Designing sustainable fisheries

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+The state of the ocean’s ecosystems
+The design space – Fishery? Sustainable?
+Fisheries and their stakeholders – and supply chains
+The battle over sustainability – strategy and tactics
+How to design sustainable fisheries

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Designing sustainable fisheries

  1. 1. Designing sustainable fisheries Jack Whalen Aalto University, Department of Design & Sustainable Fisheries Partnership
  2. 2. • The problem: The state of the ocean’s ecosystems • The design space – Fishery? Sustainable? – and the key issues • Fisheries and their stakeholders – and supply chains • The battle over sustainability – strategy and tactics • Designing sustainable fisheries
  3. 3. THE STATE OF THE OCEAN’S ECOSYSTEMS
  4. 4. The world’s oceans • The overall state of fishery stocks is worse than previously known • Developed countries are slowly and unevenly stabilizing and rebuilding fisheries • Middle income countries have more mixed trends, with large industrial fisheries often better managed than smaller or coastal stocks • Developing country fisheries appear to be seriously overexploited • Open ocean stocks managed by UN-authorized Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) are in a precarious situation • The habitat and wildlife effects of fisheries are disastrous across almost all geographies (Charting a Course to Sustainable Fisheries, California Environmental Associates, 2012)
  5. 5. The world’s oceans Overfishing has impoverished the integrity of the ocean’s ecosystems to a greater degree than previously acknowledged.
  6. 6. The world’s oceans But…
  7. 7. The world’s oceans What is to be done? Can we design a sustainable system for fisheries? But: What is the ‘system’? And: What would a successful system design require?
  8. 8. THE DESIGN SPACE (AND THE SCIENCE WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND AND WORK IN IT)
  9. 9. The design space • Fishery – A geographic location and the fish species captured there – Combines industrial and scientific ways of understanding (a place for fishing + the particular fish stock that lives there) Note: By ‘fish’ I mean here not only finfish but also crustaceans and molluscs, whether they dwell in the ocean or freshwater (or both)
  10. 10. The design space • Fishery – A geographic location and the fish species captured there – Combines industrial and scientific ways of understanding (a place for fishing + the particular fish stock that lives there) • Su Eastern Baltic cod fishery Gadus morhua
  11. 11. The design space • Fishery – A geographic location and the fish species captured there – Combines industrial and scientific ways of understanding (a place for fishing + the particular fish stock that lives there) Peruvian anchoveta fishery Engraulis ringens This is the single most important fishery in the world, accounting for 5 to 6 million tonnes of landings annually. The anchovy is also the key piece within the Southeastern Pacific ecosystem.
  12. 12. The design space • Fishery – A geographic location and the fish species captured there – Combines industrial and scientific ways of understanding (a place for fishing + the particular fish stock that lives there) The scale (artisanal  industrial) and method of capture matter a great deal
  13. 13. The design space • Fishery – A geographic location and the fish species captured there – Combines industrial and scientific ways of understanding (a place for fishing + the particular fish stock that lives there) But what about the ecosystem (not just that particular fish stock)?
  14. 14. The design space Ecosystem: a dynamic interaction between the living resources and physical parts of a given environment Trophic(plants) at levels: level 1, to The marine biomass pyramid Trophic level 5 Trophic level 4 Trophic level 3 Trophic level 2 Trophic level 1 herbivores (level 2), to predators (level 3), to carnivores or top carnivores (level 4 or 5)
  15. 15. The design space Ecosystem: a dynamic interaction between the living resources and physical parts of a given environment Trophic(plants) at levels: level 1, to The marine biomass pyramid Trophic level 5 Trophic level 4 Trophic level 3 Trophic level 2 Trophic level 1 herbivores (level 2), to predators (level 3), to carnivores or top carnivores (level 4 or 5) physical = soil, water, air • Climate change and ocean acidification • Fishing methods and habitat impact (especially in the benthic zone – the ecological region at lowest level of a body of water)
  16. 16. The design space • Sustainable/responsible fishing – Fishing practices and management that ensure fish stocks and marine eco-systems are maintained and protected for future generations
  17. 17. The design space Key issues in sustainable fishing • Overfishing - Too many fishing boats • Overfished stock - Too few fish left to reproduce effectively • Marine habitat - the ocean ecosystem (sharks, seaweed, turtles, dolphins, seagulls, coral, …) • Fisheries management - the system that says who is allowed to fish, where they are can fish and the methods they can use, and how much they can catch • Bycatch/discards - when fishermen throw fish overboard (usually dead) • Illegal fishing (e.g., fish caught by unlicensed boats) • Traceability (Where did the fish come from?)
  18. 18. The design space • Designing industrial ‘systems’ …
  19. 19. FISHERIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS – AND SUPPLY CHAINS
  20. 20. Fisheries and their stakeholders • Stakeholders – Catchers (and their communities and/or employers) – Processors – Buyers (large retailers, like Wal-Mart in the States or Kesko in Finland) – Government (or intergovernmental) agencies who manage the fishery – Consumers/citizens • The organisation of the supply chain
  21. 21. Fishery supply chains ‘From bait to plate’ Catchers
  22. 22. Fishery supply chains ‘From bait to plate’ Processors
  23. 23. Fishery supply chains ‘From bait to plate’ Suppliers
  24. 24. Fishery supply chains ‘From bait to plate’ Buyers/retailers
  25. 25. Fishery supply chains ‘From bait to plate’ Consumers
  26. 26. Fishery supply chains ‘From bait to plate’ Consumers Buyers/retailers Suppliers Processors Catchers ≈ 400 billion € per year value
  27. 27. Indonesian tuna supply chain
  28. 28. THE BATTLE OVER SUSTAINABILITY
  29. 29. Sustainability and its challenges • Achieving sustainable fishing practices is hardly a straightforward task! • There are significant challenges that ultimately inhibit their realisation, especially in making the transition to sustainability • Reducing catches and introducing new fishing practices to allow fish stock to recover are often necessary • But this generally means hardship for some stakeholders, albeit temporary (higher value placed on short-term benefits; benefits not evenly distributed amongst stakeholders; data gathering for adequate management difficult to achieve)
  30. 30. The battle over sustainability • Scientists and NGOs vs industry (whether large industrial fleets or small scale and artisanal catchers) and governments • Strategies and tactics in the battle – Scientific analysing and reporting, advising regulators
  31. 31. Scientific analysing and reporting Consumers Buyers/retailers NGOs Suppliers Scientists Processors Catchers Regulators
  32. 32. Scientific analysing and reporting Consumers Buyers/retailers NGOs Suppliers Scientists Processors Catchers Regulators At the end of the day, it’s all about change on the water
  33. 33. The battle over sustainability • Scientists and NGOs vs industry (whether large industrial fleets or small scale and artisanal catchers) and governments • Strategies and tactics in the battle – Scientific analysing and reporting, advising regulators – Blame and shame campaigns + political lobbying
  34. 34. Blame and shame campaigns and political lobbying Consumers Buyers/retailers NGOs Suppliers Processors Catchers Regulators
  35. 35. The battle over sustainability • Scientists and NGOs vs industry (whether large industrial fleets or small scale and artisanal catchers) and governments • Strategies and tactics in the battle – Scientific analysing and reporting, advising regulators – Blame and shame campaigns + political lobbying – Consumer education
  36. 36. Consumer education Consumers Buyers/retailers Suppliers Processors Catchers NGOs
  37. 37. The battle over sustainability • Scientists and NGOs vs industry (whether large industrial fleets or small scale and artisanal catchers) and governments • Strategies and tactics in the battle – Scientific analysing and reporting, advising regulators – Blame and shame campaigns + political lobbying – Consumer education – Community development/assistance
  38. 38. Community development/assistance Consumers Buyers/retailers Suppliers Processors Catchers (Fishing communities) NGOs
  39. 39. DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES
  40. 40. Fishery improvement: Can you design a sustainable fishery? In order to develop strategies for averting a fisheries collapse and restoring sustainability, it is first necessary to understand the unique set of forces operating in any given fishery.
  41. 41. Fishery improvement: Can you design a sustainable fishery? • It is better to work together with the industry (from retailers to catchers) to improve a fishery than to stop buying or selling its fish • There are many ways to improve fisheries – Healthy fish stocks – Protection of habitats and marine life – Effective management of fishing activities – ...
  42. 42. Fishery improvement: Can you design a sustainable fishery? But how can you get stakeholders to take risks and overcome their short-term mentality? How can you get regulators to follow scientific advice? Note that in many parts of the world, there are no regulatory bodies to manage fisheries, and no possibility of legal remedies to harmful, unsustainable fishing practices.
  43. 43. Fishery improvement: Can you design a sustainable fishery? Design concept: A partnership between scientists, the fishing/seafood industry, and NGOs to co-design improvement plans, use supply chain leverage to put them into action, monitor the results, make adjustments as needed …
  44. 44. A relatively new concept … • Scientists and NGOs vs industry (whether large industrial fleets or small scale and artisanal catchers) and governments • Strategies and tactics in the battle – Scientific analysing and reporting, advising regulators – Blame and shame campaigns + political lobbying – Consumer education – Community development/assistance – Market transformation
  45. 45. Market transformation Consumers Buyers/retailers Suppliers NGOs Fishery improvement projects (FIPs) Processors Catchers Regulators
  46. 46. Fishery improvement: Can you design a sustainable fishery? Understanding+ what's+ wrong+ + &+ what+ needs+ to+ done+ be+ Tracking+ what+ we+ and+ do+ assessing+ whether+ it’s+ working+ Making+ + all+ that+ informa7on+ ac7onable+ + Public+ repor7ng+ of+ work+ the+ Explaining+ how+ do+ to+ it+ (and+ teaching+ others+ how+ do+ to+ it)+ Engaging+ industry+ Fishery improvement project methodology
  47. 47. Fishery improvement: Can you design a sustainable fishery? Science + Economic incentives + Fishing regulations
  48. 48. It is highly unlikely that the market transformation strategy can succeed on its own. We are dealing with a system that is deeply political – at stake are huge revenues, national economies, and the livelihoods of many people (and their communities). All these strategies and tactics will be needed! • Strategies and tactics in the battle – Scientific analysing and reporting, advising regulators – Blame and shame campaigns + political lobbying – Consumer education – Community development/assistance – Market transformation
  49. 49. Thank you

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