South Sudan Independence Referendum Create By: Jaydev Doshi
Topics:• History of Conflict• Darfur Conflict• Genocide• Naivasha Agreement• Southern Sudanese Independence Referendum
History of Conflict• General Omar al-Bashir, and the National Islamic Front headed by Dr. Hassan al-Turabi, overthrew the Sudanese government led by Ahmed al- Mirghani in 1989.• Non-Arab ethnicities in the region, became increasingly marginalized.• Primary reason for the conflict can be attributed to the concentration of the Arab/Muslim Sudanese in the North and the Non-Arab/Muslim “African” Sudanese in the south.
History of Conflict• Northern intellectuals look at Southerners as tribes-men, while refer the Northerners as people‘.• To persuade Arab Sudanese to join militias, the old Sudanese ideas of racial superiority between the north and the south were deployed.• Southerners were characterized as abid [slaves].• Blacks in Sudan are seen as inferior to the Arabs.
Darfur Conflict• On-going guerrilla conflict centered in the Darfur region of Sudan.• Began in February 2003• The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) groups in Darfur took up arms, accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing or committing genocide.• Stiff resistance from official Sudanese military and police, and the Janjaweed, a Sudanese militia group.
Darfur ConflictSudan Liberation Movement/Army:• Founded as the Darfur Liberation Front• Founded by members of three indigenous ethnic groups in Darfur, the Fur, the Zaghawa and the Masalit.• 2006 the SLM had divided into two groups, one led by al Nur of the Fur and the other, far larger, led by Minnawi of the Zaghawa.
Darfur ConflictJustice and Equality Movement (JEM):• led by Khalil Ibrahim• Khalil Ibrahim, was one of the authors of the Black Book, a manuscript published in 2000 that details the structural inequality in the country• January 2006: the JEM declared a merger with the SLM/A, along with other rebel groups, to form the Alliance of Revolutionary Forces of West Sudan.• October 2007: the JEM attacked the Defra oilfield• May 2008: JEM attacked the Sudanese capital of Khartoum• February 2010: JEM signed a truce with Sudans government.
Darfur ConflictJanjaweed:• armed partisans drawn from Arab tribes that became notorious for massacre, rape, forced displacement and torture in 1990 and from 2001- 2005• 1990s, the Janjaweed were Arab partisans, tolerated by the Sudan Government, who pursued local agendas of controlling land.• 1999-2000, faced with threats of insurgencies in Western and Northern Darfur, Khartoum’s security armed the Janjaweed forces.
Genocide• September 2004, the World Health Organization estimated there had been 50,000 deaths in Darfur since the beginning of the conflict.• updated estimate in October 2004 put the figure to 70,000.• It is estimated that nearly 400,000 people died between the period of 2005-2010.
Naivasha Agreement• Also known as Comprehensive Peace Agreement (or CPA)• Signed between the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan in January 2005• Meant to end the Second Sudanese Civil War, develop democratic governance countrywide and share oil revenues.• It further set a timetable by which Southern Sudan would have a referendum on its independence.
Southern Sudanese Independence Referendum• Took place in Southern Sudan from 9 January to 15 January 2011.• January 2011, preliminary results indicated a landslide of 98.8% voting in favor of independence.• Ballots suspended in 10 of the 79 counties for exceeding 100% of the voter turnout.• The number of votes are still be well over the requirement of 60% of voters voting for independence.• Predetermined date for the creation of an independent state is July 9, 2011.