0808 Rice as a Source of Nutrition and Health

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Presenter: Marguerute Uphoff, MD, MPH

IV International Rice Meeting, Havana

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  • Rice is generally considered a good source of nutritional energy but a minor source of protein and a poor source of other nutrients. When I called a friend and colleague, a professor of Nutrition at Cornell University to ask him about nutrients in rice, his initial response was, “well, there aren’t many.” However, rice is in fact potentially rich source of
  • The focus of the “Green Revolution” has been on producing higher rice yields. Agronomists, plant breeders and rice farmers have opportunities to improve the quality and quantity of nutrients in the rice and to have an impact on human health beyond producing a source of dietary energy. Improvements in the nutrient potential and health potential of rice can be made by a combination of factors: management of soil, water and fertilizer, organic or chemical, affect the expression of the genetic potential, and, ultimately the nutrient quality of rice
  • We’ll start with how to utilize all the nutrients in rice. Structure of the rice grain is important in understanding how nutrients are available.
  • The husk is removed in milling and the bran in polishing Milling and polishing destroys 80% of the B vitamins, most of the iron, zinc, manganese and magnesium and phosphorus, all of the dietary fiber and all of the lipids and vitamin E and vitamin A precursors.
  • Not just for regularity! Lipid turns rancid during storage. The main reason for milling rice is to extend the storage life.
  • Researchers in Japan demonstrated that adding rice bran to the diets of hypertensive, stroke-prone rats lowered the animals’ systolic blood pressure by about 20 percent via the same mechanism as ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitors).
  • For the world’s well nourished people, the high digestibility of rice starches can be a contributing factor to our current epidemic of obesity, hypertension, type II diabetes and arteriosclerotic heart disease. Adding back the bran to rice can change it from a food with a high glycemic index that can contribute to the risk for type II diabetes to a health food that can be helpful in the dietary management of blood sugar for people who have diabetes.              Glycemic Index is a measure of how much and how long a given consumed carbohydrate raises blood glucose in comparison with how much and how long a standard amount of consumed glucose or white bread raises blood glucose. Foods with high glycemic indices cause the blood sugar to rise rapidly and drop rapidly; those with a low glycemic index cause the blood sugar to rise more slowly and decline more slowly.            Foods that cause a rapid rise in blood sugar complicate the management of diabetes and predispose to the development of type II diabetes by stimulating the production of insulin.            The starch in rice must be hydrolyzed in the intestinal tract prior to its absorption into the blood stream as glucose molecules. Starch in rice has two fractions:   o        Amylose is a chain of linearly linked glucose molecules; rice with high amylose content absorbs more water during cooking and when cooked becomes fluffy o        Amylopectin is a branching chain of glucose molecules. Rice with more amylopectin absorbs less water during cooking and has a sticky texture. o        When starch is cooked in water it becomes gelatinized. As it cools, it recrystallizes.           Waxy rices with high amylopectin have a high degree of reversible recrystallization. They are more digestible and have a higher glycemic index.           Non-waxy rices with high amylose have partially irreversible recrystallization. The irreversibly recrystallized or “retrograded” starch is less digestible. Rices with high amylose tend to have a lower glycemic index.
  • Need to explain the mechanism of how it inhibits ACE
  •          Rice protein (actually several proteins and variable amounts of free amino acids) has high biologic value in comparison with protein from other cereal grains. This is very important for the many people who have access to little animal protein and depend on rice for most of their protein needs.   o        The biologic value of a protein is a measure of how well it is absorbed and utilized by the human body. The biologic value of a protein is determined by its amino acid composition. o        Proteins are the building blocks of human tissue, hormones, neurotransmitters, and antibodies. Proteins are synthesized in the human body from 20 amino acids. Eight of the amino acids are “essential” because they are not synthesized in the body and must be obtained from the diet. o        Essential amino acids are utilized by the human body most efficiently when they are present in the diet in a specific composition. When one essential amino acid is present in low concentration relative to the others in a given food, it limits the value of that food for human protein synthesis. Lysine is a limiting amino acid in rice. o        The amino acid pattern of egg albumen is used as a standard of comparison.   o        Protein source o        Biological value o        Egg o        100 o        Rice o        86 o        Corn o        40            The total protein content and biologic value of rice protein varies both by cultivar and by cultivation.
  • In traditional cultivars and conventionally bred rices, iron is found only in the bran . Some Philippine and Malaysian highly colored landraces have been found to have relatively high betacarotenoids in association with relatively high unsaturated fatty acid content. The betacarotenoids are converted to vitamin A in the intestinal tract in the presence of unsaturated fatty acids. These rices can contribute to but not provide a person’s entire daily requirement of vitamin A precursors.
  • Explain BV Cultivation practices also affect the biologic value of the rice protein. A Bulgarian research project demonstrated that application of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer increased crop yield, increased total protein content but the protein had a lower biologic value because of the relative decrease in Lysine, Arginine, Threonine, Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine of 5 to 24%. The effect of fertilizer application on amino acid composition of the rice produced varied with the cultivar
  • The challenge for farmers and agronomists is to produce high yields with high protein content of high biologic value.
  • References for “Rice as a Source of Nutrition and Health” Americal Chemical Society (2006, March 3). “How Nice, Brown Rice: Study Shows Rice Bran Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats.” Science Daily. At www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060302180051/htm. American Chemical Society (2008, January 15). New High Protein Rice Strain Developed. Science Daily. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http:///.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080114095753.htm Bienvenido O. Juliano, in collaboration with FAO Rice in human nutrition, Biochemistry Unit,Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biochemistry Division, International Rice Research Institute, Rome, 1993. Chavan, J.K., Duggal, S.K. (IARI, New Delhi). “Synergistic effect of different pulses on the protein quality of rice.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture Vol. 29, No.3:230-233 (10 May 2006). Frei, M, Siddhuraju, P, Becker, K. “Studies on the in vitro starch digestibility and the glycemic index of six different indigenous rice cultivars from the Philippines.” Food Chemistry Vol 83: 395-402. (2003) Frei, M., Becker, K. “Agro-biodiversity in subsistence-oriented farming systems in a Philppine upland region: nutritional considerations.” Biodiversity and Conservation Vol 13: 1591-1610 (2004). Frei, M., Becker, K. “On Rice, Biodiversity and Nutrients.” Institute of Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, 2004. Paper available at http:www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/usa/reports/rice. Frei, M., Becker, K. (Universitat Hohenheim, Stuttgart). “Fatty acids and all-trans- b -carotene are correlated in differently colored rice landraces.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85: 2380-2384 (2005). Gipson, Naomi, McClung, Anna. “There is a lot more to that rice grain than you think.” From www.ars.usda.gov/News/docs.htm?dicud=6616 Goya Food Basics. “Rice—Wholesome & Nutritious. at www.goya.com/english/nutrition/basics_rice.html Grusak, Michael A. “Golden Rice gets a boost from maize.” Nature Biotechnology. Volume 23, Number 4, April 2005: 429-430. Lucca, Paola, Hurrell, Richard, Potrykus, Ingo. “Fighting Iron Defiency Anemia with Iron-Rich Rice.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol.21, No.3, 184S-190S (2002). MacLean, Jr., William C., Klein, Gordon L., Lopez de Romana, Guillermo, Massa, Enrique, Graham, George G. “Protein Quality of Conventional and High Protein Rice and Digestibility of Glutinous and non-Glutinous Rice by Preschool Children.” The Journal of Nutrition. 108:1740-1747, 1978. Masato, Araki.(Fukuoka Agric. Res. Cent), Matsue,Yuji, Kaneko, Akira. “Relation between Nitrogen Fertilizer and Free Amino Acid Composition of Brown Rice.” Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition . Vol 70: 19-24 (1999). Mateljan, George. The World’s Healthiest Foods. 1st edition.George Mateljan Foundation 2006. Minhajuddin, Mohammad. “Can Rice Bran Oil Melt Away Cholesterol?” University of Rochester Medical Center. Science Daily. May 12, 2005. www.sciencwedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050512110703.htm Nuffield Council on Bioethics. “The Use of GM Crops in Developing Countries” Case study 4: Improved micronutrients in rice. 3.46 There are several research projects… www.nuffieldbioethics.org/go/browseablepublications/gmcropsdevcountries/report_143.html - 18k. Pfeiffer, Wolfgang H., McClafferty, Bonnie. “HarvestPlus: Breeding Crops for Better Nutrition.” Crop Science. 47:s-88-105 (2007). Sugano, Michihiro, Tsuji, Etsuko. “Rice Bran Oil and Cholesterol Metabolism.” (Kyushu University). Proceedings VIIth Asian Conference of Nutrition: Lipid Symposium Proceedings. The Journal of Nutrition . 1997. 521S-524S. Swapan Datta, Vilas Parkhi, Mayank Jai, Jing Tan, Niranjan Baisakh, Lina Torrizo, Editha Abrigo, Norman Oliva, Md. Alamgir Hossain, Russel Julian, Anindya Bandyopadhyay, and Karabi Data. “Golden Rice and improvement of human nutrition.” Rice is Life: scientific perspectives for the 21st century. Session 3. Opportunities and challenges of transgenic rice: 99-101. Todorov, Methodi Todorov. “Rice yield and its biological value of protein fertilized with an increased rate of mineral fertilizers.” Chaiers Options Mediterraneennes , Vol. 15, No. 1: 65-70.” (?date 1991) Toenniessen, Gary H. “Crop Genetic Improvement for Enhanced Human Nutrition.” (Rockefeller Foundation). Proceedings of the XX International Vitamin A Consultative Group Meeting. The Journal of Nutrition. 2002. 2943S-2946S. University of Leicester (2007,March 28). Rice Bran Could Reduce Risk Of Intestinal Cancer. Science Daily. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070327094325.htm Vitamin A Deficiency-Related Disorders (VADD): The importance of micronutrients. www.goldenrice.org/Content3-Why/why1_vad.html. Well Being. “Rice-based Diets.” At www.faqs.org/nutrition/Pre-Sma/Rice-based-Diets Nutrition and.html . References for “Rice as a Source of Nutrition and Health” Americal Chemical Society (2006, March 3). “How Nice, Brown Rice: Study Shows Rice Bran Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats.” Science Daily. At www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060302180051/htm. American Chemical Society (2008, January 15). New High Protein Rice Strain Developed. Science Daily. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http:///.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080114095753.htm Bienvenido O. Juliano, in collaboration with FAO Rice in human nutrition, Biochemistry Unit,Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biochemistry Division, International Rice Research Institute, Rome, 1993. Chavan, J.K., Duggal, S.K. (IARI, New Delhi). “Synergistic effect of different pulses on the protein quality of rice.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture Vol. 29, No.3:230-233 (10 May 2006). Frei, M, Siddhuraju, P, Becker, K. “Studies on the in vitro starch digestibility and the glycemic index of six different indigenous rice cultivars from the Philippines.” Food Chemistry Vol 83: 395-402. (2003) Frei, M., Becker, K. “Agro-biodiversity in subsistence-oriented farming systems in a Philppine upland region: nutritional considerations.” Biodiversity and Conservation Vol 13: 1591-1610 (2004). Frei, M., Becker, K. “On Rice, Biodiversity and Nutrients.” Institute of Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, 2004. Paper available at http:www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/usa/reports/rice. Frei, M., Becker, K. (Universitat Hohenheim, Stuttgart). “Fatty acids and all-trans- b -carotene are correlated in differently colored rice landraces.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85: 2380-2384 (2005). Gipson, Naomi, McClung, Anna. “There is a lot more to that rice grain than you think.” From www.ars.usda.gov/News/docs.htm?dicud=6616 Goya Food Basics. “Rice—Wholesome & Nutritious. at www.goya.com/english/nutrition/basics_rice.html Grusak, Michael A. “Golden Rice gets a boost from maize.” Nature Biotechnology. Volume 23, Number 4, April 2005: 429-430. Lucca, Paola, Hurrell, Richard, Potrykus, Ingo. “Fighting Iron Defiency Anemia with Iron-Rich Rice.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol.21, No.3, 184S-190S (2002). MacLean, Jr., William C., Klein, Gordon L., Lopez de Romana, Guillermo, Massa, Enrique, Graham, George G. “Protein Quality of Conventional and High Protein Rice and Digestibility of Glutinous and non-Glutinous Rice by Preschool Children.” The Journal of Nutrition. 108:1740-1747, 1978. Masato, Araki.(Fukuoka Agric. Res. Cent), Matsue,Yuji, Kaneko, Akira. “Relation between Nitrogen Fertilizer and Free Amino Acid Composition of Brown Rice.” Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition . Vol 70: 19-24 (1999). Mateljan, George. The World’s Healthiest Foods. 1st edition.George Mateljan Foundation 2006. Minhajuddin, Mohammad. “Can Rice Bran Oil Melt Away Cholesterol?” University of Rochester Medical Center. Science Daily. May 12, 2005. www.sciencwedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050512110703.htm Nuffield Council on Bioethics. “The Use of GM Crops in Developing Countries” Case study 4: Improved micronutrients in rice. 3.46 There are several research projects… www.nuffieldbioethics.org/go/browseablepublications/gmcropsdevcountries/report_143.html - 18k. Pfeiffer, Wolfgang H., McClafferty, Bonnie. “HarvestPlus: Breeding Crops for Better Nutrition.” Crop Science. 47:s-88-105 (2007). Sugano, Michihiro, Tsuji, Etsuko. “Rice Bran Oil and Cholesterol Metabolism.” (Kyushu University). Proceedings VIIth Asian Conference of Nutrition: Lipid Symposium Proceedings. The Journal of Nutrition . 1997. 521S-524S. Swapan Datta, Vilas Parkhi, Mayank Jai, Jing Tan, Niranjan Baisakh, Lina Torrizo, Editha Abrigo, Norman Oliva, Md. Alamgir Hossain, Russel Julian, Anindya Bandyopadhyay, and Karabi Data. “Golden Rice and improvement of human nutrition.” Rice is Life: scientific perspectives for the 21st century. Session 3. Opportunities and challenges of transgenic rice: 99-101. Todorov, Methodi Todorov. “Rice yield and its biological value of protein fertilized with an increased rate of mineral fertilizers.” Chaiers Options Mediterraneennes , Vol. 15, No. 1: 65-70.” (?date 1991) Toenniessen, Gary H. “Crop Genetic Improvement for Enhanced Human Nutrition.” (Rockefeller Foundation). Proceedings of the XX International Vitamin A Consultative Group Meeting. The Journal of Nutrition. 2002. 2943S-2946S. University of Leicester (2007,March 28). Rice Bran Could Reduce Risk Of Intestinal Cancer. Science Daily. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070327094325.htm Vitamin A Deficiency-Related Disorders (VADD): The importance of micronutrients. www.goldenrice.org/Content3-Why/why1_vad.html. Well Being. “Rice-based Diets.” At www.faqs.org/nutrition/Pre-Sma/Rice-based-Diets Nutrition and.html . .
  • 0808 Rice as a Source of Nutrition and Health

    1. 1. RICE AS A SOURCE OF NUTRITION AND HEALTH Marguerite Uphoff, MD, MPH IV. International Rice Meeting Havana, June 2-6-2008
    2. 2. Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population <ul><li>Worldwide, rice provides 20% of total human energy </li></ul><ul><li>Rice consumption varies by region -- annual per capita consumption of rice ranges from 60 kg to 220 kg in Asian countries, to 12 kg per capita in North America </li></ul><ul><li>Rice consumption also varies by income -- dependency on rice is very high among poor people, in parts of Asia rice provides 50 to 80% of all the calories of poor households </li></ul><ul><li>In Central America and Cuba, rice provides 5 to 10% of total dietary energy </li></ul>
    3. 3. Rice is more than a source of energy <ul><li>the major source of energy , but also </li></ul><ul><li>the major source of protein , and </li></ul><ul><li>a significant source of fiber and of essential micronutrients </li></ul>When rice is a large proportion of the diet, and when the diversity of the diet is limited, as is true for many living in poverty, rice is:
    4. 4. How to make rice count for nutrition <ul><li>Use of all of the nutrients that are in the rice grain </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the most nutritious varieties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traditional cultivars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conventional breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transgenic engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harness better cultivation techniques to enhance nutritional value </li></ul>
    5. 5. 1. Using all the nutrients: Grain composition and nutrition Hull (Husk)— removed and discarded in initial milling Bran: Pericarp, Aleurone, Embryo — removed in further milling and polishing Endosperm: the white rice that remains after milling and polishing.
    6. 6. Milling and polishing: loss of nutritional value <ul><li>White rice – milled and polished grains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains about 90-94% carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains 6-10% protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains no significant vitamins or minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brown rice – minimally milled grains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retains the bran -- pericarp, aluerone, and endosperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains about 75-85% carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>richer than white rice in protein, lipids, fiber, and vitamins and minerals </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Bran is the key to improving rice’s contribution to nutrition and health <ul><li>All rice lipids are in the bran </li></ul><ul><li>Rice bran oil has some unique qualities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of the lipids in rice bran are polyunsaturated fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of polyunsaturated fatty compounds are effective in lowering blood cholesterol levels. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Even a little Vitamin E is beneficial for health <ul><ul><li>Rice bran oil is a rich available source of vitamin E -- which consists of tocopherols and tocotrienols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tocotrienols decrease the synthesis of cholesterol by inhibiting the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tocotrienols have been shown to decrease LDL – the “bad” cholesterol -- by 42-62% in animal studies -- and in human studies by 20% </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Rice bran also has value for its lipid fraction <ul><ul><li>Rice bran oil contains linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that must be obtained from the diet because the human body cannot synthesize it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid is important for many cell functions but particularly important for the brain’s development. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Brown rice lowers the grain’s glycemic index <ul><li>Brown rice has a lower glycemic index because it is digested more slowly than white rice – this is important for diabetes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat content in the bran slows the emptying of the stomach and also the hydrolysis and absorption of starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber content in the bran slows emptying time of the stomach </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Brown rice can help lower blood pressure <ul><ul><li>Brown rice diets have been known for many years to be effective in reducing hypertension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice bran has recently been shown to decrease hypertension via inhibition of an angiotensin-1 converting enyzme (ACE inhibitor). </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Brown rice contributes to antioxidants <ul><li>The micronutrients manganese, selenium and magnesium are found almost entirely in the bran of rice </li></ul><ul><li>One cup (195 grams) of cooked brown rice can provide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>66% of the daily requirement of manganese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>27% of the daily requirement of selenium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of the daily requirement of magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These micronutrients facilitate the synthesis of certain antioxidant enzymes that are protective for the prevention of cancer and inflammatory processes, including arteriosclerotic disease </li></ul>
    13. 13. Other benefits of consuming the whole grain <ul><li>Eating whole grains such as brown rice is linked in many studies to protection against : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary artery disease and stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin resistance (pre-diabetes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type II diabetes (adult-onset diabetes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celiac disease (gluten intolerance) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Intriguing studies <ul><li>Asthma: One Dutch study found that the probability of having asthma with bronchial hyper-responsiveness was significantly less in children who had a high intake of whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal cancer: A British study of gastrointestinal adenoma found that daily consumption of a high dose of stabilized rice bran was associated with an average reduction of 51% in the number of precancerous adenomas in the intestinal tract </li></ul>
    15. 15. 2. Choosing the most nutritious varieties <ul><li>Benefits from traditional cultivars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A study of Philippine landraces (traditional cultivars) demonstrated average lipid content to be significantly higher than in HYVs collected in the same area – 2.1% for HYVs compared with up to 3.2% for some landrace varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some landraces had a linoleic acid content of almost 1% of the total grain so that 200 grams of such rice could supply half of an adult’s daily requirement </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Traditional cultivars and protein quality <ul><li>Some landraces in the Philippines have protein content up to 14% ; one Chinese long-grain rice has been reported with a 16% protein content </li></ul><ul><li>Average protein content of HYVs is 6-11% </li></ul><ul><li>American and Indian rice breeders recently announced a hybrid with 12.4% protein . </li></ul>
    17. 17. Traditional cultivars and micronutrients <ul><li>Commercial varieties of rice usually contain about 2 mg/kg of iron </li></ul><ul><li>Some selected Philippine varieties contain more than 5 mg/kg of iron </li></ul><ul><li>Certain colored traditional rice varieties in Philippines have 63.5 mg/kg iron . </li></ul><ul><li>Some highly-colored landraces in Philippines and Malaysia can contribute most, but not all, of a person’s daily requirement of vitamin A precursors </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: iron like other nutrients is in bran! </li></ul>
    18. 18. Bio-engineering nutrition <ul><li>An transgenic rice has been developed which is iron-rich </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has an iron content of 38 mg/kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This iron is stored as iron-ferritin in the endosperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, it is in principle more bio-available and is not lost with milling </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Bio-engineered Iron-Rich Rice <ul><ul><li>The grain has been engineered to have lower phytate levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phytates interfere with iron absorption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The grain also has a metallothionein-like protein that enhances iron absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, field testing and human absorption studies have yet to be done </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Golden Rice <ul><li>Golden Rice is a transgenic engineering accomplishment that has been heralded in the popular media as a means of combating vitamin A deficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Ingo Potrykus from Zurich and Peter Beyer of Freiburg developed a biosynthetic pathway that expressed beta carotene in the rice endosperm. </li></ul><ul><li>The first Golden Rice (GR1) developed in 1999 contained 1.6 micrograms of beta carotene per gram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was an order of magnitude more than most rice but still a small contribution toward the daily requirement. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Golden Rice <ul><li>GR2, developed in 2005, produces up to 37 micrograms of beta carotene per gram of milled rice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This amount theoretically could meet the daily requirement of someone whose primary source of dietary energy was rice. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, how well the carotenoids in Golden Rice will be converted to vitamin A in the intestinal tract -- and absorbed into the blood stream -- has yet to be studied. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Golden Rice <ul><li>Golden Rice may make a significant contribution to alleviating vitamin A deficiency diseases </li></ul><ul><li>But the contribution of Golden Rice to human nutrition and health will not be available for a number of years </li></ul>
    23. 23. 3. Modifying cultivation to improve nutrition <ul><li>Cultivation practices and environmental circumstances have been shown to affect the total protein content of rice </li></ul><ul><li>Some factors that increase the protein content of rice are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wider spacing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>border effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>response to nitrogen fertilizer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>various stresses </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Cultivation practices affect the biological value (BV) of the rice protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BV reflects the completeness of the set of amino acids that the body needs for protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Bulgarian research project demonstrated that application of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer increased yield and total protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But this protein had a lower biological value because of the relative decrease in various essential amino acids: Lysine, Arginine, Threonine, Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine – by 5 to 24% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The effect of fertilizer application on amino acid composition of the rice protein varied among the cultivars evaluated </li></ul>Biological Value of protein
    25. 25. Cultivation affects BV <ul><li>A study in Japan showed that application of nitrogen fertilizer changed the free amino acid composition of brown rice </li></ul><ul><li>The total amount of some free amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamine and alanine) was higher in grain produced without application of nitrogen fertilizer </li></ul>
    26. 26. The BV of rice protein makes a difference <ul><li>Study of nitrogen balance in poor children in Peru compared high-protein rice (11.4% protein) diet with conventional rice (7.1% protein) diet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children on the high-protein rice diet retained more nitrogen in their bodies than with the lower-protein rice diet, but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less nitrogen was retained per gram of ingested N for high-protein rice compared with the lower-protein rice, indicating that the high-protein rice had lower BV </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Rice can contribute more to health and nutrition if we: <ul><ul><li>Consume whole grain rice -- do not discard the most nutrient-rich part, the bran! </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Rice can contribute more to health and nutrition if we: <ul><ul><li>Utilize the best available varieties in terms of their nutritional value: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select and protect a biodiverse set of existing cultivars that provide positive nutritional benefit, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continue the breeding and development of promising new cultivars </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Rice can contribute more to health and nutrition if we: <ul><ul><li>Learn more about how alternative cultivation practices affect the nutrient qualities of rice, e.g. SICA </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. References for “Rice as a Source of Nutrition and Health” <ul><li>Americal Chemical Society (2006, March 3). “How Nice, Brown Rice: Study Shows Rice Bran Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats.” Science Daily. At www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060302180051/htm. </li></ul><ul><li>American Chemical Society (2008, January 15). New High Protein Rice Strain Developed. Science Daily. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http:///.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080114095753.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Bienvenido O. Juliano, in collaboration with FAO Rice in human nutrition, Biochemistry Unit,Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biochemistry Division, International Rice Research Institute, Rome, 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Chavan, J.K., Duggal, S.K. (IARI, New Delhi). “Synergistic effect of different pulses on the protein quality of rice.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture Vol. 29, No.3:230-233 (10 May 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Frei, M, Siddhuraju, P, Becker, K. “Studies on the in vitro starch digestibility and the glycemic index of six different indigenous rice cultivars from the Philippines.” Food Chemistry Vol 83: 395-402. (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Frei, M., Becker, K. “Agro-biodiversity in subsistence-oriented farming systems in a Philppine upland region: nutritional considerations.” Biodiversity and Conservation Vol 13: 1591-1610 (2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Frei, M., Becker, K. “On Rice, Biodiversity and Nutrients.” Institute of Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, 2004. Paper available at http:www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/usa/reports/rice. </li></ul><ul><li>Frei, M., Becker, K. (Universitat Hohenheim, Stuttgart). “Fatty acids and all-trans- b -carotene are correlated in differently colored rice landraces.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85: 2380-2384 (2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Gipson, Naomi, McClung, Anna. “There is a lot more to that rice grain than you think.” From www.ars.usda.gov/News/docs.htm?dicud=6616 </li></ul><ul><li>Goya Food Basics. “Rice—Wholesome & Nutritious. at www.goya.com/english/nutrition/basics_rice.html </li></ul><ul><li>Grusak, Michael A. “Golden Rice gets a boost from maize.” Nature Biotechnology. Volume 23, Number 4, April 2005: 429-430. </li></ul>
    31. 31. References for “Rice as a Source of Nutrition and Health” <ul><li>Lucca, Paola, Hurrell, Richard, Potrykus, Ingo. “Fighting Iron Defiency Anemia with Iron-Rich Rice.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol.21, No.3, 184S-190S (2002). </li></ul><ul><li>MacLean, Jr., William C., Klein, Gordon L., Lopez de Romana, Guillermo, Massa, Enrique, Graham, George G. “Protein Quality of Conventional and High Protein Rice and Digestibility of Glutinous and non-Glutinous Rice by Preschool Children.” The Journal of Nutrition. 108:1740-1747, 1978. </li></ul><ul><li>Masato, Araki.(Fukuoka Agric. Res. Cent), Matsue,Yuji, Kaneko, Akira. “Relation between Nitrogen Fertilizer and Free Amino Acid Composition of Brown Rice.” Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition . Vol 70: 19-24 (1999). </li></ul><ul><li>Mateljan, George. The World’s Healthiest Foods. 1st edition.George Mateljan Foundation 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Minhajuddin, Mohammad. “Can Rice Bran Oil Melt Away Cholesterol?” University of Rochester Medical Center. Science Daily. May 12, 2005. www.sciencwedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050512110703.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Nuffield Council on Bioethics. “The Use of GM Crops in Developing Countries” Case study 4: Improved micronutrients in rice. 3.46 There are several research projects… www.nuffieldbioethics.org/go/browseablepublications/gmcropsdevcountries/report_143.html - 18k. </li></ul><ul><li>Pfeiffer, Wolfgang H., McClafferty, Bonnie. “HarvestPlus: Breeding Crops for Better Nutrition.” Crop Science. 47:s-88-105 (2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Sugano, Michihiro, Tsuji, Etsuko. “Rice Bran Oil and Cholesterol Metabolism.” (Kyushu University). Proceedings VIIth Asian Conference of Nutrition: Lipid Symposium Proceedings. The Journal of Nutrition . 1997. 521S-524S. </li></ul><ul><li>Swapan Datta, Vilas Parkhi, Mayank Jai, Jing Tan, Niranjan Baisakh, Lina Torrizo, Editha Abrigo, Norman Oliva, Md. Alamgir Hossain, Russel Julian, Anindya Bandyopadhyay, and Karabi Data. “Golden Rice and improvement of human nutrition.” Rice is Life: scientific perspectives for the 21st century. Session 3. Opportunities and challenges of transgenic rice: 99-101. </li></ul><ul><li>Todorov, Methodi Todorov. “Rice yield and its biological value of protein fertilized with an increased rate of mineral fertilizers.” Chaiers Options Mediterraneennes , Vol. 15, No. 1: 65-70.” (?date 1991) </li></ul>
    32. 32. References for “Rice as a Source of Nutrition and Health” <ul><li>Toenniessen, Gary H. “Crop Genetic Improvement for Enhanced Human Nutrition.” (Rockefeller Foundation). Proceedings of the XX International Vitamin A Consultative Group Meeting. The Journal of Nutrition. 2002. 2943S-2946S. </li></ul><ul><li>University of Leicester (2007,March 28). Rice Bran Could Reduce Risk Of Intestinal Cancer. Science Daily. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/03/070327094325.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin A Deficiency-Related Disorders (VADD): The importance of micronutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>www.goldenrice.org/Content3-Why/why1_vad.html. </li></ul><ul><li>Well Being. “Rice-based Diets.” At www.faqs.org/nutrition/Pre-Sma/Rice-based-Diets Nutrition and.html . </li></ul>

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