Snow Lecture 41
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Snow Lecture 41 Snow Lecture 41 Presentation Transcript

  • The Rest of Chapter 41 Obesity Leptin Food Pyramid
  • E. Obesity
    • Increasing numbers of Americans are obese
    • Obesity-related conditions
    • Type 2 diabetes Breast cancer
    • Heart disease Colon cancer
    • Hypertension Gout (temporary athritis due to uric acid)
    • Gallstones Osteoarthritis
  • Body-Mass Index
    • An indicator of obesity-related health index
    • BMI = Weight (lbs) X 700
            • -----------------------------
            • Height (inches) 2
    • BMI greater than or equal to 27 indicates health risk…maybe
  • Maintaining Weight
    • Caloric input must equal caloric use
    • Calories burned depends upon
      • Activity level
      • Age
      • Height and build
  • Fighting Fat
    • Fat-storing cells are an adaptation for survival in lean times
    • Once formed, fat cells are forever = MYTH
    • Dieting decreases amount of fat in cells
    • Dieting triggers metabolic slowdown
    • Exercise enhances metabolic activity
  • F. Leptin
    • Hormone that affects appetite and metabolic rate
    • Product of the Ob gene
    • Faulty Ob gene may contribute to some human obesity…rare
    • Also used in treatment of lipodystrophy…improper storage
      • Defective fat tissue, fat is deposited in isolated places…liver…face
  • Parabiosis: mutant mouse surgically attached to wild type mouse  weight loss. Leptin “cures” obesity in leptin deficient mice and in overfed mice. Leptin treatment of human diseases: Congenital leptin deficiency (rare) Lipodystrophy (inability to deposit fat in fat tissue) Leptin action: Hypothalamus (brain) Major area of action-arcuate nucleus Activates pathways that signal satiety and promotes energy expenditure
  • G. Food Pyramid http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/daily/graphics/diet_042005.html
  • What’s wrong with the pyramid?
    • Harvard School of Public Health
    • Pyramid is based on influence of lobbyists as much as dieticians and research
    • Has not changed to reflect new research
    • Cannot account for variation in disease susceptibility, culture, quality of food
  • http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/pyramids.html
  • Summary
    • Anatomy of human digestive system
    • Tasks of the entire digestive system
    • Mechanical and chemical digestion in each region of the GI tract
    • Rumination
    • Obesity and the ob/ob mouse
    • Food Pyramid