Nutrition & dietetics
Nutrition [Latin nutritic = nourishment]: The science of food and
its relationship to health […..the...
Food & nutrients
Food: Food is a substance eaten or drunk to maintain life
and growth Eg. Cereals, Pulses, Vegetables, Mea...
IMPORTANCE OF PROPER NUTRITION
All living things need food and water to live.
All human beings need “good food” to live we...
Types of Nutrients
Macro-Nutrients – essential for human survival and growth.
Indian diet contribute to the total energy i...
I. CEREALS
Cereals are sources of Carbo, protein & fat.
Constitute the bulk of diet
Contribute 70-80% of total energy inta...
Nutritive values of cereals/100 gm
Rice
(milled)
Wheat Maize
(dry)
Carbohydrate
(gm)
78.2 71.2 66.2
Protein(gm) 6.8 11.81 ...
1. RICE:-Rice is a type of cereal and is staple food for
South India.
NUTRITIVE VALUE ( PER 100 g)
Carbohydrates : 80gms.
...
PAR BOILED RICE
Par boiling is the partial cooking of rice in steam.
In par boiling technique, paddy is soaked in hot wate...
Par boiling technique is recommended by CFTRI
( Central food technological research institute)
Nutritive value / 100 gm
Ca...
2. WHEAT
Bulk of wheat is consumed either as grains or flour or
maida (white flour). The white the flour greater the
loss ...
NUTRITIVE VALUE (per 100 g) :
Carbohydrates : 70-71 g
Fat : 1.5 g
Proteins : 12 g
Niacin : 5 mg.
Riboflavin : 0.17 mg
Thia...
3. MAIZE (corn, bhutta)
The proteins of maize are deficient in tryptophan and
lysine.
Some strains contain excess leucine....
II. MILLETS
Major millets- Jowar & Bajra
Minor millets / pseudicereals- Ragi, kodo
Nutritive values of Millets/100 gm
Jowar
(Sorghum)
Bajra
(Pearl
millet)
Ragi
Carbohydrate (gm) 72 68 72
Protein(gm) 10.4 1...
1. JOWAR (SORGHUM)
It is a type of cereal and is staple food for Telangana and
Marathwada.
NUTRITIVE VALUE (PER 100 G) :
C...
2.BAJRA (PEARL MILLET)
Staple food of Rajastan, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
NUTRITIVE VALUE (100Grams)
Carbohydrates : 68 gm....
3.RAGI
It is a popular millet in AP and Karnataka.
It is cheapest among millets.
It is rich in calcium & iron
NUTRITIVE VA...
III. PULSES AND LEGUMES
Include a variety of Red gram, Bengal gram, Black
gram, Green gram, Cow gram, Horse gram,
Khesarid...
1.SOYABEAN (“QUEEN” of all legumes)
It is a type of pulse, high nutritive value.
NUTRITIVE VALUE (PER 100 G) :
Proteins : ...
GROUND NUT (Pea nut)
King of nuts
Nutritive value (per 100 g)
Protein- 25gm Carbohydrate-25gm
Fat- 40 gm Energy- 560 kcal
...
LOBIA / Black eyed peas : (Nutritive value / 100 gm)
Carbohydrate-54.5 gm
Protein-24.1gm
Fat-1gm
Energy-323 kcal
Calcium-7...
RAJMAH / Kidney Beans: Nutritive value / 100 gm
Carbohydrate-60.6 gm
Protein-22.9gm
Fat-1.3gm
Energy-346 kcal
Calcium-260 ...
2. Bengal Gram (Chana)
It is type of pulse.
Nutritive value (per 100 g) :
Proteins : 17.1gm.
Fats : 5.3 gm.
Calcium : 202 ...
3. Black Gram (Urd)
It is type of pulse.
Nutritive value (per 100 g) :
Proteins : 24 gm.
Fats : 1-2 gm.
Calcium : 155 mg.
...
4. Red Gram (Tuvar/Arhar)
It is type of pulse.
Nutritive value (per 100 g) :
Proteins : 22 gm.
Fats : 1.7 gm.
Calcium : 73...
5. KHESARI DHAL (LATHYRUS SATIVUS)
Humans-neurolathyrism.
Animals-osteolathyrism.
spastic paralysis of lower limbs, occurr...
1. EGG
Contains all nutrients except Vit.C and carb.
NUTRITIVE VALUE (PER 60 Gm) :
Protein : 6 gm.
Fat : 6 gm.
Calcium : 3...
PHI of EGG :
It contains all the 9 essential amino acids.
It contains all fat & water soluble vitamins (except
Vit.C)
Boil...
DISADVANTAGE :
A reduction in egg intake is advised for those
at risk of CHD because of the cholesterol
content of egg is ...
BUTTER- It is rich in vit A (3200 micro gm/100 gm) & vit.D
Nutrients/100 gm-
Protein-nill
Carboh- nill
Fat-80 gm
Energy-72...
GHEE- It contains 200 micro gm carotene/100 gm
Nutrients/100 gm
Protein-nill
Carbohydrate- nill
Fat-100 gm
Energy-900 Kcal...
REFINED MUSTARD OIL
It can be produced from black mustard (Brassica
nigra), brown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea),
and wh...
REFINED SOYABEAN OIL
It contains 61% PUFA and 24% MUFA (85%
unsaturated fats) which is comparable to, or even
better than ...
Nutrients/100gm Content
Calories 61
Carbohydrates 4.7 g
Proteins 5.1 g
Total Fats 3.5 g
Minerals, vit,& electrolite
Nutrit...
Health & nutrition benefits of eating yogurt/curd
Consumption of curd - strengthening of the immune
system.
The bacteria i...
CHEESE
In addition to containing vitamins and quality proteins.
Cheese is a very good source of calcium. It’s a well-known...
Nutritive Value of Milk
Buffalo Cow Human
Fat(g) 6.5 4.1 3.4
Protein(g) 4.3 3.2 1.1
Lactose(g) 5.1 4.4 7.4
Calcium(mg) 210...
Diseases transmitted through milk
1. tuberculosis,
2. enteric fever,
3. cholera,
4. dysentery and malts fever.
PHI- Milk a...
THANX
Nutrition specimens - Dr JP Singh, Dept. of community medicine, SRMS IMS Bareilly
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Nutrition specimens - Dr JP Singh, Dept. of community medicine, SRMS IMS Bareilly

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Nutrition specimens - Dr JP Singh, Dept. of community medicine, SRMS IMS Bareilly

  1. 1. Nutrition & dietetics Nutrition [Latin nutritic = nourishment]: The science of food and its relationship to health […..the process of intake, digestion and assimilation of nutrients…… the application of this knowledge to maintain health and combat disease…..]. Dietetics: ….practical application of principles of nutrition….. planning of meals…..
  2. 2. Food & nutrients Food: Food is a substance eaten or drunk to maintain life and growth Eg. Cereals, Pulses, Vegetables, Meat, Milk, etc. Diet, on the other hand is what a person habitually eats and drinks. Nutrients: The nutrients are chemical substances that are present in the food we eat. Eg. Carbohydrates, Proteins, Vitamins, etc.
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF PROPER NUTRITION All living things need food and water to live. All human beings need “good food” to live well. Food = energy (measured in calories) Carbohydrates - 1 gram = 4 calories Protein - 1 gram = 4 calories Fats - 1 gram = 9 calories Proper nutrition provides the body with the nutrients necessary to build, maintain, and repair tissues.
  4. 4. Types of Nutrients Macro-Nutrients – essential for human survival and growth. Indian diet contribute to the total energy intake in proportion of- Carbohydrates 65-80% Proteins 7-15% Fats 10-30% Water Micro-Nutrients – essential for growth and enhance the function and usability of macro-nutrients Vitamins Minerals The difference between macro and micro nutrients is the amount your need each day. Macro-nutrients must exceed one gram per day.
  5. 5. I. CEREALS Cereals are sources of Carbo, protein & fat. Constitute the bulk of diet Contribute 70-80% of total energy intake Eg. Rice, wheat, maize, corn, barley Limiting amino acids- Lysine.
  6. 6. Nutritive values of cereals/100 gm Rice (milled) Wheat Maize (dry) Carbohydrate (gm) 78.2 71.2 66.2 Protein(gm) 6.8 11.81 11.1 Fat(gm) 0.5 1.5 3.6 Energy (kcal) 345 346 342
  7. 7. 1. RICE:-Rice is a type of cereal and is staple food for South India. NUTRITIVE VALUE ( PER 100 g) Carbohydrates : 80gms. Fat : 0.5 gm Proteins : 6-7gms, rich in lysine. B-complex : Thiamine – 0.06 mg :Niacin - 1.9 mg :Riboflavin – 0.06 mg Minerals : 0.6gms Energy : 345kcal DEFICIENT : Vitamins A , D & C PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE : Super ORS Milling process & washing in large quantities of water, discarding the water used for cooking deprives nutrients especially B-complex .
  8. 8. PAR BOILED RICE Par boiling is the partial cooking of rice in steam. In par boiling technique, paddy is soaked in hot water (60-70 0C) for 4 hr. Water is drained, paddy is steamed for 10 min. Latter dried and milled. Processed rice products- Rice flakes & puffed rice Public health importance- Par boiling preserves the nutrients of brawn (deeper) layer (improves the nutritive value), improves keeping quality and insect resistance. Disadv- off flavour
  9. 9. Par boiling technique is recommended by CFTRI ( Central food technological research institute) Nutritive value / 100 gm Carbohydrate: 78gm Fat: 0.5gm Protein: 7.7 gm Energy: 345 kcal Adulterant used in rice:- Mud, grit & soapstone bits
  10. 10. 2. WHEAT Bulk of wheat is consumed either as grains or flour or maida (white flour). The white the flour greater the loss of vitamins and minerals. So whole wheat flour is richer source of vitamin B than refined white flour. Protein content of wheat- Gluten (deficient in lycin). Uses- suji, bread. Processed products- bread, biscuits toast
  11. 11. NUTRITIVE VALUE (per 100 g) : Carbohydrates : 70-71 g Fat : 1.5 g Proteins : 12 g Niacin : 5 mg. Riboflavin : 0.17 mg Thiamine : 0.45 mg Minerals : 1.5 g Energy : 346 Kcal DEFICIENT : Lysine and Threonine. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE : Next to rice, wheat is most important staple diet in North India. It is a source of energy.
  12. 12. 3. MAIZE (corn, bhutta) The proteins of maize are deficient in tryptophan and lysine. Some strains contain excess leucine. Which interferes with conversion of tryptophan to niacin and this aggravates pellagrogenic action of maize. Chief protein- glutelin & zein Uses- cornflakes, custards & table deserts - food for cattle & poultry
  13. 13. II. MILLETS Major millets- Jowar & Bajra Minor millets / pseudicereals- Ragi, kodo
  14. 14. Nutritive values of Millets/100 gm Jowar (Sorghum) Bajra (Pearl millet) Ragi Carbohydrate (gm) 72 68 72 Protein(gm) 10.4 11.6 7.3 Fat(gm) 1.9 5.0 1.3 Energy (kcal) 349 361 344
  15. 15. 1. JOWAR (SORGHUM) It is a type of cereal and is staple food for Telangana and Marathwada. NUTRITIVE VALUE (PER 100 G) : Carbohydrates : 72 Proteins : 10 Fat: 1.9 Energy: 349 kcal B-Complex : Thiamine - 0.3mg Niacin - 3mg Riboflavin -1.3mg DEFICIENT : Lysine and Threonine. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE : Jowar is rich in leucine. Excess of leucine interfere with conversion of tryptophan to niacin result in Pellagra. Prevention- Avoid total dependence on jowar Consumption of ground nut, which has niacin Aflotoxins- d/t improper storage (Aspergillus flavus inf.)
  16. 16. 2.BAJRA (PEARL MILLET) Staple food of Rajastan, Gujarat and Maharashtra. NUTRITIVE VALUE (100Grams) Carbohydrates : 68 gm. Proteins : 10-14 gm. Energy : 361 kcal Calcium : 42 mg. Iron : 8 mg. DEFICIENT : Lysine and Threonine. PHI- Infestation of Bajra crop- Claviceps fusiformis (Ergot) Prevention- Floating them in 20% salt water, handpicking & air floatation
  17. 17. 3.RAGI It is a popular millet in AP and Karnataka. It is cheapest among millets. It is rich in calcium & iron NUTRITIVE VALUE (PER 100 g): Calcium : 344 mg. (rich source) Protein : 7 gm Iron : 4 mg. Carbohydrates : 72 gm B-complex and vitamins in a small dose. Limiting AA- Lysine & Threonine PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE : 1. Weaning food 2. It is cooked and eaten as Porridge, Roti and halva. 3. Advised for diabetics & obese
  18. 18. III. PULSES AND LEGUMES Include a variety of Red gram, Bengal gram, Black gram, Green gram, Cow gram, Horse gram, Khesaridhal, Peas, Beans including Soya beans. Limiting Amino Acid is Methionine. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE : Pulses contain 20-25% proteins which is higher than that of Eggs, Fish, Flesh foods in quantity. But in quality pulse proteins are inferior to animal protein (Poor man’s protein) Pulse proteins are rich in Lysine but deficiency in methionine and cysteine. They are rich source of B-complex vitamins and minerals Germinating pulses are also rich in Vit.C.
  19. 19. 1.SOYABEAN (“QUEEN” of all legumes) It is a type of pulse, high nutritive value. NUTRITIVE VALUE (PER 100 G) : Proteins : 40 gms Carbo- 20 gms Energy- 432 kcal Fat : 20 gms Minerals : 4 gms Calcium : 240 mg Iron : 10.4 mg DEFICIENT : Methionine. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE : PEM It contains high proteins, Ca, Iron and Vitamins. It can be consumed as Dhal (or) mixing its powder with wheat flour. It can also be consumed in the form of soyabean milk, curd, baby foods. Source of linolenic & linoleic acid
  20. 20. GROUND NUT (Pea nut) King of nuts Nutritive value (per 100 g) Protein- 25gm Carbohydrate-25gm Fat- 40 gm Energy- 560 kcal Rich source of protein, fat & energy among macronutrients Rich source of thiamine, nicotinic acid, ca, p, iron among micronutrients PHI- Most commonly used seed oil, MUFA (50%), low cast, high nutritive value It get infected with Aspergillus flavus, if not dried & stored properly-produces aflotoxins. Which is carcinogenic & hepatotoxic
  21. 21. LOBIA / Black eyed peas : (Nutritive value / 100 gm) Carbohydrate-54.5 gm Protein-24.1gm Fat-1gm Energy-323 kcal Calcium-77 mg Iron-8.6 mg PHI- Lobia are cooked as dal in India and Pakistan. They help in toning of spleen and stomach plus high fibre content inside them helps in improving diabetes
  22. 22. RAJMAH / Kidney Beans: Nutritive value / 100 gm Carbohydrate-60.6 gm Protein-22.9gm Fat-1.3gm Energy-346 kcal Calcium-260 mg Iron-5.1 mg Limiting AA- Cysteine & methionine PHI- 1. Low in fat, high in fiber. 2. Excellent levels of Vitamin C. 3. Rich in protein. 4. Cholesterol free. 5. Rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. 6. Rich in the antioxidants like lutein, zeaxanthin and beta caroten
  23. 23. 2. Bengal Gram (Chana) It is type of pulse. Nutritive value (per 100 g) : Proteins : 17.1gm. Fats : 5.3 gm. Calcium : 202 mg. Iron : 4.6 mg. Little amount of B-complex and Vit.C. PHI- Nutritive value can be increased by germination & fermentation.
  24. 24. 3. Black Gram (Urd) It is type of pulse. Nutritive value (per 100 g) : Proteins : 24 gm. Fats : 1-2 gm. Calcium : 155 mg. Iron : 4 mg. Little amount of B-complex and Vit.C.
  25. 25. 4. Red Gram (Tuvar/Arhar) It is type of pulse. Nutritive value (per 100 g) : Proteins : 22 gm. Fats : 1.7 gm. Calcium : 73 mg. Iron : 2.7 mg. Little amount of B-complex and Vit.C. PHI- Nutritional rehabilitation (75% ground nut flour & 25% roasted red gm flour)
  26. 26. 5. KHESARI DHAL (LATHYRUS SATIVUS) Humans-neurolathyrism. Animals-osteolathyrism. spastic paralysis of lower limbs, occurring mostly in adults consuming the pulse, Lathyrus sativus in large quantities. Affected areas : M.P., U.P., Bihar and Orissa. Food adulterant- TOXINS- BOAA (Beta oxalyl amino alanine) Stages of diseases- Latent, No stick, 1stick, 2 stick, crawler Prevention- Vit.C prophylaxis, banning of crop, removal of toxins, parboiling
  27. 27. 1. EGG Contains all nutrients except Vit.C and carb. NUTRITIVE VALUE (PER 60 Gm) : Protein : 6 gm. Fat : 6 gm. Calcium : 30 mg. Iron : 1.5 mg. Little amount of minerals and trace elements. Energy yielding : 70 kcal. NPU (Net Protein Utilization) : 100
  28. 28. PHI of EGG : It contains all the 9 essential amino acids. It contains all fat & water soluble vitamins (except Vit.C) Boiled egg is superior to raw egg. Because raw egg white is not assimilated by the intestinal mucosa. Boiling destroys ‘avidin’, a substance which prevents the body from obtaining biotin (B-complex vitamin). Salmonella can penetrate a cracked shell and enter
  29. 29. DISADVANTAGE : A reduction in egg intake is advised for those at risk of CHD because of the cholesterol content of egg is 250 mg./egg. But this should not be avoided by others from eating eggs.
  30. 30. BUTTER- It is rich in vit A (3200 micro gm/100 gm) & vit.D Nutrients/100 gm- Protein-nill Carboh- nill Fat-80 gm Energy-720 Kcal PHI- contains saturated fat-Atherogenic Excess consuption leads to dyslipidemia
  31. 31. GHEE- It contains 200 micro gm carotene/100 gm Nutrients/100 gm Protein-nill Carbohydrate- nill Fat-100 gm Energy-900 Kcal PHI- It contains saturated fatty acids which leads to the development of cardiovascular diseases. It is not advised in HTN, CVD, DM, Obesity. No other vitamins and minirals are present.
  32. 32. REFINED MUSTARD OIL It can be produced from black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and white mustard (Brassica hirta). Mustard Oil has about 60% MUFA & 21% PUFA . Advantages Of Mustard Oil Helps to stay away from coronary heart diseases It can be used as an antibacterial oil Useful for treating cough and cold
  33. 33. REFINED SOYABEAN OIL It contains 61% PUFA and 24% MUFA (85% unsaturated fats) which is comparable to, or even better than most vegetable oils Presence of Poly and monounsaturated fats reduces serum cholesterol levels, which makes people ‘heart healthy'. It also contains Omega 3 fatty acids, which help in the protection from heart diseases
  34. 34. Nutrients/100gm Content Calories 61 Carbohydrates 4.7 g Proteins 5.1 g Total Fats 3.5 g Minerals, vit,& electrolite Nutritional Value of Curd / yogurt
  35. 35. Health & nutrition benefits of eating yogurt/curd Consumption of curd - strengthening of the immune system. The bacteria in curd can help digest food . Curd might help reduce the risk of high blood pressure. Beneficial in case of constipation and colon cancer. A very good snack for those trying to lose weight. Being rich in calcium, curd is good for the bones & teeth Curd is effective in controlling dandruff. Curd is effective in lowering blood pressure.
  36. 36. CHEESE In addition to containing vitamins and quality proteins. Cheese is a very good source of calcium. It’s a well-known fact that calcium helps build strong bones and helps fight against osteoporosis. calcium-rich dairy foods can help you lose weight Each 100-gram portion of Cheese contains 700 mg of calcium
  37. 37. Nutritive Value of Milk Buffalo Cow Human Fat(g) 6.5 4.1 3.4 Protein(g) 4.3 3.2 1.1 Lactose(g) 5.1 4.4 7.4 Calcium(mg) 210 120 28 Iron(mg) 0.2 0.2 0.3 Vitamin C(mg) 1 2 3 Minerals(g) 0.8 0.8 0.1 Water(g) 81.0 87 88 Energy(kcal) 117 67 65
  38. 38. Diseases transmitted through milk 1. tuberculosis, 2. enteric fever, 3. cholera, 4. dysentery and malts fever. PHI- Milk adulteration
  39. 39. THANX

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