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Snow Lecture 41

Snow Lecture 41






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    Snow Lecture 41 Snow Lecture 41 Presentation Transcript

    • The Rest of Chapter 41 Obesity Leptin Food Pyramid
    • E. Obesity
      • Increasing numbers of Americans are obese
      • Obesity-related conditions
      • Type 2 diabetes Breast cancer
      • Heart disease Colon cancer
      • Hypertension Gout (temporary athritis due to uric acid)
      • Gallstones Osteoarthritis
    • Body-Mass Index
      • An indicator of obesity-related health index
      • BMI = Weight (lbs) X 700
              • -----------------------------
              • Height (inches) 2
      • BMI greater than or equal to 27 indicates health risk…maybe
    • Maintaining Weight
      • Caloric input must equal caloric use
      • Calories burned depends upon
        • Activity level
        • Age
        • Height and build
    • Fighting Fat
      • Fat-storing cells are an adaptation for survival in lean times
      • Once formed, fat cells are forever = MYTH
      • Dieting decreases amount of fat in cells
      • Dieting triggers metabolic slowdown
      • Exercise enhances metabolic activity
    • F. Leptin
      • Hormone that affects appetite and metabolic rate
      • Product of the Ob gene
      • Faulty Ob gene may contribute to some human obesity…rare
      • Also used in treatment of lipodystrophy…improper storage
        • Defective fat tissue, fat is deposited in isolated places…liver…face
    • Parabiosis: mutant mouse surgically attached to wild type mouse  weight loss. Leptin “cures” obesity in leptin deficient mice and in overfed mice. Leptin treatment of human diseases: Congenital leptin deficiency (rare) Lipodystrophy (inability to deposit fat in fat tissue) Leptin action: Hypothalamus (brain) Major area of action-arcuate nucleus Activates pathways that signal satiety and promotes energy expenditure
    • G. Food Pyramid http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/daily/graphics/diet_042005.html
    • What’s wrong with the pyramid?
      • Harvard School of Public Health
      • Pyramid is based on influence of lobbyists as much as dieticians and research
      • Has not changed to reflect new research
      • Cannot account for variation in disease susceptibility, culture, quality of food
    • http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/pyramids.html
    • Summary
      • Anatomy of human digestive system
      • Tasks of the entire digestive system
      • Mechanical and chemical digestion in each region of the GI tract
      • Rumination
      • Obesity and the ob/ob mouse
      • Food Pyramid