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A race is a category of people who have been singled out as being unique (i.e., inferior, superior, mediocre), on the basis of apparent or allegedly distinct physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other attributes.
Race has little meaning biologically speaking, due to interbreeding in the human population.
Although some scholars and journalists have used biological or genetic factors to explain the achievements of athletes, sociologists view these explanations as being based on the inherently racist assumption that people have “natural” abilities (or disabilities) because of their race or ethnicity.
How Much Do You Know About Race, Ethnicity, and Sports?
True or False?
Racism and sexism appear to be on the decline in sports in the United States.
Direct institutionalized discrimination Intentional exclusion of people of color from public accommodations.
Indirect institutionalized discrimination Special education classes may have contributed to racial stereotyping.
Merton’s Typology of Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudiced Attitude? Discriminatory behavior? Unprejudiced nondiscriminator No No Unprejudiced discriminator No Yes Prejudiced nondiscriminator Yes No Prejudiced Discriminator Yes Yes
Internal Colonialism occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are placed under the control of the dominant group.
Split Labor Market is t he division of the economy into a primary sector of higher paid workers in secure jobs, and a secondary sector of lower-paid workers in jobs with little security and hazardous conditions.
The belief that racism is such an ingrained feature of U.S. society that it appears to be ordinary and natural to many people.
Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations Focus Theory Symbolic Interactionist Microlevel contacts between individuals Contact hypothesis Functionalist Macrolevel intergroup processes Assimilation Ethnic pluralism
Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations Focus Theory Conflict Power/economic differentials between dominant and subordinate groups. Caste perspective Class perspective Internal colonialism Split labor market Gendered racism Racial formation Critical Race Theory Racism as an ingrained feature of society that affects everyone. Law may remedy overt discrimination but have little effect on subtle racism.
Life chances are extremely limited for Native Americans who live on reservations.
Native Americans today have little opportunity to compete in sports at the college, professional, or Olympic level.
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (British Americans)
Many non-Latino/a whites do not think of themselves as having race or ethnicity because they continue to benefit from being members of a dominant societal group that has experienced little prejudice or discrimination.
These Middle Eastern Americans demonstrate their loyalty to the United States at a parade in New York City.
Since the 2001 terrorist attacks, many Middle Eastern Americans have been objects of prejudice and discrimination.
Growing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the U.S.
In 1980 white Americans made up 80% of the population.
In 2000, white Americans made up 70% of the population.
By 2056, the roots of the average U.S. resident will be in Africa, Asia, Hispanic countries, the Pacific Islands, or Arabia—not white Europe.
Odds of Being a Pro Athlete by Race/Ethnicity and Sport White African American Latino/a Football 1 in 62,500 1 in 47,600 1 in 2,500,000 Baseball 1 in 83,300 1 in 333,300 1 in 500,000 Basketball 1 in 357,100 1 in 153,800 1 in 33,300,000
1. A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes.
A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes is a race.