Race and Gender
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Race and Gender Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter Outline
    • Race and Ethnicity
    • Prejudice
    • Discrimination
    • Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations
    • Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States
    • Global Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the Future
  • 2. Sharpening Your Focus
    • How do race and ethnicity differ?
    • How do discrimination and prejudice differ?
    • How are racial and ethnic relations analyzed according to sociological perspectives?
    • What are the unique experiences of racial and ethnic groups in the United States?
  • 3. Sporting Events and Race
    • Sporting events may bring out the best or the worst in people.
    • Major League Baseball player Milton Bradley accused teammate Jeff Kent of making racially insensitive remarks about Bradley, creating controversy among fans and the media.
  • 4. What Is Race?
    • Some people view race as:
    • Skin color: the Caucasian “race”,
    • Religion: the Jewish “race”
    • Nationality: the British “race”
    • Entire human species: the human “race”
  • 5. Race
    • A race is a category of people who have been singled out as being unique (i.e., inferior, superior, mediocre), on the basis of apparent or allegedly distinct physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other attributes.
    • Race has little meaning biologically speaking, due to interbreeding in the human population.
  • 6. % of Persons Reporting Two or More Races
  • 7. Racial Socialization
    • The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one’s racial or ethnic status as it relates to :
      • Personal and group identity
      • Intergroup and interindividual relationships
      • Position in the social hierarchy
  • 8. Racial Socialization
    • Do you believe that what this child is learning here will have an influence on her actions in the future?
    • What other childhood experiences might offset early negative racial socialization?
  • 9. Ethnicity
    • Miami’s Little Havana is an ethnic enclave where people interact with others in their ethnic group and feel a sense of shared identity.
    • Ethnic enclaves provide support for recent immigrants as well as for those born in the United States.
  • 10. Characteristics of Ethnic Groups
    • Unique cultural traits.
    • A sense of community.
    • A feeling of ethnocentrism.
    • Ascribed membership from birth.
    • Tendency to occupy a geographic area.
  • 11. How Much Do You Know About Race, Ethnicity, and Sports?
    • True or False?
    • Because sports are competitive and fans, coaches, and players want to win, the color of the players has not been a factor, only their performance.
  • 12. False
    • Discrimination has been pervasive throughout the history of sports in the United States.
    • For example, African American athletes, regardless of their abilities, were excluded from white teams for many years.
  • 13. How Much Do You Know About Race, Ethnicity, and Sports?
    • True or False?
    • Racially linked genetic traits explain many of the differences among athletes.
  • 14. False
    • Although some scholars and journalists have used biological or genetic factors to explain the achievements of athletes, sociologists view these explanations as being based on the inherently racist assumption that people have “natural” abilities (or disabilities) because of their race or ethnicity.
  • 15. How Much Do You Know About Race, Ethnicity, and Sports?
    • True or False?
    • Racism and sexism appear to be on the decline in sports in the United States.
  • 16. False
    • Even as people of color and white women have made gains on collegiate and professional teams, scholars have documented the continuing significance of racial and gender discrimination in sports.
  • 17. Question
    • All of the following are characteristics of ethnic groups, except:
        • unique cultural traits.
        • a feeling of ethnocentrism.
        • territoriality.
        • the same skin color.
  • 18. Answer: D
    • All of the following are characteristics of ethnic groups, except the same skin color .
  • 19. Dominant and Subordinate Groups
    • A dominant group has superior resources and rights in a society.
    • A subordinate group is one whose members are subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.
  • 20. Prejudice
    • A negative attitude based on generalizations about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groups.
      • Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to regard one’s own culture and group as the standard.
      • Stereotypes are overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories.
  • 21. Racism
    • A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.
  • 22. Racist Behavior
    • Sporting events are sometimes tainted by racist behavior.
    • What can be done to reduce this behavior?
  • 23. Frustration–aggression Hypothesis
    • People who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of aggression toward others.
      • Scapegoat— a person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others
  • 24. Frustration–aggression Hypothesis
    • Members of white supremacy groups often use members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups as scapegoats for societal problems.
  • 25. Authoritarian Personality Hypothesis
    • The Authoritarian personality is characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking.
  • 26. Question
    • _____ is a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.
        • Prejudice
        • Discrimination
        • Stereotyping
        • Genocide
  • 27. Answer: A
    • Prejudice is a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.
  • 28. Measuring Prejudice
    • Some sociologists use social distance to measure prejudice .
    • This is the extent to which people are willing to interact and establish relationships with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own.
  • 29. Discrimination
    • Involves actions or practices of dominant-group members that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group.
    • The ultimate form of discrimination occurs when people are considered to be unworthy to live because of their race or ethnicity.
      • Genocide is the deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.
  • 30. Individual and Institutional Discrimination
    • Individual discrimination consists of one-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property.
    • Institutional discrimination consists of the practices of organizations and institutions that harm members of subordinate groups.
  • 31. Four Types of Discrimination
    • Isolate discrimination A prejudiced judge giving harsher sentences to African American defendants.
    • Small-group discrimination Small group of white students defacing a professor’s office with racist epithets.
  • 32. Four Types of Discrimination
    • Direct institutionalized discrimination Intentional exclusion of people of color from public accommodations.
    • Indirect institutionalized discrimination Special education classes may have contributed to racial stereotyping.
  • 33. Merton’s Typology of Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudiced Attitude? Discriminatory behavior? Unprejudiced nondiscriminator No No Unprejudiced discriminator No Yes Prejudiced nondiscriminator Yes No Prejudiced Discriminator Yes Yes
  • 34. Contact Hypothesis
    • Contact between divergent groups should be positive as long as group members:
      • Have equal status.
      • Pursue the same goals.
      • Cooperate with one another to achieve goals.
      • Receive positive feedback while interacting.
  • 35. Sports and Upward Mobility
    • Are sports still a source of upward mobility for immigrants and ethnic minorities? Early 20th century Jewish American and Italian American boxers helped create ethnic pride and earned a livelihood.
  • 36. Functionalist Perspectives
    • Assimilation is a process by which members of racial and ethnic groups are absorbed into the dominant culture.
    • Ethnic Pluralism is the coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.
  • 37. Conflict Perspectives
    • The Caste Perspective views racial and ethnic inequality as a permanent feature of U.S. society.
    • Class perspectives emphasize the role of the capitalist class in racial exploitation.
  • 38. Conflict Perspectives
    • Internal Colonialism occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are placed under the control of the dominant group.
    • Split Labor Market is t he division of the economy into a primary sector of higher paid workers in secure jobs, and a secondary sector of lower-paid workers in jobs with little security and hazardous conditions.
  • 39. Poverty
    • Grinding poverty is a pressing problem for families along the border between the United States and Mexico.
    • Economic development has been limited and the wealthy have derived far more benefit than others from recent changes in the global economy.
  • 40. Critical Race Theory
    • The belief that racism is such an ingrained feature of U.S. society that it appears to be ordinary and natural to many people.
  • 41. Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations Focus Theory Symbolic Interactionist Microlevel contacts between individuals Contact hypothesis Functionalist Macrolevel intergroup processes Assimilation Ethnic pluralism
  • 42. Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations Focus Theory Conflict Power/economic differentials between dominant and subordinate groups. Caste perspective Class perspective Internal colonialism Split labor market Gendered racism Racial formation Critical Race Theory Racism as an ingrained feature of society that affects everyone. Law may remedy overt discrimination but have little effect on subtle racism.
  • 43. Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States
    • Native Americans
    • White Anglo-Saxon Protestants
    • African Americans
    • White Ethnic Americans
    • Asian Americans
    • Latinos/as
    • Middle Eastern Americans
  • 44.  
  • 45. Native Americans
    • Most disadvantaged group in the U.S. in terms of income, employment, housing, and nutrition.
    • As a group they have experienced:
      • Genocide
      • Forced Migration
      • Forced Assimilation
  • 46. Native Americans and Sports
    • Life chances are extremely limited for Native Americans who live on reservations.
    • Native Americans today have little opportunity to compete in sports at the college, professional, or Olympic level.
  • 47. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (British Americans)
    • Many non-Latino/a whites do not think of themselves as having race or ethnicity because they continue to benefit from being members of a dominant societal group that has experienced little prejudice or discrimination.
  • 48. African Americans
    • Slavery was rationalized by stereotyping African Americans as inferior and childlike.
    • Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965 sought to eliminate discrimination in education, housing, employment and health care.
  • 49. African Americans
    • As African Americans make gains in education and employment, many of them make a conscious effort to increase awareness of African culture.
    • The seven-day celebration of Kwanzaa exemplifies this desire to maintain a distinct cultural identity.
  • 50. Asian Americans
    • Fastest growing ethnic minority in the U.S.
    • Includes Japanese, Korean, Filipino and Indochinese Americans.
  • 51. Asian Americans
    • Historically, Chinatowns in major U.S. cities have provided a haven for many Asian immigrants.
  • 52. Asian Americans and Sports
    • Increasing numbers of Asian Americans are distinguishing themselves in college and professional athletics.
    • Michelle Kwan is the most decorated American figure skater.
  • 53. Latinos/as (Hispanic Americans)
    • Includes Mexican American's, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans.
    • Many Mexican American families have lived in the U.S. for 4 or 5 generations and have made significant contributions.
    • In 1917, Puerto Ricans acquired U.S. citizenship and the right to move freely to and from the mainland.
  • 54. Latino/as and Sports
    • Pedro Martinez of the New York Mets is one of the most visible Latino athletes.
    • Latino and Latina sports figures have gained prominence in a wide variety of sports, including boxing, baseball, golf, and tennis.
  • 55. Middle Eastern Americans
    • Includes immigrants from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, and Jordan.
    • The Lebanese, Syrians, and Iranians primarily come from middle class backgrounds.
    • Most Iranian immigrants initially hoped to return to Iran; however, many have become U.S. citizens.
  • 56. Middle Eastern Americans
    • These Middle Eastern Americans demonstrate their loyalty to the United States at a parade in New York City.
    • Since the 2001 terrorist attacks, many Middle Eastern Americans have been objects of prejudice and discrimination.
  • 57. Growing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the U.S.
    • In 1980 white Americans made up 80% of the population.
    • In 2000, white Americans made up 70% of the population.
    • By 2056, the roots of the average U.S. resident will be in Africa, Asia, Hispanic countries, the Pacific Islands, or Arabia—not white Europe.
  • 58. Odds of Being a Pro Athlete by Race/Ethnicity and Sport White African American Latino/a Football 1 in 62,500 1 in 47,600 1 in 2,500,000 Baseball 1 in 83,300 1 in 333,300 1 in 500,000 Basketball 1 in 357,100 1 in 153,800 1 in 33,300,000
  • 59. Quick Quiz
  • 60.
    • 1. A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes.
        • ethnic group
        • age group
        • gender
        • race
  • 61. Answer: D
    • A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes is a race.
  • 62.
    • 2. A collection of people distinguished by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
        • ethnic group
        • race
        • age group
        • gender
  • 63. Answer: A
    • A collection of people distinguished by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics is an ethnic group .
  • 64.
    • 3. Overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories.
        • stereotyping
        • redlining
        • scapegoating
        • steering
  • 65. Answer: A
    • Overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories is stereotyping .
  • 66.
    • 4. The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation is called:
        • genocide
        • discrimination
        • ethnic cleansing
        • parricide
  • 67. Answer: A
    • The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation is called genocide .
  • 68.
    • 5. Excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking is called:
        • groupthink
        • psychological assimilation
        • authoritarian personality
        • social distancing
  • 69. Answer: C
    • Excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking is called authoritarian personality .