Spain affected the Philippines
adversely. As a consequence of this condition, there were frequent
changes in the top colonial administration in the Philippines. Owing
to the brief tenure of office if governor-generals, colonial
administration become very inefficient and corrupt. In addition to
the foregoing, the Philippines became dumping ground for the
relatives and favorites of Spanish politicians in Madrid.
SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY
 Abandonment of Mercantilism. The 19th century was also a period
when Spain abandoned the policy of mercantilism and adopted the laissez-
faire policy to follow the trend of economic development in Europe and, at
the same time, speed up the growth of their commerce and trade.
 Mercantilism. An economic doctrine based on the idea that a country’s
wealth and power can be measured in terms of its stock of gold and silver.
 Laissez-faire Policy. Government’s non-interference in the conduct of
trade and business.
SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY
 Spain’s adoption of the laissez-faire policy affected the Philippines in
several ways (Capino, 1977). As a result, Spain ended the Galleon Trade or
the Manila-Acapulao trade in 1873. This directly led the opening of the
Philippines to world commerce. The opening of the country to foreign
commerce and trade, not only ended the economic isolation of the Philippines
from the rest of the world. It created a middle class imbued with civic courage
and persona independence, which started questioning the abuses of the
Spanish Regime. It was also this class, which started clamoring reforms in the
Philippines from 1872 to 1892.
T HE P HILIP P INE S D U RING RIZA L’S T IM E
As a result of the Spanish conquest of the Philippines, the
Filipinos lost their ancestral lands on account of Spain’s
institution of the encomienda system. They were forced by
the Spanish colonizers to accept Spanish culture and religion.
This change in the administrative organization of the
country, social and educational system and the economic
situation of the Philippines in 19th century.
ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION
The Philippines was governed directly by the Spanish
crown, through the Ministry of Colonies in the 19th century.
The government of the country was unitary as policies
implemented by colonial administrators from Luzon to
Mindanao emanated from the Manila, the seat of the central
government.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE DURING
SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD
KING OF SPAIN
The Colonial Government
The Executive Branch
(Governor-General)
The Colonial Government
(Royal Audencia, Residencia,
Supreme Courts, Governor-General)
Municipal Government
Corrigimiento
(Corregidor)
Provincial Government
Alcaldia
(Alcalde Mayor)
City Government
Ayuntamiento
(Cabildo)
Continue next slide…Continue next slide…
POLITICAL STRUCTURE DURING
SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD
Municipal Government
Corrigimiento
(Corregidor)
Provincial Government
Alcaldia
(Alcalde Mayor)
City Government
Ayuntamiento
(Cabildo)
Pueblos or Towns
(Gobernadorcillos)
Cabildo- City Council
(Alcalde en ordinario, Regidores,
Aguacil Mayor, Escribano)
Barrios
(Cabeza de Barangay)
Barrios
(Cabeza de Barangay)
THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL
 The head of the Spanish colonial government in the country that is appointed by the
Spanish monarch.
 Represented the crown in all government matters.
 He is the Vice Royal Patron; he could nominate priests for ecclesiastical
administration of the parishes. He was also the commander in chief of the colonial army.
 As the chief executive of the colonial government, he was ex-officio president of the
Royal Audencia and Supreme Court. And even there’s no lawmaking body in the country
then, he had legislative powers. The Laws enacted by the governor-general were called
actos acordados (Maguidad, 2000)
FRAILOCRACIA (TERM COINED BY
LOPEZ JAENA)
The friars (Augustinians, Dominicans and Franciscans)
became more powerful and influential that even civil
authorities feared them. The rise in power and influence
of the friars can be attributed to frequent changes in the
top colonial administration in the country from 1849 to
1895.
GUARDIA CIVIL
 Aside from the friars Guardia Civil is one of the institutions that
is feared in the Philippines. Guardia Civil was organized in 1867, as
a corps of native police under the leadership of Spanish officers for
the purpose of dealing with outlaws and renegades (Maguigad et al.,
2000). In 1880, it was the most feared instrument of summary
arrests of individuals identified by the friars as filibusteros or
enemies of the government and erehes or enemies of the
church.
GUARDIA CIVIL
 There was no legislature in the Philippines before the country
was taken over by the United States in 1898. Philippine
representation in the Spanish Cortes or lawmaking body was
abolished in 1837 (Schumacher, 1997).
 Governance of the Philippines was based on special laws and
Las Leyes de Indias continued to be the basic law but gradually
modified by royal decrees.
GUARDIA CIVIL
 On the whole, Spanish colonial government was corrupt and
inefficient because of the distance of the Philippines from Spain, the
governor-general exercised absolute powers. He could reward positions
in the bureaucracy to his favorites who were unqualified and unfit for
government service.
Although the Spanish crown had instituted the:
 Residencia, the trial of an outgoing governor-general to account for his
acts during his tenure of office.
GUARDIA CIVIL
Visitador or investigating officer to probe on the
complaints against the governor-general.
Another source of weakness and abuse of Spanish
government was the widespread selling of lower
positions to highest bidders (Capino, 1977).
T H E S O C I A L S T R U C T U R E O F F I L I P I N O S O C I E T Y
 Philippine society then was feudalistic as a consequence of the encomienda
system imposed by the colonizers (Romero et al., 1978). They imposed and
collected all forms of taxes and tributes from the Filipinos and even required
the natives to render polo y servicio or forced labor to the government and
the Catholic Church.
 The social structure implemented by Spain was pyramidal due to the
colonizer’s adherence to the doctrine of limpieza de sangre or purity of
blood (Maguigad, 2000).
T H E S O C I A L S T R U C T U R E O F F I L I P I N O S O C I E T Y
Peninsulares
Insulares
Spanish Mestizos
Principalia
Chinese mestizos
Indios or Natives
T H E S O C I A L S T R U C T U R E O F F I L I P I N O S O C I E T Y
Social tensions were created between and among the
classes. Moreover, a system of racial discrimination came to
be institutionalized. High positions in government were
opened only to the pure blooded Spaniards. Members of the
middle class and the Indios were considered inferior by the
upper classes and unworthy of education.
EDUCATION SYSTEM
 Up to the middle of the 19th century schools were under the control
of the friars. Primary education was not given attention despite the
establishment of parochial schools in many towns. Instructions at these
schools centered on the teaching of fear of God and obedience to the
friars, with indoctrination as the principal method of teaching.
 Children in these schools were taught that they were of inferior
intelligence and were suited inly for manual work.
EDUCATION SYSTEM
 By the end of 19th century, only the University of Santo
Tomas was the existing higher education institution in the
Philippines. UST, founded by the Dominicans in 1611, was the
only university, which offered courses in medicine, pharmacy,
theology, philosophy, as well as civil law. At the beginning of its
operation only the Spaniards and mestizos were admitted into its
various programs.
EDUCATION SYSTEM
 It was also in this century when public education for the natives was begun
(Agoncillo, 1990). The Educational Decree of 1863 was implemented in the
colony, which required the establishment of one elementary for boys and one
elementary school for girls in each town in the Philippines.
 The same decree provided for the establishment of a normal school for
the training of teachers with a mastery of Spanish language, under the
direction of the Jesuits, as Spanish shall be the medium of instruction in all
schools.
EDUCATION SYSTEM
The friars reacted negatively to the teaching of Spanish
language to the Filipinos. They opined that knowledge of
the language would lead to the development of political
and social awareness among the natives, which in effect
could trigger in them the desire to fight for freedom and
independence.
EDUCATION SYSTEM
 Although the Spanish government exerted efforts to educate the Filipinos
in the 19th century, the educational system implemented in the country had
serious weaknesses. Notable among these weaknesses were as follows
(Romero et al., 1978):
• Over-emphasis on religion;
• Limited and irrelevant curriculum;
• Obsolete classroom facilities;
• Inadequate instructional materials;
• Absence of academic freedom; and
• Racial prejudice against the Filipinos in school.
ECONOMIC SITUATION
The country was opened to foreign trade at the end
of the 18th century, which resulted in the rapid rise of
foreign firms in Manila. The presence of these foreign
traders stimulated agricultural production and exports
of sugar, rice, hemp, and tobacco.
ECONOMIC SITUATION
 The growing prosperity of the Philippines in the 19th century
had significant consequences (Schumacher, 1997). Opportunities
for trade, increased Filipino contacts with foreigners and peninsular
Spaniards. Moreover, a number of families, which prospered from
foreign commerce and trade, were able to send their children for an
education in Europe, further destroying the isolation of the country
from the rest of the world.
CHAPTER 4: THE DAWN OF
FILIPINO NATIONALISM
UNIFICATION OF THE PHILIPPINES
UNDER SPANISH RULE
Spain ruled the Philippines for more than 300 years. It
consisted at independent and self-governing barangays,
people by diverse tribes, it was Spain that gave the country its
identity (Zaide, 1994).
The country came to be known as Philippines due to the
three centuries of colonial administration.
UNIFICATION OF THE PHILIPPINES
UNDER SPANISH RULE
 With the use of the Cross, the natives were pacified
(Agoncillo&Guerrero, 1974). The reduccion plan Fr. Juan de Plasencia
was implemented, which require the natives to live in the area near the
church. As a result, Spanish encomienderos found it easy to collect taxes
from the natives. It also transformed the Filipinos into law-abiding citizens
under the Spanish crown.
 Spain's political system was gradually introduced into the country.
Despite unification, the people started to nurture resentment and dislike for
foreign rule.
EARLY RESISTANCE TO
SPANISH RULE
 The integration of country into Spanish Empire
Resulted in:
• Implementation of taxation without representation
• Polo y servicio or forced labor
• Hardship and Miseries
In effect:
• They started harboring grievance against the colonial
administration
• They began clamoring for FREEDOM from foreign control.
EARLY RESISTANCE TO
SPANISH RULE
 Discontent with Spanish rule was expressed in the regional revolts that
out in archipelago from 1574-1843 (Zafra, 1976). Majority of them desire
to regain their lost freedom.
 Resistance to Spanish-imposed cause of the early revolts.
Some of the revolts
• Magalat revolt(1596)
• Revolt of the Irrayas (1621)
• Cagayan Revolt(1639)
• Sumunoy Rebellion (1649-1650)
• Maniago Revolt (1660)
EARLY RESISTANCE TO
SPANISH RULE
Other revolts were cause by agrarian unrest, desire of the
natives to recover the lands grabbed from them by the friars.
Agrarian revolts broke out in the province of Batangas,
Laguna, Cavite, Pampanga, and bulacan from 1745 to 1865.
There were also revolts triggered by the desire to revert
their native religion rather than embrace the religion of the
colonizer (Agoncillo, 1990)
EARLY RESISTANCE TO
SPANISH RULE
 The early revolts against Spanish rule failed for a number of
reasons (Romero et al, 1978). Because of lack of communication in
the province and absence of national leadership
 Revolts, then, against Spanish rule were fragmented, disorganized,
and spoadic.
 Disunity was enhanced with Spain’s implementation of the policy
of divide et empera or divide and rule, which was another factor
for the failure of the revolts.
EARLY RESISTANCE TO
SPANISH RULE
As Filipinos were made to fight one another by colonial
masters, they failed to realize that their common enemy was
the Spaniards.
THE EMERGENCE OF THE FILIPINO
SENSE OF NATIONHOOD
 The emergence of the Filipino sense of nationhood was
during the last year of Spanish rule in the 1890’s.
 Development of nationalism was attributable to the ff. factors:
opening of the phil. to world commerce; rise of clase media;
liberal regime of Carlos Ma. Dela Torre; racial discrimination;
secularization controversy; and the Cavite mutiny of 1872.
THE OPENING OF THE PHILIPPINES TO
WORLD COMMERCE
With the entry of foreign products and businessmen, the
economic isolation of Philippines was ended and Filipino
came to learn about the ideas of John Locke and Jean
Jacques Rousseau. Filipino intellectuals then started to
wonder at the deplorable conditions of the country and
started clamouring for reforms from the government.
THE RISE OF THE CLASS
MEDIA
Can be traced to the prosperity of a relatively small class
of mestizos and the principalia. Families which prospered
during this time, were able to send their sons for an
education in Europe. These European-educated Filipinos
became disillusioned with Spain. From their ranks emerged
Filipino propagandists clamouring for change in the
Philippines.
LIBERAL REGIME OF CARLOS
MA. DELA TORRE
 The fall of Queen Isabella and the triumph of liberalism in Spain in 1869
resulted into the appointment of Carlos Ma. Dela Torre as governor-general in
the Philippines in the same year (Zaide, 1994).
 To express satisfaction and joy for the leadership of Dela Torre, some
Filipinos serenaded him on the night of July 12, 1869 (Liberty Serenade of
1869).
 During his term of office, freedom of speech and of the press as
guaranteed by the Spanish Constitution was recognized. Filipino Clergy were
motivated to work because of the consequence of his liberal policy.
RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
 One of the factors that contributed to the development of Filipino
sense of nationhood.
 Racial discrimination had led people to realize that Spaniards and
Filipinos were two separate, distinct people.
 Spaniards considered Filipinos an inferior race and call them Indios.
 Fray Miguel de Bustamante in his pamphlet entitled, "Si Tandang
Basyong Macunat", this story Filipinos were portrayed as people with
low mental ability.
SECULARIZATION CONTROVERSY
The secularization controversy led to the unification of the
Filipino clergy, which in effect strengthen their sense of
identity. The former religious conflict took on racial
overtones because the friars were Spaniards and the seculars
were true blooded Filipinos.
The word Filipino meant not only the Filipino to the
Spaniards; it is now included the native clergy.
CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872
January 20, 1872 a mutiny broke out among Filipino
soldiers in the arsenal of Cavite under the leadership
of Sgt La Madrid (Schumacher 1991). This was
bought by Izquierdo's abolition of exemption from
tributes and forced labors, Filipino soldiers and
workers in arsenal of Fort San Felipe.
CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872
 The Spanish authorities took advantage about this situation;
they arrested liberal-minded Filipinos. There are Nine Filipinos
and 13 lawyers and businessman deported to Marianas Island.
The incident was exaggerated by the Spaniards particularly the
friars. Fathers Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez, and Jacinta Zamora,
due to involvement in in campaign for secularization of parishes,
they are executed by garotte for alleged complicity in the
rebellion.
CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872
With the death of the 3 priest (GOMBURZA) this
triggered the starting of the plans for revolution against the
Spaniards.
The martyrdom of GOMBURZA this started the history
of Philippines, towards peaceful reforms to counter the evils
of the Spanish regime, known in our history as the
PROPAGANDA movement.
RIZAL AND CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872
 He has a plan to take up priesthood and become a Jesuit father (De
Ocampo, 1969)
 When he heard of martyrdom of GOMBURZA he changed his
mind and swore to dedicate his life to vindicate victims of Spanish
oppression.
 Rizal was only 11 years old that time.
 In his letter to Ponce, dated April 18, 1889 (National Heroes
Commission, 1963), he said ...
RIZAL AND CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872
...Without 1872 there would not be now either a Plaridel, or Jaena, nor
Soriano, or would there exist brave and generous Filipino colonies in Europe;
Without 1872, Rizal would be a Jesuit now and instead of writing Noli Me
Tangere, would have written the opposite. At the sight of those injustices and
cruelties, while still a child, my imagination was awakened and I swore to
devote myself to avenge one day so many victims, and with this idea in mind I
have been studying and thi can be read in all my works and writings.
RIZAL AND CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872
God will someday give me an opportunity to carry out my
promise. Good! May they commit abuses, let there be
imprisonments, banishments, executions, good. Let destiny be
fulfilled! The day they lay their hands on us, the day they
martyrize innocent families for our fault, goodbye friar
government, and perhaps, goodbye Spanish government.
THE END!
Any questions?
Group 5
Geriel Quides
Cedrick Matudio
Kyle Cendric Molina
Dhana Vee Jose
Darlyn Aquino
Jaylie Ann Bulanadi
Jayson Polintan
Marvin Tabilisma
Joanabeth Salomon
Rose Jamaica Rosario

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19th Century World of Rizal

  • 1. CHAPTER 2: THE 19TH CENTURY WORLD OF JOSE RIZAL To understand how Dr. Jose Rizal shaped the Filipino nationalism we need to look back into the 19th Century World of Jose Rizal.
  • 2. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM  Nationalism is the love to our country expressed in devotion to and advocacy of national interest and independence.  The growth of nationalism can be attributed to two major revolutions of the earlier century: The American Revolution of 1775-1789, and the French Revolution of 1779-1789. Both revolutions gave birth to the idea that an individual’s loyalty has to be his nation not to the king.
  • 3. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM  The ideology of the French Revolution had influenced subject people to cast off the yoke of colonialism by means of armed uprising  The development of nationalism in the Philippines, however, was very slow. Loyalty to the nation began only after the unjust execution of the Fathers Gomez, Burgos, and Zamora on February 17, 1872
  • 4. RISE AND GRADUAL SPREAD OF LIBERALISM AND DEMOCRACY  The principal ideas of liberalism — liberty and equality — were first realized in the American Revolution then in French Revolution. Liberalism demanded representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy, equality before the law and opposed to legally separate classes. The idea of liberty also meant specific individual freedoms: freedom of the press; freedom of speech; freedom of assembly; and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
  • 5. RISE AND GRADUAL SPREAD OF LIBERALISM AND DEMOCRACY  Democracy was non-existent in the Philippines in the 19th century. Spain do not grant Filipinos basic human right because they believe that Filipinos will seek independence and overthrow the regime.
  • 6. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  The Industrial Revolution of the 19th Century brought machinery to the world. It started first in England then later spread in Belgium, France, Germany, and United States.  The invention of machinery brings a big impact in the lives of the people. The following is the positive effects of machinery:  The rise of the factory system  Mass production of essential and non-essential goods  Improvement of people's standard of living  Greater Urbanization of Society  Beginnings of specialisation or division of labour
  • 7. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  Invention of labour-saving devices  The beginning of industrial capitalism  Fostering of liberalism and nationalism  Encouragement of people's mobility The negative effects of Industrial Revolution to people are the following:  Widening the gap between the rich and the poor  Unending economic warfare between labour and capital  Pollution and other environmental problems  Beginning of woman and child labour  Intensification of imperialistic rivalry between and among industrialised countries
  • 8. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  To solve the evils created by the industrial system different measures were proposed by concerned sectors of world society  For the liberals, laissez-fare policy or government's non-interference in the conduct of trade and business has to be sustained for the continuous expansion of the economy  The socialists assert that the government has to control vital industries and resources. This is necessary in promoting equality of opportunity and people's welfare in society.
  • 9. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  The communist on the other hand, suggest that all factor of production be owned and controlled by the government. Equality in society can be achieved if social classes are destroyed and dictatorship of the proletariat is established.  Conversely, the Catholic calls for humane treatment of workers, respect for workers' rights, and social justice for the poor. It also enjoined the government to regulate the use of private property and provide humane and favourable working conditions for the proletariat.
  • 10. THE ADVANCE OF SCIENCE  The Rapid expansion of scientific knowledge profoundly influenced Western thought in the 19th century (Hunt et al, 1995). The result was an explosive growth of fundamental scientific discoveries from 1830s onward.  The triumph of science and technology had at least three significant consequences. First, everyday experience and innumerable scientists impressed the importance of science on the mind of ordinary citizens  Second, as science became more prominent in popular thinking, the philosophical implications of science spread to broad sections of the population. Technical advances led the people to develop optimistic faith in man's capability to achieve progress.
  • 11. THE ADVANCE OF SCIENCE  Third, the methods of science acquired unrivalled prestige after 1850. For many, the union of careful experiment and abstract theory was the only route to truth and objective reality.  Science was not given emphasis in the Philippines in the 19th century. Rizal stressed this point in his novel, El Filibusterismo. University students in their class in Physics were not given the opportunity to manipulate laboratory apparatus nor given the chance to undertake experiments to prove or disprove scientific hypotheses.
  • 12. THE UPSURGE OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM  In the 19th Century the Industrializing Western expanded to non-western land. Western nations profitably subordinated those lands to their economic interests. The reason of doing this culminating surge were many, but the economic thrust of robust industrial capitalism, an ever-growing lead in technology, and the competitive pressures of European nationalism were particularly important.
  • 13. THE UPSURGE OF WESTERN IMPERIALISM  Western expansion had far reach consequences. For the first time in human history, the world became in many ways a single unit. Moreover, European expansion diffused the ideas and techniques of a highly developed civilization. Yet the West relied on force to conquer and rule, and treated non-Western peoples as racial inferior. Thus, non-Western elites, armed with Western doctrines, gradually responded to Western challenge. They launched a national, anti- imperialist struggle for dignity, genuine independence, and modernization. Colonised peoples, therefore started to assert their rights to self-determination or the right to choose the kind of government under which they would live.
  • 14. OPTIMISM AND CONFIDENCE IN PROGRESS  Optimism or faith in society and man's ability to progress was brought about by the advancement of science, the coming of steam-powered industry and the spread of liberalism and socialism (Chodorow et al, 1994). The optimism of the century was summed by Marquis de Condorcet in his work, Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind. He saw that "the strongest reason for believing the nature has set no limit to realization of our hopes" and foresaw "the abolition of inequality between nations, the progress of equality within nations, and the true perfection of humanity.
  • 15. OPTIMISM AND CONFIDENCE IN PROGRESS  Optimism and confidence in progress can be gleaned from the achievements of men in the 19th century. Notably among these were the following (Capino, 1977) :  Extension of human rights to many people  Promotion of higher education for men and women  Education for nationalism in schools  Investment in science to serve mankind  Improvement of public health thru the establishment of numerous hospitals  Emergence of realistic literature, depicting the life of the time.
  • 16. CHAPTER 3: SPAIN AND THE PHILIPPINES IN THE 19TH CENTURY To complete the understanding of the era Rizal lived, there is a need for us to look at the Spain and the Philippines during the said century. This is vital in helping us appreciate Rizal’s leadership in working for the country’s freedom.
  • 17. SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY  Political Instability in Spain. The 19th Century was a turbulent century of politics in Spanish history (Zaide, 1994). It was a period of political instability owing to the frequent rise and fall of ministries and constitutions. To save the country from political disunity, the Spanish crown works out the canovite system or rotativism (Maguigad et al., 2000).  Canovite System or Rotativism. Under this policy, the liberals and conservatives in Spain took turns in administering the affairs of the country.
  • 18. SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY  The political instability in Spain affected the Philippines adversely. As a consequence of this condition, there were frequent changes in the top colonial administration in the Philippines. Owing to the brief tenure of office if governor-generals, colonial administration become very inefficient and corrupt. In addition to the foregoing, the Philippines became dumping ground for the relatives and favorites of Spanish politicians in Madrid.
  • 19. SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY  Abandonment of Mercantilism. The 19th century was also a period when Spain abandoned the policy of mercantilism and adopted the laissez- faire policy to follow the trend of economic development in Europe and, at the same time, speed up the growth of their commerce and trade.  Mercantilism. An economic doctrine based on the idea that a country’s wealth and power can be measured in terms of its stock of gold and silver.  Laissez-faire Policy. Government’s non-interference in the conduct of trade and business.
  • 20. SPAIN IN THE 19TH CENTURY  Spain’s adoption of the laissez-faire policy affected the Philippines in several ways (Capino, 1977). As a result, Spain ended the Galleon Trade or the Manila-Acapulao trade in 1873. This directly led the opening of the Philippines to world commerce. The opening of the country to foreign commerce and trade, not only ended the economic isolation of the Philippines from the rest of the world. It created a middle class imbued with civic courage and persona independence, which started questioning the abuses of the Spanish Regime. It was also this class, which started clamoring reforms in the Philippines from 1872 to 1892.
  • 21. T HE P HILIP P INE S D U RING RIZA L’S T IM E As a result of the Spanish conquest of the Philippines, the Filipinos lost their ancestral lands on account of Spain’s institution of the encomienda system. They were forced by the Spanish colonizers to accept Spanish culture and religion. This change in the administrative organization of the country, social and educational system and the economic situation of the Philippines in 19th century.
  • 22. ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION The Philippines was governed directly by the Spanish crown, through the Ministry of Colonies in the 19th century. The government of the country was unitary as policies implemented by colonial administrators from Luzon to Mindanao emanated from the Manila, the seat of the central government.
  • 23. POLITICAL STRUCTURE DURING SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD KING OF SPAIN The Colonial Government The Executive Branch (Governor-General) The Colonial Government (Royal Audencia, Residencia, Supreme Courts, Governor-General) Municipal Government Corrigimiento (Corregidor) Provincial Government Alcaldia (Alcalde Mayor) City Government Ayuntamiento (Cabildo) Continue next slide…Continue next slide…
  • 24. POLITICAL STRUCTURE DURING SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD Municipal Government Corrigimiento (Corregidor) Provincial Government Alcaldia (Alcalde Mayor) City Government Ayuntamiento (Cabildo) Pueblos or Towns (Gobernadorcillos) Cabildo- City Council (Alcalde en ordinario, Regidores, Aguacil Mayor, Escribano) Barrios (Cabeza de Barangay) Barrios (Cabeza de Barangay)
  • 25. THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL  The head of the Spanish colonial government in the country that is appointed by the Spanish monarch.  Represented the crown in all government matters.  He is the Vice Royal Patron; he could nominate priests for ecclesiastical administration of the parishes. He was also the commander in chief of the colonial army.  As the chief executive of the colonial government, he was ex-officio president of the Royal Audencia and Supreme Court. And even there’s no lawmaking body in the country then, he had legislative powers. The Laws enacted by the governor-general were called actos acordados (Maguidad, 2000)
  • 26. FRAILOCRACIA (TERM COINED BY LOPEZ JAENA) The friars (Augustinians, Dominicans and Franciscans) became more powerful and influential that even civil authorities feared them. The rise in power and influence of the friars can be attributed to frequent changes in the top colonial administration in the country from 1849 to 1895.
  • 27. GUARDIA CIVIL  Aside from the friars Guardia Civil is one of the institutions that is feared in the Philippines. Guardia Civil was organized in 1867, as a corps of native police under the leadership of Spanish officers for the purpose of dealing with outlaws and renegades (Maguigad et al., 2000). In 1880, it was the most feared instrument of summary arrests of individuals identified by the friars as filibusteros or enemies of the government and erehes or enemies of the church.
  • 28. GUARDIA CIVIL  There was no legislature in the Philippines before the country was taken over by the United States in 1898. Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes or lawmaking body was abolished in 1837 (Schumacher, 1997).  Governance of the Philippines was based on special laws and Las Leyes de Indias continued to be the basic law but gradually modified by royal decrees.
  • 29. GUARDIA CIVIL  On the whole, Spanish colonial government was corrupt and inefficient because of the distance of the Philippines from Spain, the governor-general exercised absolute powers. He could reward positions in the bureaucracy to his favorites who were unqualified and unfit for government service. Although the Spanish crown had instituted the:  Residencia, the trial of an outgoing governor-general to account for his acts during his tenure of office.
  • 30. GUARDIA CIVIL Visitador or investigating officer to probe on the complaints against the governor-general. Another source of weakness and abuse of Spanish government was the widespread selling of lower positions to highest bidders (Capino, 1977).
  • 31. T H E S O C I A L S T R U C T U R E O F F I L I P I N O S O C I E T Y  Philippine society then was feudalistic as a consequence of the encomienda system imposed by the colonizers (Romero et al., 1978). They imposed and collected all forms of taxes and tributes from the Filipinos and even required the natives to render polo y servicio or forced labor to the government and the Catholic Church.  The social structure implemented by Spain was pyramidal due to the colonizer’s adherence to the doctrine of limpieza de sangre or purity of blood (Maguigad, 2000).
  • 32. T H E S O C I A L S T R U C T U R E O F F I L I P I N O S O C I E T Y Peninsulares Insulares Spanish Mestizos Principalia Chinese mestizos Indios or Natives
  • 33. T H E S O C I A L S T R U C T U R E O F F I L I P I N O S O C I E T Y Social tensions were created between and among the classes. Moreover, a system of racial discrimination came to be institutionalized. High positions in government were opened only to the pure blooded Spaniards. Members of the middle class and the Indios were considered inferior by the upper classes and unworthy of education.
  • 34. EDUCATION SYSTEM  Up to the middle of the 19th century schools were under the control of the friars. Primary education was not given attention despite the establishment of parochial schools in many towns. Instructions at these schools centered on the teaching of fear of God and obedience to the friars, with indoctrination as the principal method of teaching.  Children in these schools were taught that they were of inferior intelligence and were suited inly for manual work.
  • 35. EDUCATION SYSTEM  By the end of 19th century, only the University of Santo Tomas was the existing higher education institution in the Philippines. UST, founded by the Dominicans in 1611, was the only university, which offered courses in medicine, pharmacy, theology, philosophy, as well as civil law. At the beginning of its operation only the Spaniards and mestizos were admitted into its various programs.
  • 36. EDUCATION SYSTEM  It was also in this century when public education for the natives was begun (Agoncillo, 1990). The Educational Decree of 1863 was implemented in the colony, which required the establishment of one elementary for boys and one elementary school for girls in each town in the Philippines.  The same decree provided for the establishment of a normal school for the training of teachers with a mastery of Spanish language, under the direction of the Jesuits, as Spanish shall be the medium of instruction in all schools.
  • 37. EDUCATION SYSTEM The friars reacted negatively to the teaching of Spanish language to the Filipinos. They opined that knowledge of the language would lead to the development of political and social awareness among the natives, which in effect could trigger in them the desire to fight for freedom and independence.
  • 38. EDUCATION SYSTEM  Although the Spanish government exerted efforts to educate the Filipinos in the 19th century, the educational system implemented in the country had serious weaknesses. Notable among these weaknesses were as follows (Romero et al., 1978): • Over-emphasis on religion; • Limited and irrelevant curriculum; • Obsolete classroom facilities; • Inadequate instructional materials; • Absence of academic freedom; and • Racial prejudice against the Filipinos in school.
  • 39. ECONOMIC SITUATION The country was opened to foreign trade at the end of the 18th century, which resulted in the rapid rise of foreign firms in Manila. The presence of these foreign traders stimulated agricultural production and exports of sugar, rice, hemp, and tobacco.
  • 40. ECONOMIC SITUATION  The growing prosperity of the Philippines in the 19th century had significant consequences (Schumacher, 1997). Opportunities for trade, increased Filipino contacts with foreigners and peninsular Spaniards. Moreover, a number of families, which prospered from foreign commerce and trade, were able to send their children for an education in Europe, further destroying the isolation of the country from the rest of the world.
  • 41. CHAPTER 4: THE DAWN OF FILIPINO NATIONALISM
  • 42. UNIFICATION OF THE PHILIPPINES UNDER SPANISH RULE Spain ruled the Philippines for more than 300 years. It consisted at independent and self-governing barangays, people by diverse tribes, it was Spain that gave the country its identity (Zaide, 1994). The country came to be known as Philippines due to the three centuries of colonial administration.
  • 43. UNIFICATION OF THE PHILIPPINES UNDER SPANISH RULE  With the use of the Cross, the natives were pacified (Agoncillo&Guerrero, 1974). The reduccion plan Fr. Juan de Plasencia was implemented, which require the natives to live in the area near the church. As a result, Spanish encomienderos found it easy to collect taxes from the natives. It also transformed the Filipinos into law-abiding citizens under the Spanish crown.  Spain's political system was gradually introduced into the country. Despite unification, the people started to nurture resentment and dislike for foreign rule.
  • 44. EARLY RESISTANCE TO SPANISH RULE  The integration of country into Spanish Empire Resulted in: • Implementation of taxation without representation • Polo y servicio or forced labor • Hardship and Miseries In effect: • They started harboring grievance against the colonial administration • They began clamoring for FREEDOM from foreign control.
  • 45. EARLY RESISTANCE TO SPANISH RULE  Discontent with Spanish rule was expressed in the regional revolts that out in archipelago from 1574-1843 (Zafra, 1976). Majority of them desire to regain their lost freedom.  Resistance to Spanish-imposed cause of the early revolts. Some of the revolts • Magalat revolt(1596) • Revolt of the Irrayas (1621) • Cagayan Revolt(1639) • Sumunoy Rebellion (1649-1650) • Maniago Revolt (1660)
  • 46. EARLY RESISTANCE TO SPANISH RULE Other revolts were cause by agrarian unrest, desire of the natives to recover the lands grabbed from them by the friars. Agrarian revolts broke out in the province of Batangas, Laguna, Cavite, Pampanga, and bulacan from 1745 to 1865. There were also revolts triggered by the desire to revert their native religion rather than embrace the religion of the colonizer (Agoncillo, 1990)
  • 47. EARLY RESISTANCE TO SPANISH RULE  The early revolts against Spanish rule failed for a number of reasons (Romero et al, 1978). Because of lack of communication in the province and absence of national leadership  Revolts, then, against Spanish rule were fragmented, disorganized, and spoadic.  Disunity was enhanced with Spain’s implementation of the policy of divide et empera or divide and rule, which was another factor for the failure of the revolts.
  • 48. EARLY RESISTANCE TO SPANISH RULE As Filipinos were made to fight one another by colonial masters, they failed to realize that their common enemy was the Spaniards.
  • 49. THE EMERGENCE OF THE FILIPINO SENSE OF NATIONHOOD  The emergence of the Filipino sense of nationhood was during the last year of Spanish rule in the 1890’s.  Development of nationalism was attributable to the ff. factors: opening of the phil. to world commerce; rise of clase media; liberal regime of Carlos Ma. Dela Torre; racial discrimination; secularization controversy; and the Cavite mutiny of 1872.
  • 50. THE OPENING OF THE PHILIPPINES TO WORLD COMMERCE With the entry of foreign products and businessmen, the economic isolation of Philippines was ended and Filipino came to learn about the ideas of John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau. Filipino intellectuals then started to wonder at the deplorable conditions of the country and started clamouring for reforms from the government.
  • 51. THE RISE OF THE CLASS MEDIA Can be traced to the prosperity of a relatively small class of mestizos and the principalia. Families which prospered during this time, were able to send their sons for an education in Europe. These European-educated Filipinos became disillusioned with Spain. From their ranks emerged Filipino propagandists clamouring for change in the Philippines.
  • 52. LIBERAL REGIME OF CARLOS MA. DELA TORRE  The fall of Queen Isabella and the triumph of liberalism in Spain in 1869 resulted into the appointment of Carlos Ma. Dela Torre as governor-general in the Philippines in the same year (Zaide, 1994).  To express satisfaction and joy for the leadership of Dela Torre, some Filipinos serenaded him on the night of July 12, 1869 (Liberty Serenade of 1869).  During his term of office, freedom of speech and of the press as guaranteed by the Spanish Constitution was recognized. Filipino Clergy were motivated to work because of the consequence of his liberal policy.
  • 53. RACIAL DISCRIMINATION  One of the factors that contributed to the development of Filipino sense of nationhood.  Racial discrimination had led people to realize that Spaniards and Filipinos were two separate, distinct people.  Spaniards considered Filipinos an inferior race and call them Indios.  Fray Miguel de Bustamante in his pamphlet entitled, "Si Tandang Basyong Macunat", this story Filipinos were portrayed as people with low mental ability.
  • 54. SECULARIZATION CONTROVERSY The secularization controversy led to the unification of the Filipino clergy, which in effect strengthen their sense of identity. The former religious conflict took on racial overtones because the friars were Spaniards and the seculars were true blooded Filipinos. The word Filipino meant not only the Filipino to the Spaniards; it is now included the native clergy.
  • 55. CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872 January 20, 1872 a mutiny broke out among Filipino soldiers in the arsenal of Cavite under the leadership of Sgt La Madrid (Schumacher 1991). This was bought by Izquierdo's abolition of exemption from tributes and forced labors, Filipino soldiers and workers in arsenal of Fort San Felipe.
  • 56. CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872  The Spanish authorities took advantage about this situation; they arrested liberal-minded Filipinos. There are Nine Filipinos and 13 lawyers and businessman deported to Marianas Island. The incident was exaggerated by the Spaniards particularly the friars. Fathers Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez, and Jacinta Zamora, due to involvement in in campaign for secularization of parishes, they are executed by garotte for alleged complicity in the rebellion.
  • 57. CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872 With the death of the 3 priest (GOMBURZA) this triggered the starting of the plans for revolution against the Spaniards. The martyrdom of GOMBURZA this started the history of Philippines, towards peaceful reforms to counter the evils of the Spanish regime, known in our history as the PROPAGANDA movement.
  • 58. RIZAL AND CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872  He has a plan to take up priesthood and become a Jesuit father (De Ocampo, 1969)  When he heard of martyrdom of GOMBURZA he changed his mind and swore to dedicate his life to vindicate victims of Spanish oppression.  Rizal was only 11 years old that time.  In his letter to Ponce, dated April 18, 1889 (National Heroes Commission, 1963), he said ...
  • 59. RIZAL AND CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872 ...Without 1872 there would not be now either a Plaridel, or Jaena, nor Soriano, or would there exist brave and generous Filipino colonies in Europe; Without 1872, Rizal would be a Jesuit now and instead of writing Noli Me Tangere, would have written the opposite. At the sight of those injustices and cruelties, while still a child, my imagination was awakened and I swore to devote myself to avenge one day so many victims, and with this idea in mind I have been studying and thi can be read in all my works and writings.
  • 60. RIZAL AND CAVITE MUTINY OF 1872 God will someday give me an opportunity to carry out my promise. Good! May they commit abuses, let there be imprisonments, banishments, executions, good. Let destiny be fulfilled! The day they lay their hands on us, the day they martyrize innocent families for our fault, goodbye friar government, and perhaps, goodbye Spanish government.
  • 61. THE END! Any questions? Group 5 Geriel Quides Cedrick Matudio Kyle Cendric Molina Dhana Vee Jose Darlyn Aquino Jaylie Ann Bulanadi Jayson Polintan Marvin Tabilisma Joanabeth Salomon Rose Jamaica Rosario

Editor's Notes

  1. Geriel
  2. Cedrick
  3. Cedrick
  4. Rose Jamaica
  5. Marvin
  6. Marvin
  7. Jayson
  8. Geriel
  9. Darlyn
  10. Kyle
  11. Dhana
  12. Joanabeth
  13. Darlyn
  14. Jaylie